6CO2 + 6H2O + energy --> 6O2 + C6H12O6 Plants absorb a common gas called carbon dioxide, pull water up through their roots and use light to make sugar. Plants use the sugar to grow. Plants give off oxygen as a by-product. The green parts of the plant makes the sugar and oxygen.
Sun Photosynthetic cells may have thousands of chloroplasts . Chloroplasts in plant & algal cells absorb light energy from the sun during the light dependent reactions
In the Chloroplasts Light Traveling When light strikes an object, it is absorbed, transmitted, or reflected . When all colors are absorbed, the object appears black When all colors are reflected, the object appears white If only one color is reflected (green), the object appears that color such as the Chlorophyll.
In the thylakoid happens light dependent reactions. This system depends on sunlight for activation energy. Light is absorbed by chlorophyll a which "excites" the electrons in the chlorophyll molecule.Electrons are passed through a series of carriers and adenosine triphosphate or ATP (energy) is produced. H2O O2 + ATP + NADPH2
Light is absorbed by the antenna pigments of photosystems II and I These excited electrons activate P700 in photosystem I which helps reduce NADP+ to NADPH//NADPH is used in the Calvin cycle. Still in the thylakoid The absorbed energy is transferred to the reaction center pigment, P680 in photosystem II, P700 in photosystem I
CO2 diffuses into the stroma from surrounding cytosol An enzyme combines a CO2 molecule with a five-carbon carbohydrate called RuBP PGAL serves as the starting material for the synthesis of glucose and fructose Glucose and fructose make the disaccharide sucrose, which travels in solution to other parts of the plant Alternate Cycle Calvin Cycle Each PGA molecule receives a phosphate group from a molecule of ATP
Energy can be transformed from one form to another like photosynthesis converts light energy to chemical energy in which the turkey ate in the grass.
The energy process happens in the Mitochondria
ATP is energy carrying molecule used by cells to fuel their cellular processes. ATP is composed of an adenine base, ribose sugar, & 3 phosphate (PO4) groups.
ATP is made & used continuously by cells Every minute all of an organism's ATP is recycled
Enzymes help break & reform these high energy PO4 bonds in a process called substrate-level phosphorylation. When the high-energy phosphate bond is broken, it releases energy, a free phosphate group, & ADP.
Mitochondria Has Electron Transport Chain takes place in cristae Space inside cristae is called the matrix & contains DNA & ribosomes also the Krebs cycle takes place in it
The energy in one glucose molecule may be used to produce 36 ATP it involves a series of 3 reactions…….Glycolysis, Kreb's Cycle, & Electron Transport Chain.
NADH is energy 2 ATP added to glucose (6C) to energize it. Glucose split to 2 PGAL (3C).
If no oxygen is available to the cell (anaerobic), the pyruvate will be fermented Pyruvic acid from glycolysis diffuses into matrix of mitochondria & reacts with coenzyme
Acetyl Co-A (2C) enters the Kreb's Cycle & joins with Oxaloacetic Acid (4C) to make Citric Acid Oxaloacetic acid is regenerated to start the cycle again Citric acid is oxidized releasing CO2 , free H+, & e- and forming ketoglutaric acid In Aerobic respiration Happens the Krebs Cycle Free e- reduce the energy carriers NAD+ to NADH2 and FAD+ to FADH2
In the Electron transport Chain A concentration gradient of H+ between the inner & outer mitochondrial membrane occurs H+ concentration gradient causes the synthesis of ATP by chemiosmosis Energized e- & H+ from the 10 NADH2 and 2 FADH2 are transferred to O2 to produce H2O
This Whole process is the functions that keep the plant life alive and healthy. It also makes it look yummy to Boneshikwa the turkey and she eats.