The argumentative environment-1Presentation Transcript
The Argumentative Environment Chapter 2
Logos, Pathos and Ethos
These are the three main elements of a persuasive claim, according to 4th century Greek Philosopher Aristotle. These terms are also the foundation of proof, and considered the three pillars of persuasion.
- When one needs to support a claim they may turn to Logos in order to appeal to logic.
-The use of logic in an argument is crucial because it provides the claim with support in the form of factual evidence.
An example of logos is when a scientist brings up statistics on a given subject that supports his claim. These statistics and date act as a support agency for his argument and ultimately create a logical argument.
-When one is supporting a claim they might want to appeal to pathos or in other words emotions.
-By the use of pathos the person arguing evokes a feeling in the persons listening. Therefore they can appeal to the listener's inner self and create a stronger claim.
An example of pathos is for say when a person brings up a relevant life story that shows his or her life struggles as a person who was a victim of rape. By telling the emotion evoking story the audience is compelled to sympathize with the speaker and this bridges a gap between the two.
- When one is in the position to create an argument or claim their character is judged. Ethos is the speakers credibility to a certain audience.
- By being portrayed as someone who is confident and an expert you are more able to win over your audience and create a lasting impression.
An example of Ethos is when a world renowned doctor makes a claim about a new drug that has been presented. The audience who trusts his expertise automatically can assume that his findings are correct and justifiable.
This model analyzes the basics of an argument, and divides it into 6 dissect parts.
5. Reservation/ Rebuttal
Claim: The point that is trying to be proven, or the thesis.
Grounds: The evidence that backs up the claim.
Warrant: The logos in an argument that is very broad.
Backing: The crucial pieces of evidence and data.
Reservation/ Rebuttal: The exception to the warrant.
Qualifier: Terms within an argument used to make the claim more likely to be true.