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  1. 1. Telecom, Wireless & Networks <ul><li>Fundamentals </li></ul><ul><li>Media, Devices, and Software </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless Telecommunications </li></ul><ul><li>Networks and Distributed Computing </li></ul>Chapter 5 Please discontinue use of cell phone and turn off ringer
  2. 2. 5.1 Fundamentals of Telecommunications <ul><li>Telecommunications </li></ul><ul><li>Networking media </li></ul><ul><li>Analog signal </li></ul><ul><li>Digital signal </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>Broadband </li></ul>Key Terms
  3. 3. Telecommunications <ul><li>Telecommunications: The electronic transmission of signals over a medium for communications. </li></ul>(cables or air) Sender and Receiver must “speak” the same language.
  4. 4. Types of Signals <ul><li>Analog Signal: transmit sound using continuously varying levels of voltage. </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Signal: transmits data using two discrete states of voltage: high and low </li></ul>
  5. 5. Signal Frequency <ul><li>Frequency: the speed at which a signal changes from high to low. </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth : the range of signal frequencies that can be sent over a given medium at the same time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often expressed as bits per second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadband : typically 2 – 5 Mbps </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. 5.2 Networking Media, Devices, and Software The fundamental components of telecommunications networks <ul><li>Twisted pair cable </li></ul><ul><li>Coaxial cable </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber-optic cable </li></ul><ul><li>Radio wave </li></ul><ul><li>Modem </li></ul><ul><li>Network adapter </li></ul><ul><li>Microwave transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Communications satellite </li></ul><ul><li>Ethernet </li></ul>Key Terms
  7. 7. Networking Media <ul><li>Twisted Pair Cable </li></ul>Used for traditional phone lines, twisted pairs of wires in plastic sheathing. <ul><li>Coaxial Cable </li></ul>Used for home cable TV, thick copper core wire – faster than twisted pair. <ul><li>Fiber Optic Cable </li></ul>Thin strands of glass are used to send light beams – highest bandwidth cable, most expensive. <ul><li>Radio Waves </li></ul>Electromagnetic waves transmitted through the air at various frequencies.
  8. 8. Radio Waves <ul><li>Radio waves use differing frequencies to carry many types of information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AM & FM Radio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short Wave & CB Radio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Television Broadcasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Garage Doors Openers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baby Monitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cordless Phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell Phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio Controlled Cars and Airplanes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Positioning Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless Computer Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microwave Communications </li></ul></ul>http ://
  9. 9. AM Radio (535-1700 kHz) FM Radio (88-108 MHz) CB Radio (26.96-27.41 MHz) TV CH 2-6 (54-88 MHz) TV CH 7-13 (174-220 MHz) Cordless Phones (40-50 MHz) Cell Phones (824-849 MHz) Air traffic Control (960-1,215 MHz) Global Positioning System 1.23 and 1.58 GHz 10 kHz 30 kHz 300kHz 3 MHz 30 MHz 328.6 MHz 2.9 GHz 30 GHz 900-MHz cordless phones Deep space radio communications (2.29-2.3 GHz) The Radio Spectrum Wi-fi Wireless Networks (2.4 GHz) 300 GHz EHF SHF UHF VHF HF MF LF VLF
  10. 10. Networking Devices <ul><li>Modem: modulates and demodulates signals from one form to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Network Adapter: Expansion card, or external device installed on a computing device used to connect to a network. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Networking Devices <ul><li>Network Control Devices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hub/Switch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controls flow of data between devices on a network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Router </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Routs packets to destinations and connects one network to another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless Access Point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows devices to connect wirelessly to a wired network </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Microwave Communications High-frequency radio signals sent up to 30 miles through the air.
  13. 14. Microwave Communications Line-of-sight communications !
  14. 15. Microwave Communications Line-of-sight required SatelliteTransmission
  15. 16. Networking Software <ul><li>Network administrators are responsible for setting up and maintaining the network. </li></ul><ul><li>A network operating system coordinates the network components to support telecommunications. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethernet is the most widely used network standard for private networks. </li></ul>
  16. 17. 5.3 Wireless Telecommunications Technologies <ul><li>Cellular network </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular carrier </li></ul><ul><li>Global positioning system </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless fidelity (wi-fi) </li></ul><ul><li>WiMAX </li></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth </li></ul><ul><li>Radio frequency identification </li></ul><ul><li>Near-field communication (NFC) </li></ul>Key Terms
  17. 18. Cell Phone Technologies <ul><li>A c ellular network is a radio network in which a geographic area is divided into cells, with a transmission tower and station at the center of each cell, to support mobile communications. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Cell Phone Technologies <ul><li>A cellular carrier is a company that builds and maintains a cellular network and provides cell phone service to the public. </li></ul>
  19. 20. GSM and CDMA <ul><li>Digital networking standards for cell phone networks are GSM and CDMA. </li></ul><ul><li>GSM is the most popular global standard for mobile phones </li></ul><ul><li>The CDMA networking standard is predominantly used in the United States where it is in equal competition with GSM. </li></ul>GSM CDMA AT&T T-Mobile Verizon Sprint
  20. 21. GSM and CDMA <ul><li>GSM Phones include a subscriber identity module (SIM) for security and convenient data transfer between phones. </li></ul>GSM CDMA AT&T T-Mobile Verizon Sprint
  21. 22. Cell Phone Technologies <ul><li>Consumers choose a carrier based on coverage area, handsets available, and services provided – service contracts are typically for two years. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Cell Phone Technologies <ul><li>Learn about Service Plans, Handsets, Features, and Services by clicking the logos below. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Cell Phone Technologies
  24. 25. Cell Phone Technologies <ul><li>Cell phone accessories provide added features for example… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A 4 GB mini SD memory card can provide ample storage digital photos, music, and video files. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Bluetooth headset allows you to interact with your phone without taking it out of your pocket. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Car chargers allow you to charge your cell phone from your car power supply. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assorted cases protect cell phones from damage and make them handy to access. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Wireless Technologies <ul><li>The Global Positioning System ( GPS ) uses satellites to pinpoint the location of receivers on earth. </li></ul>Aircraft Navigation
  26. 27. Wireless Technologies <ul><li>The Global Positioning System ( GPS ) uses satellites to pinpoint the location of receivers on earth. </li></ul>Seacraft Autopilot
  27. 28. Wireless Technologies <ul><li>The Global Positioning System ( GPS ) uses satellites to pinpoint the location of receivers on earth. </li></ul>Automobile Navigation
  28. 29. Wireless Technologies <ul><li>The Global Positioning System ( GPS ) uses satellites to pinpoint the location of receivers on earth. </li></ul>Handheld Navigation
  29. 30. Wireless Technologies <ul><li>The Global Positioning System ( GPS ) uses satellites to pinpoint the location of receivers on earth. </li></ul>Child Safety
  30. 31. Wirless Technologies <ul><li>The Global Positioning System ( GPS ) uses satellites to pinpoint the location of receivers on earth. </li></ul>Emergency Call
  31. 32. Wireless Technologies <ul><li>Wireless Fidelity (IEEE 802.11s), or Wi-fi , is wireless networking technology that makes use of access points to connect devices to networks. </li></ul><ul><li>250-1,000 ft range </li></ul><ul><li>802.11b 4.5 Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>802.11g 11 Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>802.11n 74 Mbps </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Access Point
  32. 33. Wireless Technologies <ul><li>WiMAX (IEEE 802.16) is the next generation broadband technology that is both faster and has a longer range than Wi-fi – 31 miles! </li></ul> Seattle’s Space Needle To Become WiMax Antenna
  33. 34. Wireless Technologies <ul><li>Bluetooth is wireless technology that enables a wide variety of digital devices to communicate directly. </li></ul><ul><li>33 ft range </li></ul><ul><li>1 Mbps </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  34. 35. Bluetooth
  35. 36. Wireless Technologies <ul><li>Infrared (IrDA) technology utilizes infrared rays to send data over a short distance wirelessly. </li></ul><ul><li>14 ft range </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow-angle cone (30 o ) </li></ul><ul><li>Line-of-sight </li></ul><ul><li>4-16 Mbps </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  36. 37. Wireless Comparison Wi-fi Access point centered LAN Omni-direction Through obstructions 250 ft range indoors 11 Mbps Bluetooth Point-to-point Omni-direction Through obstructions 33 ft 1 Mbps Infrared Point-to-point Narrow-angle Line-of-sight 14 ft 4 Mbps
  37. 38. Wireless Technologies <ul><li>Radio Frequency ID ( RFID ) uses tiny transponders in tags that can be attached to merchandise or other objects and read using an RFID receiver or reader for the purpose of identification. </li></ul>
  38. 39. Near Field Communication (NFC) <ul><li>NFC is a short range wireless technology that is designed for private communications at short range, such as making payments by swiping a cell phone across a pad. </li></ul>
  39. 40. 5.4 Networks and Distributed Computing <ul><li>Personal Area Network </li></ul><ul><li>Local Area Network </li></ul><ul><li>Intranet </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Private Network </li></ul><ul><li>Metropolitan Area Network </li></ul><ul><li>Wide Area Network </li></ul>Key Terms
  40. 41. Computer Network Concepts <ul><li>Distributed Computing refers to a computing environment that includes multiple remote computers that work together to solve problems and provide services. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Database Servers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Application Servers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>File Servers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Print Servers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 42. Network Types <ul><li>Personal Area Network (PAN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The wireless interconnection of personal information technology devices within the range of an individual. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly associated with Bluetooth technology </li></ul></ul>
  42. 43. Network Types <ul><li>Personal Area Network (PAN) – Alternate Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The human body is used to conduct a minimal electric current to transfer information from one individual’s device to another’s. </li></ul></ul> The original PAN was designed by Thomas Zimmerman and allowed users to pass digital electronic information through touch, by transferring information from one person’s device to another’s, running a subtle current through the body.
  43. 44. Exchange emails through handshake TWO Japanese telecoms giants have developed technology that turns the human body into a broadband-paced link that allows e-mail addresses to be exchanged through a simple handshake, a report said Monday. The technology, developed by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp. and its subsidiary NTT DoCoMo Inc., uses the body's conductivity and adds the smarts of a personal digital assistant (PDA), the Nihon Keizai Shimbun said. A device attached to a PDA can send and receive weak electrical signals through people, with human bodies as communications circuits, the paper said, citing sources close to the companies. Apparel and handbags have their own conductivity, allowing an electrical connection to a PDA that can remain in one's pocket, the paper said. In this way, people can exchange e-mail addresses, names and phone numbers while shaking hands, with the data automatically written into both their PDAs, the paper said. The companies have confirmed in an experiment that data can be transmitted at 10 megabits per second, comparable to the speed of a broadband Internet connection, it said. The technology could allow data communications through door knobs, switches, desks and chairs, the paper said. It could pave the way to one day being able to pass through railway ticket gates or entering secure buildings with a simple touch. It could also get a computer to start up with the proper settings as soon as the user sat down, the paper said. Agence France-Presse
  44. 45. Microsoft patents body power By Matt Loney Staff Writer, CNET News June 23, 2004 6:50 AM PDT Microsoft has been awarded a patent for using human skin as a power conduit and data bus. Patent No. 6,754,472, which was published Tuesday, describes a method for transmitting power and data to devices worn on the body and for communication of data between those devices. To reduce the redundancy of input/output devices, Microsoft's patent proposes a personal area network that allows a single data input or output device to be used by multiple portable devices. … Furthermore, Microsoft said, the physical resistance offered by the human body could be used to create a virtual keyboard on a patch of skin. And just to make sure it has covered all its bases, the filing concludes with a reference for Fido. &quot;It will be apparent,&quot; it says, &quot;that the body may be that of a wide variety of living animals and need not be limited to being a body of a human being.&quot;
  45. 46. Network Types <ul><li>Local Area Network (LAN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects computer systems and devices within a common geographic area </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. Local Area Network Star topology Bus topology switch System Administrator Servers Wireless access point
  47. 48. Network Types <ul><li>Intranet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A private network that utilizes Internet and Web protocols and software. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virtual Private Network (VPN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses the Internet to connect an organization’s networks dispersed around the world into one large intranet. </li></ul></ul>
  48. 49. Network Types <ul><li>A Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) connects networks within a city or metrololitan-size area into a larger high-speed network. </li></ul>
  49. 50. Network Types Wide Area Network Connects LANs between cities, cross country, and around the world using microwave and satellite transmission or telephone lines. router router FSU Tallahassee LAN FSU Panama City LAN
  50. 51. <ul><li>A Global Network (International Network) is a WAN that crosses National boundries. </li></ul>Network Types
  51. 52. Network Types <ul><li>Electronic Data Interchange , or EDI , uses networked systems and follws standards and procedures that allow output from one system to be processed directly as input to other systems, without human participation. </li></ul>
  52. 53. Installing Home Wi-fi <ul><li>Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-speed Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Modem or DSL Modem (provided be ISP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless Access Point/Router </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless adapters for each device. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional Access Points as needed. </li></ul></ul>Cable Modem Wireless Access Point / Router To Cable Co.
  53. 54. Chapter 5 Questions? Don’t forget to turn your phone on!!