Introduction:-Bluetooth is a Proprietary O pen Wirelesstechnology stand ard for exchanging d ata over shortd istances (using short-wavelength rad io transm issionsin the ISM band from 2400– 2480 M H z) from fixedand m obile d evices, creating Personal Area N etworks(PAN s) with high levels of security.C reated by telecom s vend or Ericsson in 1 994, it wasoriginally conceived as a wireless alternative toRS-232 d ata cables.It can connect several d evices, overcom ingproblem s of synchronization.
Bluetooth is m anaged by theBluetooth Special Interest Group, which has m ore than1 5,000 m em ber com panies in the areas oftelecom m unication, com puting, networking, and consum erelectronics.The SIG oversees the d evelopm ent of the specification,m anages the qualification program , and protects thetrad em arks.To be m arketed as a Bluetooth d evice, it m ust be qualifiedto stand ard s d efined by the SIG. A network of patents isrequired to im plem ent the technology and are only licensedto those qualifying d evices; thus the protocol, whilst open,m ay be regard ed as proprietary.
Name AndLogo :-The word "Bluetooth" is an Anglicised version of theScand inavian Blåtand/ Blåtann, the Epithet of the tenth-century king H arald I of D enm ark and parts of N orwaywho united d issonant D anish tribes into a single kingd om .The im plication is that Bluetooth d oes the sam e withcom m unications protocols, uniting them into one universalstand ard .The Bluetooth logo is a Bind Rune m erging theYounger Futhark Runes (H agall) (a Bjarkan) (r ),H arald s initials.
Implementation : -Bluetooth uses a rad io technology calledFrequency-hopping Spread Spectrum , which chops up the d atabeing sent and transm its chunks of it on up to 79 band s (1M H z each; centered from 2402 to 2480 M H z) in the range2,400– 2,483.5 M H z (allowing for guard band s).This range is in the globally unlicensed Ind ustrial, Scientificand M ed ical (ISM ) 2.4 GH z short-range Rad io Frequencyband .
Bluetooth is a Packet-based Protocol with aM aster-slave Structure. O ne m aster m ay com m unicate with upto 7 slaves in a Piconet; all d evices share the m asters clock. Packet exchange is based on the basic clock, d efined by them aster, which ticks at 31 2.5 µs intervals. Two clock ticks m ake up a slot of 625 µs; two slots m akeup a slot pair of 1 250 µs.Bluetooth provid es a secure way to connect and exchangeinform ation between d evices such as Faxes, M obile Phones,Telephones, L aptops, Personal C om puters, Printers,Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, D igital C am eras,and Vid eo Gam e C onsoles
Communication andconnection:-A m aster Bluetooth d evice can com m unicate with a m axim umof seven d evices in a piconet (an ad -hoc com puter network usingBluetooth technology), though not all d evices support this lim it.The d evices can switch roles, by agreem ent, and the slave canbecom e the m aster (for exam ple, a head set initiating a connectionto a phone will necessarily begin as m aster, as initiator of theconnection; but m ay subsequently prefer to be slave).The Bluetooth C ore Specification provid es for the connectionof two or m ore piconets to form a scatter net, in which certaind evices sim ultaneously play the m aster role in one piconet andthe slave role in another.
Uses :-Bluetooth is a stand ard wire-replacem ent com m unicationsprotocol prim arily d esigned for low power consum ption, with ashort range (power-class-d epend ent, but effective ranges vary inpractice; see table below) based on low-cost TransceiverM icrochips in each d evice.Because the d evices use a rad io (broad cast) com m unicationssystem , they d o not have to be in visual line of sight of eachother, however a quasi optical wireless path m ust be viable.
M axim um perm itted power RangeC lass (m ) (m W) (d Bm )C lass 1 1 00 20 ~1 00C lass 2 2.5 4 ~1 0C lass 3 1 0 ~5The effective range varies d ue to propagation cond itions,m aterial coverage, prod uction sam ple variations, antennaconfigurations and battery cond itions.In m ost cases the effective range of class 2 d evices isextend ed if they connect to a class 1 transceiver, com pared to apure class 2 network.This is accom plished by the higher sensitivity andtransm ission power of C lass 1 d evices
Different Versions ofBluetooth available in themarket:- M axim um Version D ata rate application throughput Version 1 .2 1 M bit/s 0.7 M bit/s Version 2.0 + 3 M bit/s 2.1 M bit/s ED R Version 3.0 + 24M bit/s 3 M bit/s HS Version 4.0 1 -3M bit/s 0.7-2.1 M bit/s
List of applications:- Wireless control of and com m unication between a m obile phone and a hand s free head set. This was one of the earliest applications to becom e popular. Wireless control of and com m unication between a m obile phone and a Bluetooth com patible car stereo system Wireless Bluetooth head set and Intercom . Wireless networking between PC s in a confined space and where little band wid th is required . Wireless com m unication with PC input and output d evices, the m ost com m on being the m ouse, keyboard and printer.
Transfer of files, contact d etails, calend ar appointm ents, andrem ind ers between d evices with O BEX .Replacem ent of previous wired RS-232 serialcom m unications in test equipm ent, GPS receivers, m ed icalequipm ent, bar cod e scanners, and traffic control d evices.For controls where infrared was often used .For low band wid th applications where higher U SB band wid this not required and cable-free connection d esired .Send ing sm all ad vertisem ents from Bluetooth-enabledad vertising hoard ings to other, d iscoverable, Bluetooth d evices.Wireless brid ge between two Ind ustrial Ethernet (e.g.,PRO FIN ET) networks.
Three seventh-generation gam e consoles, N intend os Wii andSonys PlayStation 3 and PSP Go, use Bluetooth for theirrespective wireless controllers.D ial-up internet access on personal com puters or PD As using ad ata-capable m obile phone as a wireless m od em .Short range transm ission of health sensor d ata from m ed icald evices to m obile phone, set-top box or d ed icated telehealthd evices.Allowing a D EC T phone to ring and answer calls on behalf of anearby cell phone
Real-tim e location system s (RTL S), are used to track andid entify the location of objects in real-tim e using “N od es” or“tags” attached to, or em bed d ed in the objects tracked , and“Read ers” that receive and process the wireless signals from thesetags to d eterm ine their locations.Personal security application on m obile phones for prevention oftheft or loss of item s. The protected item has a Bluetooth m arker(e.g. a tag) that is in constant com m unication with the phone. If theconnection is broken (the m arker is out of range of the phone) thenan alarm is raised . This can also be used as a m an overboardalarm . A prod uct using this technology has been available since2009.
Blue jacking:- Blue jacking is the send ing of either a picture or a m essage from one user to an unsuspecting user through Bluetooth wireless technology. C om m on applications includ e short m essages (e.g., "You’ve just been blue jacked !"). Blue jacking d oes not involve the rem oval or alteration of any d ata from the d evice. Blue jacking can also involve taking control of a m obile wirelessly and phoning a prem ium rate line, owned by the blue jacker.
Advantages Of Bluetooth:- Bluetooth can penetrate walls, briefcases, and other obstacles, and its O m ni d irectional (capable of transm itting or receiving signals in all d irections, as an antenna). Even though the transm ission range is only 30 feet, Bluetooth will let com puters and hand held d evices talk to each other without wires or cables. You will soon be able to synchronize the inform ation in your cell phone with the d atabase in your Palm Pilot. Also, print photos d irectly from a d igital cam era. M oreover, use your cell phone as a m od em for your laptop. Eventually, the technology could evolve to the point where consum ers wearing a sm all Bluetooth-enabled d evice could shop by having their cred it card inform ation conveyed d irectly to the
Merits of Bluetooth:- b) Wireless c) Bluetooth is actually inexpensive d) Bluetooth is autom atic e) Stand ard ized protocol f) L ow interference g) L ow energy consum ption h) Sharing voice and d ata i) Instant PAN (Personal Area N etwork) j) U pgrad eable k) The technology stays
Disadvantages ofBluetooth:-samthat m ay cause conflicts for Bluetooth. is A. O ne of the things that it uses the e frequency as the Wavelan stand ard B. Another problem for Bluetooth is when there are a num ber of m obile d evices in the sam e room , and possibly attem pting the sam e operation. C. Since Bluetooth is O m ni-d irectional, it encounters problem s in d iscovering the intend ed recipient d evice. D. Bluetooth d evices m ust perform a d iscovery operation that will likely find m any other d evices in the sam e room . E. At this point, the user m ust choose the proposed recipient, which will require special inform ation. F. Furtherm ore, Bluetooth has so m any security m echanism s that it would have to carry out in ord er to prevent eavesd ropping.
Health concerns :- Bluetooth uses the m icrowave rad io frequency spectrum in the 2.402 GH z to 2.480 GH z range. M axim um power output from a Bluetooth rad io is 1 00 m W, 2.5 m W, and 1 m W for C lass 1 , C lass 2, and C lass 3 d evices respectively, which puts C lass 1 at roughly the sam e level as m obile phones, and the other two classes m uch lower. Accord ingly, C lass 2 and C lass 3 Bluetooth d evices are consid ered less of a potential hazard than m obile phones, and C lass 1 m ay be com parable to that of m obile phones : the m axim um for a C lass 1 is 1 00 m W for Bluetooth but 250 m W for U M TS W-C D M A, 1 W for GSM 1 800/ 900 and 2 W for 1 GSM 850/ 900 for instance.
Conclusion:- Bluetooth is a wireless technology that will m ake connections between various d evices. Bluetooth Technology takes away the need for several problem atic cable attachm ents for connecting cellular phones, hand held d evices, and com puters. It is easy, sim ple, and inexpensive. The next tim e you think wireless, think Bluetooth...its the best way to com m unicate!