Certified Wireless USB
                       Solutions Guide


W e l c o m e

      Table of Contents                                           007
      The Time is Now! Wireless US...
W e l c o m e

                                                         The Time is Now!
    by John Koon

    USB 2.0 and Wireless USB Today
         USB 2.0, with speeds of 480 Mbps and 12 ...
• New Markets                                                    seamlessly. By 2009, Wireless USB is expected to be truly...
NXP’s Batuhan Okur Shares
     His View on the Future of
     Wireless USB.
          NXP Semiconductors, formerly the sem...
customers to wireless in a way that is very efficient and          as we are engaged with several OEMs who are working to
The Future of Certified Wireless
                                USB—A Look at What’s Next for
devices and usage models for cable replacement, wireless
PC docking, multiple host sharing, and wireless-to-wireless
and w...
the device’s small size, light weight and large capacity make
               UWB                                          ...
Streamline your wireless
compliance testing.

                                                    It’s all about the to...
Understanding the Impact of
                                         Encryption on Certified Wireless
Figure	2:		n	Wireless	USB,	the	payload	portion	of	the	frame	will	be	encrypted,	which	will	prevent	radio-
CABLE ASSOCIATION PROCESS                             The connection context is 384-bit value which includes
       What h...
device. It automatically records and passes the connection
context to the radio-based analysis engine contained
within the...
NXP– the new company born
       out of Philips Semiconductors
       With all the energy of a new beginning,
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Certified Wireless USB Solutions Guide

  1. 1. Certified Wireless USB Solutions Guide an publication
  2. 2. W e l c o m e Table of Contents 007 The Time is Now! Wireless USB 3 Publisher Jeff Ravencraft, USB-IF PRESIDENT John Reardon, johnr@r tcgroup.com Wireless USB MARKET 4 Editorial John Koon, Editor RTC magazine EDITOR-IN - CHIEF John Koon, johnk@r tcgroup.com MANAGING EDITOR NXP’s Batuhan Okur Shares His View on the 6 Marina Tringali, marinat@r tcgroup.com Future of Wireless USB COPY EDITOR Rochelle Cohn The Future of Certified Wireless USB™—A Look 8 at What’s Next for Wireless USB Devices Art/Production CREATIVE DIRECTOR Masami Katagiri, NEC Electronics America, Inc Jason Van Dorn, jasonv@r tcgroup.com GRAPHIC DESIGNER Melissa Gaeta, melissag@r tcgroup.com Understanding the Impact of Encryption on 1 Certified Wireless USB Testing PRODUCTION DESIGNER Kirsten Wyatt, kirstenw@r tcgroup.com Mike Micheletti, LeCroy Protocol Solutions Group DIRECTOR OF WEB DEVELOPMENT Marke Hallowell, markeh@r tcgroup.com WEB DEVELOPER Brian Hubbell, brianh@r tcgroup.com Advertising/Web Advertising CALIFORNIA COASTAL ADVERTISING MANAGER Diana Duke, dianad@r tcgroup.com (949) 226 -2011 WESTERN REGIONAL ADVERTISING MANAGER Lea Ramirez, lear@r tcgroup.com (949) 226 -2026 EASTERN REGIONAL ADVERTISING MANAGER Nancy Vanderslice, nancy v@r tcgroup.com (978) 443 -2402 EMEA SALES MANAGER Marina Tringali, marinat@r tcgroup.com (949) 226 -2020 Billing Mag gie McAuley, mag giem@r tcgroup.com (949) 226 -2024 To Contact RTC magazine: HOME OFFICE The RTC Group, 905 Calle Amanecer, Suite 250, San Clemente, CA 92673 Phone: (949) 226-2000 Fax: (949) 226-2050, www.rtcgroup.com EASTERN SALES OFFICE The RTC Group, 96 Dudley Road, Sudbury, MA 01776 Phone: (978) 443-2402 Fax: (978) 443-4844 Editorial Office John Koon, Editor-in-Chief 3525 Del Mar Heights Road Unit 292 San Diego, CA 92130 Phone: (858) 755-4999 Fax: (858) 777-5427 Published by The RTC Group Copyright 2006, The RTC Group. Printed in the United States. All rights reserved. All related graphics are trademarks of The RTC Group. All other brand and product names are the property of their holders. Wireless USB
  3. 3. W e l c o m e The Time is Now! Wireless USB by Jeff Ravencraft, President and Chairman USB Implementers Forum Big Existing Base of USB = Big Market Certified Wireless USB is the future of mobility. Soon,  Opportunity for consumers will experience a Wireless Personal Area Network Certified Wireless USB where hosts and devices interoperate seamlessly, easily and   securely with no clutter, no matter where they are. Wireless     USB will preserve the functionality of wired USB while also   unwiring the cable connection and providing enhanced      support for streaming media CE devices and peripherals.     Wireless USB supports high data-rate wireless connectivity    and delivers the same speed (480Mbps at 3 meters and 110Mbps at 10 meters) and ease-of-use experienced with   wired USB today. Certified Wireless USB is powered by the           WiMedia Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Common Radio Platform as developed by the WiMedia Alliance. UWB technology delivers a    solution for high bandwidth, low-cost, low power consumption, and physical size requirements of next-generation consumer electronic devices. he Digital Home T Experience Built to perform, Certified Wireless USB is optimized for power management, OS support, and data throughput and bandwidth allocation for isochronous support. To ensure performance, the USB Implementers Forum will provide compliance and certification testing for Certified Wireless USB. Companies can test products for interoperability and compliance, which will ensure that products that enter the marketplace are interoperable and compliant to the specification. Member companies whose products receive certification are permitted to use the Certified Wireless USB logo on all certified products. Wireless USB is rapidly approaching market launch. Engineers are presently completing final work on interoperability testing and certification. It is expected that this work will be finished and products will start to arrive in customer hands he Concept: T during the last quarter of 2006 and first quarter of 2007. Enable New Initial products will include Host Wire Adapters (HWA) User Models and in the form of dongles or add-in-cards, which will upgrade Opportunities legacy PCs. Device Wire Adapters (DWA) will also be available in the form of Wireless USB hubs to upgrade legacy peripherals. First products will introduce the Wireless USB technology and allow users to bring the technology to their legacy equipment. As the marketplace transitions, you can expect to see Wireless USB technology in PCs, printers, cameras, MP3 players, external hard drives etc. – the same applications using wired USB today. Wireless USB 3
  4. 4. Wireless USB MARKET by John Koon USB 2.0 and Wireless USB Today USB 2.0, with speeds of 480 Mbps and 12 Mbps, is the (three meters to 10 meters). With more and more video file current mainstream desktop standard. Building on a large USB transfers, Wirelss USB should not have a problem gaining installed base of over two billion units, Wireless USB will take acceptance among consumers. advantage of the popular interface. • Higher Performance and Throughput The first wireless host controller interface (WHCI) More and more large video files (5+ GB) are expected specification and a Wireless USB Platform Integration Lab (PIL), to be downloaded from PCs, set top boxes, or other storage proposed and supported by Intel and launched in August 2005, devices to handheld devices. High throughput technology has accelerated development of Wireless USB. NEC is taking such as Wireless USB will be in demand. Recently, the lead to develop the wireless host controller, while WiMedia Samsung introduced a new 32 GB flash memory. This Alliance concentrated its effort on the development of UWB enables handheld devices to carry and play high capacity MACs and PHYs (lower level and common radio). Recently video files. multiple Wireless USB silicon companies have made reference • Microsoft Operating Systems design kits available to assist OEMs shorten the time to market Microsoft is a member of the USB-IF Board of Directors, for the development of Wireless USB products. Specifically, as well as a member of the Wireless USB Promoter Group. these kits are available from: Microsoft operating systems will support Certified Wireless • Next Generation Wireless USB Peripheral Development Kit USB, which will help broad adoption. (PDK) from USB-IF • Staccato Communication Reference Design Market Trends • Wisair Reference Design There are six major trends that will affect the developing Wireless USB market. In addition, the USB-IF introduced at the Intel Developers • More Positive Business Climate Forum (IDF) in early March 2006, a secure method for A positive business climate will help with the proliferation connecting a Wireless USB device to a host PC. More of Wireless USB. Although the market has been struggling information about this method of association is available on the since 2001, signs of recovery started to appear late 2005. In USB-IF website, www.usb.org. the USA, major corporations started on-campus recruitment Led by Intel, the seven-member Wireless USB promoter again. Various industries show signs of improvement. Note group (as part of the USB-IF effort) helped to secure broad that although this is a gradual improvement, the Asian growth market acceptance. USB became a mature technology after from China and India can spark a much faster growth for the a six-year period. With knowledge and market acceptance of USA. Beijing, China is busy with the preparation of the 2008 its predecessor, Wireless USB should take about half of that Olympics, while Shanghai, China is working on the Shanghai time to become a mature technology. New Wireless USB silicon World Expo in 2010. products are available now, with the first group of end user products expected to become available by early 2007. (For • Change in Demand further information, see Market Forecast.) When USB was developed in 1994, its primary application was the connection of a desktop or notebook Factors Impacting Growth to variety of peripheral devices. Since that time, digital There are many factors that will drive the growth of Wireless entertainment has become the focus of many major USB. companies including Microsoft and Intel. Last year’s • Introduction of Digital Home by Intel Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas had an attendance Digital Home, promoted by Intel as early as 2004, uses of over 150,000 while Comdex, the IT show in existence the PC as a central unit to store and send video and audio since 1979, stopped its exhibition in 2004. (At its peak, content. Among other wireless technologies, Wireless USB is a it attracted over 200,000 attendees.) This is an indication strong contender for this application. of the shift of product development focus. More and more portable, handheld products are coming to the market, • Elimination of USB Cables targeting to teens and young adults. Consumer products The main goal of Wireless USB is to eliminate USB cables. such as digital cameras, mobile phones and MP3 players With high-speed performance, Wireless USB provides the will continue to be in demand. convenience of a personal area wireless connection to the PC 4 Wireless USB
  5. 5. • New Markets seamlessly. By 2009, Wireless USB is expected to be truly Many new markets, including Asia, are being developed easy to use, much like the wired version. worldwide. Even though China and India are getting much of the media attention, other countries such as the Eastern • New Designs and Applications Block countries like Romania, and Asian countries such New designs and applications will continue to flourish. as Thailand and Vietnam, are growing and want to be like When wired USB launched, it was designed for traditional their neighbor country– China. The USA has been the main applications with PCs connecting to peripherals such as market in the world for many years; however, this is not printers and scanners. One may still remember the excitement so true anymore. As the USA is spending half of its RD when Steve Whally, the former USB-IF chairman, proudly budget of almost $200 billion in other countries, including demonstrated the minimal time it took to connect a scanner to China and India, an increased standard of living in those a PC. Many unforeseen products came afterward: fingerprint countries will lead to more disposable income. Entertainment input devices, USB lights for typing in the dark, and many including mobile phones, digital cameras, MP3 players and medical devices that need connection to PCs. other portable electronic devices will increase in demand for The immediate application for Wireless USB will be file these new consumers. In the next few years, other major transfers between a PC and peripheral devices. It is expected markets from other countries also will evolve. that many handheld devices will be able to exchange files among themselves in early 2007. Undoubtedly, there will be • Increase in Demand for Consumer Electronic many new Wireless USB products available in the next few Products years. For example, Intel introduced at the March 2006 IDF Cost of consumer electronic products will continue to a concept design of a very small form factor PC called an decrease while unit volumes continue to rise. More and Ultra-Mobile PC. This PC can be used for entertainment and more consumers are willing to pay for convenience at a work; in the future, this type of host could use Wireless USB reasonable price. to transfer large files. Another possible product concept is a When the wired version of USB first came out, consumers wireless kiosk for photo development. Photos from a digital experienced USB’s inherent ease of use. Wireless USB camera equipped with Wireless USB can be transferred to provides convenience. With the demand of entertainment on a kiosk inside a department store for quick photo printing. handheld devices, Wireless USB volume will increase at a Similarly, users will be able to download a movie from a kiosk much faster rate than the wired USB because of the plethora to that ultra mobile PC for the next long flight. The movie of consumer products. This means the market will eventually will likely expire eliminating the need for any returns. Much (within three years) experience a “perfect competition.” That research has been done to add the payment feature to such is, the products will have minimum differentiation, except for transaction; however, this is outside the current Wireless USB cost and a few product features, which means economies of specification. scale will be needed for low-cost production. • Ease of Use Ease of use will become a reality in a few years. Think about the early days of USB development, from 1994 to 1996. Then plug-and-play was only a concept. Before installing any USB device, a software driver that came with a floppy disk needed to be installed before the device would work. The introduction of Windows XP demonstrated a true plug-and-play in action. Today, when a consumer installs a USB flash memory (it has replaced the floppy disk), everything is automatic. The PC will indicate that new USB hardware has been found, while it automatically looks for the driver from the Windows XP OS. When everything is done, it informs the consumer that it is ready for use. USB-IF is going through the exercise this year to make Wireless USB work Wireless USB
  6. 6. NXP’s Batuhan Okur Shares His View on the Future of Wireless USB. NXP Semiconductors, formerly the semiconductors device market such as MP3 players, digital still cameras, division of Philips, has become an independent company. mobile phones, and printers. As the penetration rate rises, RTC Group’s Sr. Editor, John Koon, had an opportunity to our development effort will focus on two new areas. First, interview Batuhan Okur, Senior Marketing Manager, NXP, we will provide complete integrated, ‘single-chip’ silicon on the subject of Wireless USB. Okur, based in Singapore, solutions. Second, we will focus on increased, new is responsible for marketing NXP’s UWB portfolio in Asia functionality. As you know, WiMedia is a common radio and Europe. Previously, he held various marketing and platform and enables various protocols on top of the same engineering roles at NXP Semiconductors and Vestel in WiMedia MAC. Today only the Wireless USB specification USA and Turkey. He earned his EE from METU, Turkey and is complete, but soon the WiNET and the BtoUWB an MBA from Santa Clara University, California, USA. specifications will follow. Therefore we plan to offer chips that provide multi-application support on the same radio to RTC How would you describe the future of Wireless USB? reduce the solution footprint and lower overall system costs. Do you envision it to be a simple cable replacement or NXP is at the forefront of technology development, we want something more? to enable our customer to be the best. NXP Look around and you will see that almost everything is RTC Today, we see quite a few Wireless USB silicon going wireless. Undoubtedly, the future belongs to wireless. offerings in the market. What suggestions would you give to Once you have experienced the convenience of wireless, a device developer in making the right decision in selecting you will not go back to the wired configuration whether the best solution? it is USB or other wireless technologies. In the case of Wireless USB, we believe that it has the potential of creating NXP There are a few considerations. The silicon must be a “WoW” effect in consumers’ eyes. You will see that the able to provide a good and reliable solution at a good price. first implementation of Wireless USB target applications To ensure the best time-to-market, the designer needs to for a USB cable replacement. Over time, you will see that make sure that the silicon vendor has a strong support team engineers will come up with imaginative products that we did during the design phase to ensure his or her success to not dream of during silicon or specification development. RTC Philips had been committed to the development of USB in the past (USB 1.1, 2.0, On-The-Go), with NXP as an independent company, how would you describe NXP’s commitment to Wireless USB? NXP Indeed, Philips has been a leader in USB for peripheral chips, transceivers, and embedded hosts. We have already passed the 100 million unit shipment milestone for 2006 bring the product to market on time. and this is only November 2006. As NXP, the team and the For example, at NXP, we have decided to connect our commitment are exactly the same but with an increased Wireless USB silicon directly into the customer board using energy level and enthusiasm to give the consumer the next a local bus and not bridge over a wired USB interface. great experience. In other words, we favor a native architecture over DWA type. This method simplifies circuitry, reduces cost as well RTC Can you describe NXP’s Wireless USB product as increases performance. On the support side, we have roadmap? What product offerings do you plan to have? trained our field support for Wireless USB and incorporated What market segment, if any, are you trying to address? the technology into the evaluation tool architecture of our Initially, a two-chip solution will target the Wireless USB wired USB. In the end, we hope to transition our wired 6 Wireless USB
  7. 7. customers to wireless in a way that is very efficient and as we are engaged with several OEMs who are working to hassle-free. integrate Certified Wireless USB from the USB-IF in their Of course there are other factors depending on the market end-products. segment you are in. A printer and a mobile phone has completely different set of requirements, there is no one RTC When do you expect to be able to demo your size fits all. products to developers? RTC What does NXP offer that is different or better than NXP As part of our strategy we do demonstrate our the products from other suppliers? solutions as we progress. We showed demonstrations All suppliers have noble goals such as high-performance based on FPGAs in 2005. We have been showing silicon and low cost. But it is easier said than done, mainly because based solutions for the last year. Very shortly, we will be it requires investment and experience. In the case of NXP, showing actual products. we have demonstrated a track record of shipping many million units of silicon in the USB area and that gives our RTC What is the price point, if it is available, and availability current customers a lot of comfort. To address the cost of your product offering? issue, we made a decision to invest in 90 nm two years ago, In our announcement for sample availability of the ISP3582 so for NXP low cost, low power, high performance silicon which was made in September, we talked about a $5-$6 with a best-in-class is very achievable. A fabless start-up range for our product in high volumes. In addition, this chip usually would go through a foundry. Product delivery may will be integrated with a WiMedia PHY and the necessary depend on the capacity of the foundry, which tends to discrete to enable a complete solution. At NXP, we have pay more attention to a large client rather than a start-up. chosen Realtek as our primary radio and baseband supplier. Finally, we cannot stress enough the importance of having When we combine these elements, the overall module a worldwide support team to stand behind the customers. cost will likely to be below $20 in high volumes. From this We are also building a very competent module maker discussion, a customer can see that all we have discussed network that will customize our solutions to the needs of is real. We welcome new customers to contact us to get our customers. I think any customer would want to ensure more information. success with minimum risk; we have demonstrated that we have provided support all the way during their design cycle For additional information, please e-mail and we will do it over again. uwb.support@nxp.com RTC Realistically, when do you expect to see Wireless USB devices available to consumers? Do you have any device (box) you work with you can talk about at this time? NXP It will come in waves. The first wave of products will be in Wireless USB hubs and dongles. The primary purpose of these products is to provide a migration path to wireless USB for legacy devices out there. As seen in the wired USB 2.0 market, there was a wave of add-in PCI USB cards and dongles. When the USB 2.0 market matured, these add-in products became a small percentage of the total USB 2.0 product offering. Then in 2007, embedded solutions will start to take off. These final products will come with Wireless USB enabled out of the box. We know this Wireless USB 7
  8. 8. The Future of Certified Wireless USB—A Look at What’s Next for Wireless USB Devices by Masami Katagiri Senior Engineering Manager, Digital Consumer and Connectivity Strategic Business Unit NEC Electronics America, Inc FROM USB to Wireless USB products, including modem, Ethernet equipment and USB Device Market Transition speakers, helped to round out the USB market, although The USB 2.0 standard was developed to fill market demands they did not constitute a significant market segment. for high-speed, high-bandwidth applications, particularly in the The USB market has exploded in recent years, with networking and storage area. The first key area for USB was the standard-class drivers being used as default drivers in PC peripheral market, starting with host and hub solutions, and Windows® operating systems, and USB host devices moving on to keyboards, mouse devices and video products being used inside many major digital video recorders. The such as USB video capture and TV tuner devices. Additional integration of the USB host controller in the Intel Chipset also expanded the USB market significantly. To date, one of the most “killer” USB products has been the USB flash stick or thumb drive. This increased adoption in the Current USB consumer market has reduced the costs for USB devices USB 2.0 Device and also precipitated the rise of a new radio technology, ultra-wideband (UWB), which triggered discussions about a DWA wireless version of USB. Wireless USB Developed by the Wireless USB Promoter Group, Wireless USB Certified Wireless USB, or Wireless USB (Wireless USB), Wireless USB 480 Mbps is one of the leading UWB technology protocols. One key advantage of this technology is its compatibility with current USB 2.0 devices. There already is widespread adoption of USB technology in peripheral devices, so implementing Wireless USB as the wireless version of those current devices is a good starting point, as this transition doesn’t require a drastic change to the existing device. Instead, wireless technology can be added through the use of a device wire adapter (DWA) such as NEC Electronics’ D µPD720180 device, the industry’s first dedicated DWA HD controller. The DWA is a hub device with wireless capability on its upstream port and USB 2.0 capability on the downstream port. By cutting two USB interface signals to the USB “B” connector, and placing and connecting the DWA chip on the board, designers can use the DWA to bridge the Wireless USB and USB 2.0 protocols. Using the DWA in the system Figure 1: y cutting the wires between an existing USB 2.0 device and USB B eliminates the need for changes in USB 2.0 hardware, connector, and connecting them to a DWA controller chip on the same firmware or even drivers. The devices can be used “as is,” board, users can develop a WUSB device easily, quickly and cost facilitating a smooth transition from wired to wireless. This effectively. easy transition opens the door for the development of USB 8 Wireless USB
  9. 9. devices and usage models for cable replacement, wireless PC docking, multiple host sharing, and wireless-to-wireless and wireless-only, each with their own design challenges USB 2.0 (Figure 1). CABLE REPLACEMENT Wireless Hubs Except for the wireless upstream port, the wireless hub is very similar to the USB 2.0 hub, featuring nearly identical usage models and sharing the same device hardware, firmware and drivers. The wireless hub is an ideal solution when there are multiple USB devices in a room and they are all connected to the USB 2.0 hub. Wireless USB By replacing the existing USB 2.0 hub, users can go completely wireless. In addition, as with current USB hubs, multiple Certified Wireless hubs can be used to connect one wireless host. (Figure 2). Mass Storage Devices Mass storage devices, including hard disk drives (HDDs) and flash drives, also are ideal for use with Wireless Figure 2: t is easy for PC users to make the jump to wireless simply by I USB. Hard disk sizes and power consumption are both adding a Wireless USB host card and replacing the existing USB 2.0 shrinking, while flash drive capacities are increasing, hub with a wireless hub. putting pressure on HDDs in the memory card area. While HDDs will have both wired and wireless methods of combine all of the required USB interface cables (PS/2, LAN, communicating with PCs, their key value in this market will memory card slot, parallel, serial, and so forth) in a wireless be true mobility. hub. A video graphics array (VGA) cable still would be required, Network Adapters but by integrating a USB 2.0-to-VGA interface cable into the Internet connection speeds are now matching genuine wireless hub, users can create the perfect wireless PC docking Ethernet speeds of five years ago. WiFi has been a key station (Figure 3). driver in increasing Internet usage worldwide, but only Sharing the Device Among Multiple Hosts recently have Internet connection speeds caught up with the Another good candidate for Wireless USB devices is the speed of WiFi. Today, Internet connection speeds actually printer. The challenge is that wireless printers are already used are going beyond WiFi in some parts of the world. While or shared among multiple users, and those users expect that IEEE is being challenged to implement 802.11n, with its Wireless USB printers can be shared as well. However, since expected throughput of 100 Mbps, Wireless USB defines Wireless USB shares the same topology as USB, it’s strictly a connection speeds of 480 Mbps and has an expected one-to-one connection from host to device, and there is no throughput of 300 Mbps, much faster than any Internet notion of “sharing.” This can be a big problem, but one that can connection service available for end users. Wireless gigabit be resolved by following the standard. Ethernet adapters also should emerge as a groundbreaking Wireless USB defines the association process, which product of the future. is required for secure communication between the host and Digital Still Cameras device. After the association process, a connection context A recent trend for digital still cameras (DSCs) is wireless (CC) is exchanged and stored on each side—in the printer as transfer. Some DSC vendors already have equipped cameras well as the host. If there are multiple hosts and this association with a WiFi interface; however, managing the TCP/IP setting process is repeated, the device will usually overwrite the CC so is still a challenge for consumers. Switching from WiFi to that only one CC remains, because the standard only allows the Wireless USB simplifies the setup process significantly, device to have one active CC at any given moment. without changing the usage model or compromising picture However, it is also true that the standard doesn’t inhibit file transfer speeds, and is completed in a matter of seconds. the device from having multiple CCs for multiple hosts, as long By using an electromagnetic system instead of a docking as there is only one active CC per device. If there are multiple station to charge the camera battery, DSC users are able to hosts that want to communicate with the device, the device go completely wireless for true mobility. must select the appropriate CC. This switching mechanism is implementation-dependent and a good point of differentiation. NEW USAGE MODELS Wireless to Wireless Wireless PC Docking Stations This approach features devices that transfer data from A new approach to building a PC docking station is to wireless to wireless, such as wireless TV tuners and wireless Wireless USB
  10. 10. the device’s small size, light weight and large capacity make UWB it difficult to include a B or mini-B connector. This type of hard drive is very popular because it allows users to upload or USB 2.0 download the data to and from the host without removing the Wireless USB DWA USB 2.0 device from the pocket or the bag. Another example is the sleek digital camera, which does not have enough thickness USB 2.0 to have a mini-B. USB 2.0 Dock for Wireless-Only Devices GbE RJ45 There is also the possibility of a “docking station” for the Hub digital camera and portable music and/or video player. This would feature a data connection to the PC and charging USB 2.0 capability without exception. The data connection portion can be achieved through Wireless USB technology to make the PS2 Printer Serial VGA docking station location-free as long as an AC outlet is nearby. By combining this with an electromagnetic energy propagation PS2 DSub25 DSub9 VGA device to charge the device, users can make the docking station truly “connector free.” Figure 3: sing UWB technology to provide greater bandwidth, designers can easily U convert wireless hubs into the perfect wireless docking station for PCs. HIGHER SPEED Hooking up all the interfaces, including VGA, in a box eliminates the need for Gigabit Ethernet physical connections while providing faster association times and ease of use. Aggressive UWB PHY vendors have already started talking about the demands for higher bit rates, and some say WiFi adapters. Given today’s digital broadcasting environment, the speed may reach the gigabits per second (Gbps) order the digital tuner adapter will soon be required to support digital in a few years. This would create a number of exciting new cables and satellites. Unlike terrestrial broadcasting, cable and opportunities in the device area, such as a very fast interface satellite feeds require in-house installation to change the point like Gigabit Ethernet (GbE), which supports data transfer rates of reception. Using a wireless tuner allows users to change up to 1 Gbps. Speed has been the main stumbling block viewing locations without requiring a new feed to be installed. for widespread adoption of this technology. However, with a This can be achieved with WiFi technology as well. However, Wireless USB + PHY enhancement, designers will be able to Wireless USB supports greater bandwidth and better quality of resolve that issue, paving the way for native GbE speeds to be service (QoS) systems. carried out on wireless. Wireless USB WiFi adapters are another wireless-to-wireless Express Card and Monitor Cable Replacements option. The term may sound a little strange—if you have WiFi If the demand goes beyond 1 Gbps, some other very in the laptop PC, you don’t need Wireless USB. However, WiFi unusual devices will come onto the scene, such as the Express reception is sensitive to the reception point, so to ensure the Card wireless extension interface chip, which features PCI best use, the receiver must be mobile in the room. A WiFi-to- Express and a Wireless USB interface on-chip. This enables WiFi bridge is available, but it cannot achieve the full bandwidth. most PCI Express device to go wireless without sacrificing For Wireless USB technology, the data connection speed at speed or performance. Looking further out, we may see the maximum distance of 10 meters is 110 Mbps, which goes wireless video cable that delivers a raw video data stream to beyond the best speed of most of the current WiFi adapters. the PC display, big-screen TV and ultra-portable remote display with keyboard/mouse or tablet for desktop PC—with no WIRELESS-ONLY DEVICES compression required. Audio/Video Digital video is one type of application that is well suited for CONCLUSION the transition to a wireless-only device, particularly for features There is a perception that Wireless USB is just a cable-free that do not need cables, like a Wireless USB speaker. For version of USB. However, as has been discussed, Wireless example, satellite speakers are usually several meters away USB technology can be implemented to develop a range of from the host. Wired speakers are connected with speaker devices, from cable-replacement products to wireless-to- cords that are often hidden on the floor or underneath the wireless devices to wireless-only devices. With the significant carpet. With wireless speakers, the main concern is the AC benefits of wireless technology, Wireless USB promises a new power source, which is usually on a nearby wall, so there are no generation of variety and convenience for the USB world. And worries about accidentally kicking the codes. with the advancements in wireless technology and the increasing Other targeted wireless-only devices include applications consumer demand for smaller, lighter devices, Wireless USB that do not have the space for a B or mini-B connector. One has the potential to offer true mobility for consumers. example is the extremely portable hard drive with battery, where 10 Wireless USB
  11. 11. Streamline your wireless compliance testing. It’s all about the tools. More tools. Better tools. The right tools. From the most widely used protocol analyzers in the industry to the world’s most powerful oscilloscopes, LeCroy products provide unsurpassed measurement accuracy and test flexibility for wireless USB and legacy serial standards. Data isn’t just displayed, it’s organized and identified for rapid focus on key compliance issues and faster time-to-market. So what are you waiting for? Streamline your serial data compliance testing with the right tools from LeCroy. Visit www.lecroy.com 1-800-5-LeCroy
  12. 12. Understanding the Impact of Encryption on Certified Wireless USB Testing by Mike Micheletti, Wireless USB Product Manager LeCroy Protocol Solutions Group Introduction Certified Wireless USB (Wireless USB) is a new initially realize is that it is necessary to ìcrackî the security short-range, high-bandwidth wireless extension to the in order to test the Wireless USB protocol. USB standard, designed to combine the speed and security of wired technology with the ease-of-use of Association vs. Security wireless communications. Wireless USB is based on The terms “association” and “security” are separate Ultra-WideBand (UWB) wireless transport defined by the but related concepts in wireless USB. Association is the WiMedia Alliance, and is designed to provide 480 Mb/s process of establishing a trusted relationship between two throughput at distances up to 3 meters (10 feet). wireless devices. This is a one-time event that requires The developers of Wireless USB have strived to user involvement to ensure devices are authorized to maintain the same usage and architecture as wired USB communicate, and is designed to prevent unauthorized with a high-speed host-to-device connection. But unlike or accidental connections between two unrelated devices. its wired predecessor, Wireless USB mandates more Security refers to the encryption mechanism used for stringent attention to security to prevent snooping of protection of data in transit (AES 128). Complete security wireless data traffic. These requirements are defined in the encryption keys are a combination of a predetermined Certified Wireless USB Association Model Specification connection key established during the association process v1.0 and govern how devices will discover and establish and a second temporary ìsession keyî which is generated secure connections. between devices using a 4-way handshake that occurs The Certified Wireless USB specification requires every time two devices establish a connection. encryption of user data prior to transferring it between The Association Process devices. While this security feature is largely transparent In an environment where there may be many Wireless to the end user, it has significant impact on test and USB hosts and many Wireless USB devices belonging to validation of new wireless devices. What few engineers multiple users, there is a need to identify which devices Frame CH Rate Len Dest ID Src ID TKID EO SFN RF PHY MAC Data Sec 6140 0x0A 480Mbps 58 0xAA55 0x0001 0x000001 2 88 Secure Payload MIC FCS Secure Data 0: 01 80 7D 7C 6C A3 9E 51 92 4B 8D DB B3 19 B3 1A 0x9FB50F9F1A6C279A 0xA7954B61 Frame 16: 8A 47 A3 D8 8O C7 2D 82 88 DC 99 8B 15 4A 0B 1D 32: 0C 73 FE 6F D9 O6 Figure 1: n Wireless USB, the payload portion of the frame will be encrypted, which will prevent radio-based analyzers from I decoding the ìscrambledî USB traffic. 1 Wireless USB
  13. 13. Figure 2: n Wireless USB, the payload portion of the frame will be encrypted, which will prevent radio- I based analyzers from decoding the “scrambled” USB traffic. are allowed to communicate with each other. When two is exchanged “out-of-band” (not over the air) making Wireless USB devices are brought together for the first eavesdropping virtually impossible. time, they must identify themselves and the user must verify they are authorized to communicate. If there is Numeric Association no record that they have previously been authorized, In the numeric association model, devices associate they must perform a first-time association. The Certified without using a wired cable, but require the user to confirm Wireless USB spec defines two methods of establishing the association by verifying a code number manually. After this trusted relationship: cable association and numeric locating a nearby Wireless USB host, the device may association. show a short code number on its display, which the user will then verify with the host. The specification also has Cable Association provisions for devices that do not have input capabilities. With the cable association model, users must In this case, the host simply displays the number and associate a host to a device by physically connecting the the user clicks “OK,” if it matches. Alternately, hosts can two devices together with a standard USB cable. The two require the user to enter a predefined code number devices then exchange a unique 384-bit identifier over supplied with the device, a method familiar to users of the USB cable that is known as the ìconnection contextî. many existing wireless technologies today. Any of these After this initial association, the device and host methods establish a connection context similar to that will communicate wirelessly without the cable. Cable obtained in the cable association model. association is considered highly secure because the user must have physical control of the devices in order to attach the cable. In addition, the connection context Wireless USB 13
  14. 14. CABLE ASSOCIATION PROCESS The connection context is 384-bit value which includes What happens over the USB cable during the association a globally-unique host ID, a host-unique device ID and sequence? a 128-bit symmetric connection key that only changes • Host sends its host identifier (CHID) to device using SET_ if devices re-associate. With cable association, the ASSOCIATION_RESPONSE (RetrieveHostInfo) connection context is always generated on the host • Host then asks device if it already has a connection context and downloaded to the device. The purpose of device for the hostís CHID using GET_ASSOCIATION_REQUEST association is to get the connection context from the (AssociateWUSB) host to the device. This can be a challenge, as it must • Device returns DEVICE_INFO data structure use a secure transmission channel. Cable (out of If device has a connection context, it returns its CDID to the band) and Numeric Association are two approaches for host; Else it returns zero transferring this data. • Host creates Connection Context (CHID, CDID, CK) and sends it to device using SET_ASSOCIATION_RESPONSE: 128 bits 128 bits 128 bits Host ID Device ID Connection Key Figure 3:The Cable Association Process is the most secure way to establish the connection context between two devices, but requires the temporary connection of a wired USB cable between the two devices. Security and Encryption devices is encrypted using the session key, and therefore Once association is complete using either of these two any receiver, including any analysis tools, must have prior methods, the devices are now authorized to communicate knowledge of the connection context in order to determine using the connection context that is established during the the session key and decrypt the wireless traffic. However association process. During each session, the devices if the connection key is known, the analysis tool can will initially derive a “session” key (also called a ìpair- determine the session key by listening in to the wireless wise temporal keyî or PTK) which is based on the pre- traffic as the devices begin to communicate. established connection context. Wireless traffic between Analyzing Secure Traffic Protocol layer testing for wireless technologies generally involves a radio-based “sniffer” to eavesdrop on the exchange between devices. Analysis tools must perform this task with minimal impact on the real-world operating environment for the devices. WiMedia devices do not encrypt the PHY and MAC header information. This allows devices (and analysis tools) to identify framing and routing information for each packet. But all wireless USB logical transfers with-in the user payload are encrypted. The ability to trigger on protocol events requires that the analysis tools can decrypt the traffic in real-time to identify the logical USB parameters. Unless the analyzer has this secret key, it will be unable to trigger on protocol events! During early validation, for convenience developers of drivers, firmware and MAC silicon may perform testing with encryption disabled. However complete testing of prototype designs will require the ability to decrypt and view these transfers to verify security. Figure 4: In the cable association model, the LeCroy’s UWBTracer™ Protocol Analyzer provides UWBTracer Analyzer captures the an innovative solution to this security problem. For connection context and then transfers devices that use the cable association model, LeCroy this information to the radio module, offers an integrated plug-in for capturing the cable where it is used to capture and decrypt association sequence. Similar to a USB analyzer, this radio traffic between host and device. module transparently taps the wired link between host and 14 Wireless USB
  15. 15. device. It automatically records and passes the connection context to the radio-based analysis engine contained within the UWBTracer. The analyzer radio channel can then automatically follow the 4-way handshake and use the connection context to derive the ìsessionî key (or PTK). With this unique session key in the hardware recording engine, the analyzer can automatically decrypt the scrambled wireless traffic. For devices that use the Numeric Association model, LeCroy’s UWBTracer provides a software interface for tracking the connection context manually between devices. After manually entering the connection context, the software provides a mechanism to download the connection context to the analyzer hardware. The analyzer preserves this information for the host-device pair. Equipped with the same connection context, it can follow the 4-way handshake and derive the same ìsession keyî (PTK) as the devices under test. Figure 5: In the numeric association model, the user must manually enter In both the cable and numeric methods, the LeCroy the Connection Host ID (CHID) and the connection key (CK) for analyzer has the ability to preserve this pairing information each device. The information must be predetermined by the in non-volatile memory. The UWBTracer System will device manufacturer. recognize when these devices establish future connections and automatically derive a new PTK whenever a new 4-way Summary handshake protocol takes place between the devices. The association models in Certified Wireless USB Important points: are designed to deliver secure data transfers and ease- * The session keys are regenerated every time the of-use to consumers. Efficient device-level validation two devices power up. The analyzer must be powered on requires that the analyzer have a mechanism to capture and record the 4 way handshake sequence at this stage and recall the connection context. The ability significantly to automatically derive the PTK and decrypt the scrambled improves test workflow by allowing protocol testing to traffic. occur unencumbered by the security features. In addition • In some cases, developers can use a diagnostic key to efficiently managing security keys, the analysis platform (CK= 0) for debug environments. But most validation must have sufficient processing power to use these keys labs will require testing with commercial products to decrypt and trigger on USB events in real-time. From using real CK values. security to evolving PHY specifications...only LeCroy’s • In the Numeric model, the user must enter the Protocol Solutions Group could anticipate and deliver the Connection Host ID and the Connection Key in the innovative features needed to accelerate product testing analyzer software for a given device. in this emerging wireless market. • If a host-device pair have already established a connection context using a cable association model prior to the introduction of the analyzer, it will be necessary to repeat the cable association while monitoring the USB traffic between the host and the device in order for the analyzer to capture the connection context. Testing of both the association process and the security process will be required to gain certification of wireless USB devices. This will be enforced through the USB-IF certification program, which will allow companies to test device and host compliance to all Certified Wireless USB specifications. Wireless USB 1
  16. 16. NXP– the new company born out of Philips Semiconductors With all the energy of a new beginning, fuelled by 50 years of wisdom, NXP Semiconductors is ready to answer all your questions – especially the impossible ones. The ones that are still dreams but soon will be transformed into amazing sensory experiences. Certified Wireless USB from the USB-IF is the first high-speed wireless interconnect technology to combine the speed and security of Hi-Speed USB and the convenience of wireless connectivity. Supporting a broad spectrum of consumer, peripheral, and PC products, it enhances user mobility, decreases download times, and simplifies point-to-point data transfers. Best of all, backward compatible with wired USB. What if you could What if you could become a new you? www.nxp.com/uwb