Behind the scenes

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Behind the scenes

  1. 1. Technical Terms We Can’t Avoid
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Network components </li></ul><ul><li>TCP/IP </li></ul><ul><li>IP-address </li></ul><ul><li>Gateway </li></ul><ul><li>Domain Name System </li></ul><ul><li>Nameserver </li></ul>
  3. 3. Network Components
  4. 4. <ul><li>Client - software that allows files and printers to be shared with other network computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Adapter - hardware device that physically connects your computer to the network. </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol - &quot;language&quot; a computer uses to communicate over a network. Computers must use the same protocol to communicate with each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Service - One type of service enables you to share your files and printers with other people on the network. Examples of other services are automatic system backup, remote registry, and network monitor agent. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Client </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Network, Novell Netware, </li></ul><ul><li>Windows NT Workstation </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Adapter </li></ul><ul><li>ethernet card, wireless LAN card, dial-up a dapter, radio-modem card, etc. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Service </li></ul><ul><li>file sharing, printer sharing, system backup, personal web server </li></ul>
  8. 9. TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol <ul><li>basic communication language of the Internet. It can also be used as a communications protocol in private networks called intranets and in extranets. </li></ul>
  9. 10. TCP/IP is a two-layered program <ul><li>Transmission Control Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>higher layer </li></ul><ul><li>manages the assembling of a message or file into smaller packets that are transmitted over the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>reassembles the packets into the original message. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Internet Protocol (IP) <ul><li>lower layer </li></ul><ul><li>method or set of rules by which data is sent from one computer to another on the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>handles the address part of each packet so that it gets to the right destination. </li></ul>
  11. 12. IP address
  12. 13. IP-address <ul><li>example: 208.160.242.35 </li></ul><ul><li>Unique </li></ul><ul><li>scarce </li></ul><ul><li>4 octets (8-bit-bytes) </li></ul><ul><li>value of each octet 0-255 </li></ul><ul><li>classes of networks (A,B,C, CIDR) </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Each computer (known as a host) on the Internet has at least one address that uniquely identifies it from all other computers on the Internet. When you send or receive data (for example, an e-mail note or a Web page), the message gets divided into little chunks called packets. Each of these packets contains both the sender's Internet address and the receiver's address. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Return-Path: <justina.curtis@rmit.EDU.AU> </li></ul><ul><li>Received: from rmit.EDU.AU (tardis.its.rmit.edu.au [131.170.2.30]) </li></ul><ul><li>by kuanyin.isiswomen.org (8.8.7/8.8.7) with ESMTP id TAA26756 </li></ul><ul><li>for <pi@isiswomen.org>; Sun, 6 Jun 1999 19:38:04 +0800 </li></ul><ul><li>Received: from ems.rmit.edu.au (ems.rmit.edu.au [131.170.2.134]) by rmit.EDU.AU (8.8.8/8.7.3/ram4/ANTI-SPAM/ANTI-RELAY/VOGA) with SMTP id NAA27352 for <pi@isiswomen.org>; Sun, 6 Jun 1999 13:32:42 +1000 (EST) </li></ul><ul><li>Received: from INTERNET-Message_Server by ems.rmit.edu.au </li></ul><ul><li>with Novell_GroupWise; Sun, 06 Jun 1999 13:31:18 +1000 </li></ul><ul><li>Message-Id: <s75a7826.096@ems.rmit.edu.au> </li></ul><ul><li>X-Mailer: Novell GroupWise 5.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Date: Sun, 06 Jun 1999 13:30:52 +1000 </li></ul><ul><li>From: &quot;Justina Curtis&quot; <justina.curtis@rmit.EDU.AU> </li></ul><ul><li>To: <pi@isiswomen.org> </li></ul><ul><li>Subject: greetings from netcafe on sarawak river... </li></ul><ul><li>Mime-Version: 1.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Content-Type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII </li></ul><ul><li>Content-Disposition: inline </li></ul><ul><li>Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit </li></ul><ul><li>X-MIME-Autoconverted: from quoted-printable to 8bit by kuanyin.isiswomen.org id TAA26756 </li></ul>
  15. 16. Gateway
  16. 17. Gateway <ul><li>network point that acts as an entrance to another network. </li></ul><ul><li>the Internet is made up of gateway nodes and host nodes . </li></ul><ul><li>computers of network users and the computers that serve content, such as Web pages, are host nodes . </li></ul><ul><li>computers that control traffic within your company's network or at your local Internet service provider (ISP) are gateway nodes . </li></ul>
  17. 18. Domain Name System
  18. 19. Domain Name System The domain name system (DNS) is the way that Internet domain names are located and translated into IP (Internet Protocol) addresses. A domain name is a meaningful and easy-to-remember &quot;handle&quot; for an Internet address. Because maintaining a central list of domain name/IP address correspondences would be impractical, the lists of domain names and IP addresses are distributed throughout the Internet in a hierarchy of authority.
  19. 20. <ul><li>Domain Name </li></ul><ul><li>a domain name locates an organization or other entity </li></ul><ul><li>on the Internet . </li></ul><ul><li>Example: kuanyin.isiswomen.org </li></ul><ul><li>kuanyin = host server </li></ul><ul><li>.org = the part of the domain name that reflects the purpose of the organization or entity , also known as top level domain name </li></ul><ul><li>isiswomen = part of the domain name defines the organization or entity and together with the top-level is called the second-level domain name. Also known as second-level domain name, this is the &quot;readable&quot; version of the Internet address. </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>top level identifies geographic or purpose commonality .com, .net, .org, .net, .gov .kr, .ph </li></ul><ul><li>second level identifies a unique place within the top level domain and is, in fact, equivalent to a unique address on the Internet (or IP). isiswomen </li></ul><ul><li>lower levels of domain may also be used. </li></ul>
  21. 22. * type on browser address bar: http://www.isiswomen.org
  22. 23. * type on browser address bar: http://208.160.242.35
  23. 24. * type on browser address bar: http://kuanyin.isiswomen.org
  24. 25. Nameserver <ul><li>converts natural names to IP-numbers </li></ul><ul><li>converts IP-numbers to names </li></ul><ul><ul><li>example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>isiswomen.org = 208.160.242.35 = kuanyin.isiswomen.org </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>* type on browser address bar: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.networksolutions.com/cgi-bin/whois/whois/ </li></ul>
  26. 27. More information <ul><li>History of the Internet (non-Technical) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.isoc.org/internet/history/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Answers to “What is” questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://whatis.com/index.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DNS discussions </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.isoc.org/internet/issues/dns/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ispo.cec.be/eif/dns/conclusions.htm l </li></ul>
  27. 28. More information <ul><li>APNIC (Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.apnic.net/index.html </li></ul>

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