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  1. 1. Chapter 05: Telecommunications, Wireless Technologies, and Computer Networks
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Understand the fundamentals of data communications and the criteria for choosing a communications medium </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how networking media, devices, and software work together to provide data networking services, and describe the benefits of various types of media </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>List and describe the most popular forms of wireless telecommunications technologies </li></ul><ul><li>List the different classifications of computer networks and their defining characteristics, and understand the basics of wireless home networking </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chapter Content <ul><li>Fundamentals of Telecommunications </li></ul><ul><li>Networking Media, Devices, and Software </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless Telecommunications Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Networks and Distributed Computing </li></ul>
  5. 5. Fundamentals of Telecommunications <ul><li>Communications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission of a signal by way of a medium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains message comprised of data and information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication medium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anything that carries a signal between a sender and a receiver </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Telecommunications and Data Communications <ul><li>Telecommunications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic transmission of signals for communications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data communications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic transmission and reception of digital data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects communications and computing devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Networking media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anything that carries an electronic signal </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Telecommunications and Data Communications <ul><li>Networking media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anything that carries a signal and creates an interface between a sender and receiver </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Networking hardware devices and networking software work together to enable and control communications signals </li></ul>
  8. 8. Telecommunications and Data Communications
  9. 9. Characteristics of Telecommunications <ul><li>Analog signal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluctuates continuously </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital signal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrete voltage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State is either high or low </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The speed at which a signal can change from high to low is called the signal frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data transmission rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured in bits per second ( bps ) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Characteristics of Telecommunications <ul><li>Broadband or high-speed Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connection that is always on or active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster than dial-up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Narrowband </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any medium with a speed less than 200 Kbps </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Characteristics of Telecommunications
  12. 12. Networking Media – Physical Cables <ul><li>Twisted pair cable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of pairs of twisted wires covered with an insulating layer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coaxial cable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of an inner conductor wire surrounded by insulation, a conductive shield, and a cover </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fiber-optic cable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of thousands of extremely thin strands of glass or plastic bound together in a sheathing </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Networking Media – Physical Cables
  14. 14. Networking Media – Physical Cables <ul><li>Fiber-optic cable has several advantages over traditional copper cable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Radio Signals and Light <ul><li>Radio wave </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic wave transmitted through an antenna at different frequencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FCC assigns different frequencies for different devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microwaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent at the high end of the spectrum (1-300 GHz) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Networking Devices <ul><li>Modems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modulates and demodulates signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable modem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides Internet access over a cable television network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DSL modem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides high-speed Internet service over telephone lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Network adapter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer circuit board, PC Card, or USB device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network interface card (NIC) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless adapters </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Networking Devices
  18. 18. Network Control Devices <ul><li>Hubs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used as a central point for connecting a series of computers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Switches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamental part of most networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow several users to send information at the same time without slowing the network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Repeaters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect multiple network segments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bridges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect two or more network segments </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Network Control Devices <ul><li>Gateways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network points that act as an entrance to another network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Routers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can divide a single network into two logically separate networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless access point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receives and transmits data to wireless adapters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Firewall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Device or software that filters the information coming onto a network, generally to increase security and remove unwanted traffic </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Industrial Telecommunications Media and Devices <ul><li>Microwave transmission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called terrestrial microwave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Line-of-sight medium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communications satellite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basically a microwave station placed in outer space </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Industrial Hardware <ul><li>Dedicated line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike a switched line, a dedicated line remains open at all times </li></ul></ul><ul><li>T1 line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carries twenty-four 64-Kbps signals on one line </li></ul></ul><ul><li>T3 line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carries 672 signals on one line </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Devices commonly used to control and protect industrial-level telecommunications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiplexer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications processor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encryption devices </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Networking Software <ul><li>Networking software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitors the load, or amount of traffic, on the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides error checking and can often indicate problems and possible solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can provide data security and privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network administrator or systems administrator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person responsible for setting up and maintaining the network </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Networking Software <ul><li>Network Operating Systems (NOS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform same functions for network as operating system software performs for a computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network Management Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates monitoring of individual computers and shared hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network Device Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often contain interfaces that allow you to change device settings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communications Protocols and Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethernet: most widely used network standard for private networks </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Networking Software
  25. 25. Cell Phone Technologies <ul><li>Cellular network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A radio network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic area is divided into cells with a transceiver antenna and station at the center of each cell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3G cellular technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brings broadband access to mobile phones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cellular carrier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Company that builds and maintains cellular network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides cell phone service to the public </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Cell Phone Technologies <ul><li>Calling plans are defined by usage in three time frames: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whenever, or anytime, minutes with no time restrictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weeknight minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monday through Friday, 9:00 p.m. to 5:59 a.m. or 6:59 a.m. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weekend minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saturday 12:00 a.m. to Sunday 11:59 p.m. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Handsets, Features, and Services <ul><li>Two basic styles of phone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flip phone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Candy bar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accessories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headset or earbud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hands-free use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional memory </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Handsets, Features, and Services
  29. 29. Handsets, Features, and Services
  30. 30. Pagers <ul><li>Small, lightweight devices that receive signals from transmitters </li></ul><ul><li>Types of paging systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National and regional systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set up transmission towers to cover large geographic areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-site paging systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use small desktop transmitters to send pages over a small wireless network </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Global Positioning Systems (GPS) <ul><li>Uses satellites to pinpoint the location of objects on earth </li></ul><ul><li>Uses a GPS receiver and a network of 24 satellites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GPS can tell exact location of receiver on the earth’s surface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GPS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally developed for national security and later extended for public use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child safety </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Global Positioning Systems (GPS)
  33. 33. Wireless Fidelity and WiMAX <ul><li>Wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes use of access points to wirelessly connect users to networks within a range of 250–1000 feet (75-300 meters) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Known as the 802.11 family of standards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typical at wireless hotspots </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developed to support wireless computer networking within a limited range at broadband speeds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access points broadcast traffic using radio waves </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Wireless Fidelity and WiMAX <ul><li>WiMAX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known as IEEE 802.16 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster and longer range than Wi-Fi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WiMAX antenna has 31-mile range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perfect for city-wide Internet access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seattle’s Space Needle has a WiMAX antenna </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel and Nokia are strongly supporting WiMAX </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Bluetooth <ul><li>Enables digital devices to communicate directly with each other wirelessly over short distances </li></ul><ul><li>Communicates at speeds of up to 1 Mbps within a range of up to 33 feet (10 meters) </li></ul><ul><li>Can connect devices to a computer network using access points like Wi-Fi </li></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth and Wi-Fi compete in some areas, but have unique qualities </li></ul>
  36. 36. Bluetooth
  37. 37. Infrared Transmission <ul><li>Involves sending signals through the air via light waves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrared Data Association (IrDA ports) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slower than both Bluetooth and Wi-Fi </li></ul><ul><li>Uses light rather than broadcast technology </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal for secure data transmissions </li></ul>
  38. 38. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) <ul><li>Uses tiny transponders in tags that can be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attached to merchandise or other objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read using an RFID transceiver or reader for the purpose of identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily used to track merchandise from supplier to retailer to customer </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) <ul><li>Other uses for RFID </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracking lost pets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tagging and tracking wildlife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling access to secure locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic toll pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talking prescription reader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parking lot control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Track marathon runners </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
  41. 41. Networks and Distributed Computing <ul><li>Within a private network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computing resources are shared in order to maximize computing power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes devices for input, processing, storage, and output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Components can be distributed throughout a computer network </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Computer Networking Concepts <ul><li>Nodes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Devices attached to a network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Workstations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers attached to a network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Files, drives, or other peripheral devices connected to the workstation and accessible via the network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network or remote resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workstation accesses over the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transparency provides user-friendly environment </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Distributed Computing <ul><li>Distributed Computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple remote computers working together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Database servers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Store databases and respond to queries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>File servers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Store files and deliver them to users upon request </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application servers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Store programs and deliver them to desktops when users click the icon </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Distributed Computing <ul><li>Blade computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheaper alternative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes advantage of the fact that at any one time, 30% of system PCs are not being used </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PCs are replaced with thin clients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard, mouse, display, unit to connect the device to the server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin clients cost less than half the cost of a PC </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Distributed Computing
  46. 46. Network Types <ul><li>Personal area network (PAN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnecting personal information technology devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically wireless </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local Area Network (LAN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects computer systems within same building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can use various designs or topologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intranet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses protocols of the Internet and the Web within the confines of a private network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virtual Private Network (VPN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables private Internet communications </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Network Types <ul><li>Metropolitan area network (MAN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects networks within a city or metropolitan-size area into a larger high-speed network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wide area network (WAN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects LANs and MANs between cities, across country, and around the world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Global Networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A WAN that crosses an international border (transborder data flow) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data havens have few restrictions on telecommunications or databases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects corporate computer systems </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Network Types
  49. 49. Network Types
  50. 50. Home Networks <ul><li>Allow residents to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Share a single Internet connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share a single printer between computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share files such as images, music, and programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back up copies of important files to another PC for safekeeping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participate in multiplayer games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share output from devices, such as a DVD player or Webcam </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Home Networking Technologies <ul><li>Convenient setups </li></ul><ul><li>Phone-line networking (HomePNA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses existing phone lines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power-line networking (HomePLC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses existing power lines and outlets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless networking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can easily support everything a typical home user might want to do on a network </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Home Network Applications <ul><li>Rapid rise of Wi-Fi in homes is spurring new home technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data storage and access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photos, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media distribution in the home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless music systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless video and Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TV to TV signal sharing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Home Network Applications
  54. 54. Summary <ul><li>Telecommunications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to the electronic transmission of signals for communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networking media, devices, software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of cables used in telecommunications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Twisted pair cables, coaxial cable, and fiber optic cable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Networking devices include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modems, network adapters, network control devices, RFID devices, and pagers </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Summary <ul><li>Cellular network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic area is divided into cells with a transceiver antenna (tower) and station at the center of each cell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Networks are classified by size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PAN, MAN, WAN, GAN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Server computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to distribute data, files, and programs to users, or clients, on the network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Home networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to share hardware, files, and a common Internet connection </li></ul></ul>