Sustainable Brownfield Redevelopment in China

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You may be interested in the results of the survey and panel discussion that took place between the attendees and the Speakers on the topic:
“How International Companies deal with Remediation in China: what are challenges and needs and which strategies are available to manage liabilities and reputation”.
Speakers included representatives from Industry, government, local institutes, Lawyers and local remediation engineering company CH2M HILL.

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Sustainable Brownfield Redevelopment in China

  1. 1. 受污染地块可持续性再开发研讨会 Sustainable Redevelopment of Contaminated Land Seminar 上海建国宾馆 Shanghai, Jianguo Hotel 2009年6月23日 星期二 June 23, 2009
  2. 2. Table Of Content • Agenda and Venue • Summary Survey and Panel Discussion • Slides of the presentations • White Paper on Sustainable Remediation providing the latest insight on Sustainable Remediation (published 30 June 2009) • For info on event: - johnny.browaeys@ch2m.com (+86 1376 1894 720) - Lie.Ma@ch2m.com (+86 1370 1742 423) - speakers contact details at the first page of respective presentations
  3. 3. Sustainable Redevelopment of Contaminated Site Seminar B 受污染地块可持续性再开发研讨会 About CH2M HILL Jiuzhou Conference Room D Headquartered in Denver, Colo., employee-owned 4 Floor, Jianguo Hotel Shanghai CH2M HILL is a global leader in full service consulting, 439 Cao Xi Bei Road, construction and operations for government, civil, industrial Shanghai China and energy clients. CH2M HILL has over 25,000 Tuesday 23rd June, 2009 employees and USD 5.8 billion in revenue in 2008. The firms’s work is concentrated in the areas of environment, 会议地点:上海市建国宾馆 4 楼九州厅 D water, energy, transportation, nuclar and industrial facilties. 上海市漕溪北路 439 号建国宾馆 4 楼南丹路口 CH2M HILL has long been recognised as a most admired 会议时间:二〇〇九年六月二十三日 (星期二) company and leading employer, including being named by 主办单位:西图中国公司 Fortune as one of the 100 Best Companies to Work For in the US and one of America’s Most Admired Companies Subjects of the Seminar: (2008). • Updating remediation regulations and technologies CH2M HILL is recongised as the largest environmental firm • Soil remediation in Shanghai in the US for consective three years by Engineering-News • Best practice of property remediation and Record (ENR). sustainable approach in industry As the first international company operating in China, • Case studies of successful revitalization of CH2M HILL obtained Environmental Impact Assessment contaminated properties License from Chinese government in 2001. 研讨会的主题: • 地块修复技术和法规的最新发展 • 当前上海地区的土壤修复的状况 关于西图集团 • 土壤修复可持续方法在企业中的实践和管理模式 西图集团总部位于美国科罗拉多州的丹佛是一家 • 受污染地块重新开发的真实成功案例 全球领先的项目咨询、设计、施工和运营公司。 西图集团在全球拥有约 25,000 名员工, 2008 年营 Eminent speakers from: 业额约为 58 亿美元,是美国财富 500 强企业。西 • Shanghai Environmental Protection Bureau 图集团侧重的行业领域包括环境、水、能源、交 • Shanghai Environmental Science and Research Institute 通、核能和工业设施。 • CH2M HILL • Honeywell 西图集团长期被认为是最受尊敬的公司和雇主。 • Squire, Sanders & Dempsey L.L.P. 集团得到的荣誉包括被财富杂志评为 2008 年美国 最受尊敬的公司和最佳 100 家雇主之一。 主要发言人将来自于: • 上海市环境保护局 西图集团已经连续三年被美国权威的工程新闻杂 • 上海市环境科学研究院 志(Engineering -News-Record)评为美国最大的环 • 西图公司 境公司。西图中国公司在 2001 年成为第一家获得 • 霍尼维尔公司 中国政府颁发的环境影响评价资质的外资咨询公 • 美国翰宇律师事务所 司。
  4. 4. Seminar Agenda 日程安排 Tuesday 23rd June, 2009 2009年6月23日(星期二) 13:00 Registration 13:00 签到 13:30 Kick Off Speech: Mr. Gene Lupia 开幕致词: 13:30 开幕致词 President, Environmental Services Business Gene Lupia 先生 Group, CH2M HILL 环境服务集团总裁 集团总裁, 环境服务集团总裁 西图公司 13:45 Words from Shanghai EPB 13:45 上海市环境保护局领导致词 Mr. Hailing Luo 罗海林先生 罗海林先生 Director of Aquatic Environment and Ecology 水环境与自然生态处处长 Department, Shanghai EPB 上海市环境保护局 第一部分: 14:00 第一部分 如何运用先进的地块分析手段及修复 14:00 Session One: Streamlined Site Characterization and Risk-based Remediation to Facilitate 技术来推动受污染地块的复原和重新开发 Expedited Revitalization and Redevelopment of Terry Feng 博士 Contaminated Properties 首席技术专家 Dr. Terry Feng 西图公司 Principal Technologist, CH2M HILL 14:30 Session Two: Remediation and Re-development in 14:30 第二部分: 上海地区的土壤修复和开发 部分 上海地区的土壤修复和开发 Shanghai and Case Studies 罗启仕博士 罗启仕博士 Dr. Qishi Luo 土壤修复所所长 Remediation Manager, Shanghai Acadmey of 上海市环境科学研究院 Environmental Science 15:00 Tea Break 15:00 茶歇 15:30 Session Three: The Sustainable Approach to 第三部分: 15:30 第三部分 环境修复的可持续方法 Environmental Remediation 吴涛先生 Mr. Tao Wu Manager of Global Remediation and Evaluation, 全球场地修复和评价经理 Honeywell 霍尼维尔公司 16:00 Session Four: Review of Contaminated Land 第四部分: 16:00 第四部分 中国的污染场地的环境责任 Environmental Liabilities in China 李康熙先生 李康熙先生 Mr. Charles R. McElwee, II 美国翰宇律师事务所 Squire, Sanders & Dempsey L.L.P. 16:15 Open Discussion, Challenges and Practices of 16:15 第五部分: 讨论, 跨国公司在场地污染和修复问 部分 讨论, MNCs in China on site contamination and 题上面对的挑战和实践 remediation 庄尼先生 庄尼先生 Moderator: Mr. Johnny Browaeys 环境业务总监, 环境业务总监,西图公司 Operations Director of Environmental Services CH2M HILL 16:45 Adjourn 16:45 休会
  5. 5. Survey and Panel Discussion CH2M HILL 西图建筑工程(上海) 西图建筑工程(上海)有限公司 Johnny Browaeys johnny.browaeys@ch2m.com
  6. 6. Approach • Survey based on feedback from 55 participants (50MNC, 5 institutes) • Enquiring for challenges and needs for stakeholders considering remediation in China • Interactive discussion between attendees and panel: Legal Advisor Squire, Sanders & Dempsey L.L.P. Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences (SAES) Industry: Honeywell Remediation Engineer: CH2M HILL E112004002BDS 2
  7. 7. Survey: CHALLENGES (scale 1-10) • Managing environmental liabilities for soil and groundwater pollution during transactions – 4.7 • Unclear regulatory framework – eg. when is remediation required, which clean up objectives? – 4.6 • Lack of consistency between different regions – 4.5 • Quality of consultants – 4.3 • Quality of labs – 4.2 • Consistency between National and Local policies – 4.1 • Lack of companies in China experienced with remedial engineering – 4.0 E112004002BDS 3
  8. 8. Survey: NEEDS (scale 1-10) • Find a way to solve the pollution problem without interfering with production – 5.3 • Control of costs, especially now during the financial crisis – 4.8 • Better understanding of what are the real risks related to soil and groundwater – 4.6 • More knowledge of the regulations – 4.4 • More knowledge on understanding the business risks related with soil and groundwater pollution – 4.3 • Better understanding of your corporate strategy on soil and groundwater liabilities – 3.4 E112004002BDS 4
  9. 9. Panel – strategies for MNC • Remediation in China: waking sleeping dog or managing future (and actual) liability? • Communication strategy for dealing with local authorities that have different agenda or lack experience with soil and groundwater pollution • Managing “2 dreams in one bed” (Joint-Ventures) • Importance of Asset Management Strategy • Different drivers behind implementation of grey regulatory framework (eg. closure EIA’s / clean up) • Rising awareness and managing expectation • Clean up triggers and “Stay Out” situations E112004002BDS 5
  10. 10. Panel – remediation technologies • Commercially available solutions versus locally design and build ? • Remediation “Engineering” versus “Solutions from the shelf” • Reducing Capital Investment and managing O&M costs • Optimizing remediation budget in the financial crisis • Leveraging facility upgrades (remediate and build) • Engineer solutions using excess capacity existing facility utilities (steam etc.) E112004002BDS 6
  11. 11. Panel – government and policy • New soil regulation “next year” (since the last 5 years) • Unclear reporting level to submit Remedial Action Plan • Link with EIA regulations • Independency • MEP vs Superfund • MEP vs RBCA • What changed from SEPA to MEP? • Local government “developing” brown fields • Value of brown fields in cities – forced relocations • Role of project developers and MNC for cleaning up China? E112004002BDS 7
  12. 12. Thank you!
  13. 13. Sustainable Redevelopment of Contaminated Land Seminar June 23, 2009, Shanghai, China Streamlined Site Characterization and Risk- based Remediation to Facilitate Expedited Revitalization and Redevelopment of Contaminated Properties June 23, 2009 Terry Feng, Ph.D., P.E. Terry.Feng@ch2m.com
  14. 14. Presentation Outline Introduction – Drivers, trends, and tools for revitalization and/or redevelopment of contaminated properties Examples Highlight of October 2008 U.S. EPA Document Revitalization of a closed chemical plant in Southern California June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 2
  15. 15. Drivers / Motivations Why do we care about contaminated properties? We care because it is an intuitively right thing to do. More specifically, it is: good for the economy necessary to ensure protection of human health and environment added value for property owners – enhanced property value and reduced liability a part of many deep-pocket corporations’ asset management / property divestiture program a demonstration of great Corporation Citizenship a contractual obligation for sellers or buyers through real estate transactions required by regulation June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 3
  16. 16. It also fits nicely with the three parts sustainability model… al za ciet lob G al l na So tio on ni rs ga al Pe Or June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 4
  17. 17. Trends (Observed in U.S.) Government leads the way More corporations are doing it More investors and developers are involved More owners interested More reputable and experienced contractors involved June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 5
  18. 18. Tools and Methodologies Brownfield regulations (U.S., Europe, Canada….) Incentives from federal, state and local governments Risk sharing through contractual and legal mechanisms (liability transfer, insurance, price guarantee) Risk management through land use covenant (deed restriction and institutional controls) Flexible and streamlined regulatory processes Support for application of innovative site characterization and remediation technologies Triad, DPT, MIP ERD, ISCO, SVE/MPE, GCW/ART, ERH/ISTD, PRB, Phytoremediation June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 6
  19. 19. Presentation Outline Introduction – Drivers, trends, and tools for revitalization and/or redevelopment of contaminated properties Examples Highlight of October 2008 U.S. EPA Document Revitalization of a closed chemical plant in Southern California June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 7
  20. 20. October 2008 U.S. EPA Document June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 8
  21. 21. U.S. EPA: 10 Contributors for Successful Revitalization of Mothballed Properties 1. Reuse First (owners take initiative) 2. Recruit Redevelopers 3. Local Leadership 4. Craft Creative Corporate Strategies 5. Take Advantage of State Tools & Resources 6. Coordinate Cleanups 7. Leverage Federal Funding & Support 8. Assist the Mom & Pops 9. Reduce Risks 10. Create Comfort June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 9
  22. 22. U.S. EPA: 11 Project Profiles of Successful Mothballed Property Revitalization 1. Car Company Revitalizes Old Manufacturing Sites 2. Ohio Development Team Overcomes Barriers to Reuse of Mothballed Waterfront Property 3. Manufacturer Takes a Prevention Approach to Mothballed Properties 4. Chemical Company Ranks Sites and Reaches out to Regulators for Reuse of Underutilized Properties 5. Pennsylvania Buyer-Seller Agreement Facilitates Reuse of Old Manufacturing Site 6. Vacant Site to Become Rochester Sports Complex 7. Milwaukee Master Plan Renews Old Industrial Valley 8. Environmental Extension Center Helps Seattle Small Businesses on Contaminated Properties 9. West Virginia Small Cities Create A Commerce Corridor 10. Colorado Brownfields Foundation Helps Mom & Pops with Environmental Stewardship Program 11. Innovative Building Reuse Program Spurs Revitalization of North Carolina Small Towns June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 10
  23. 23. Presentation Outline Introduction – Drivers, trends, and tools for revitalization and/or redevelopment of contaminated properties Examples Highlight of October 2008 U.S. EPA Document Revitalization of a closed chemical plant in Southern California, U.S.A. June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 11
  24. 24. Site Location and Surroundings Prime South Bay location – only a few miles from the Pacific Ocean and LAX Surrounded by industrial / commercial properties June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 12
  25. 25. Site History The 56-acre chemical plant was initially developed in 1920s and ceased operation in 2003 Main industrial activities included: Sulfuric acid production Pesticides packaging/distribution Phthalic anhydride production Solvents packaging and distribution Refrigerants production June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 13
  26. 26. 1991 Aerial Photo of the Chemical Plant June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 14
  27. 27. Feb. 2003 Aerial Photo – Right before Plant Closure and Facility Demolition June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 15
  28. 28. 2004 - Demolition Completed June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 16
  29. 29. Site Revitalization Strategy City re-zoned the parcel from Industrial to Commercial and approved the plan to develop the land into an nice retail center Prime location helps - developer agreed to pay $1,000,000 USD per acre for redevelopment while the plant owner carries all environmental liabilities including achieving “Regulatory Closure” on Closure shallow soil and “Approved RAP” for deep soil before the RAP buyer writes the check June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 17
  30. 30. Phased Redevelopment Plan Phase I: 43 acres including northern parcels and southwest corner lot parcel Retail center including Whole Foods, Best Buy, Barnes & Noble, etc. as well as restaurants Retail center open for business by 2006 holiday season Phase II: 13 acres of UND-4&5 parcels Industrial/commercial development at a later time along with the parcels in the east and west This presentation focuses on Phase I project June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 18
  31. 31. Aggressive Schedule Milestones Feb. 2003 - ceased facility operation and began facility demolition and site characterization Early 2004 - completed demolition and site characterization Late 2004 – completed remediation of 23 shallow soil hot spot areas Middle 2005 – received regulatory no-further-action (NFA) letter (a.k.a., “Regulatory Closure”) for shallow soil on Phase I parcels Late 2005 – regulatory approval of sitewide remedial action plan (RAP) for deep soil vapor plume (a.k.a., “Approved RAP”) Early 2006 – Began redevelopment grading and vertical construction Late 2006 – newly constructed retain center opened for business Achieving “Regulatory Closure” for shallow soil and “Approved RAP” for deep soil vapor plume were two owner’s obligations that must be satisfied prior to the real estate closure June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 19
  32. 32. Strategic Planning Identify critical success factor – meeting schedule milestones Focus on critical path work scope: Site characterization Risk assessment Shallow soil remediation Find and use innovative solutions Strive for dedication, cooperation and teamwork June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 20
  33. 33. Technical Approaches The following three technical elements were critical contributors to the overall success of the project: Expedited Site Characterization supported by a “dynamic” work plan - the Triad approach Expedited Risk Assessment conducted concurrent with the field investigation; early development of site-specific “risk per unit concentration” values for all site chemicals allowed real time cumulative risk calculations Expedited Shallow Soil Remediation conducted as an interim remedial measure (IRM) led to significant schedule savings June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 21
  34. 34. Expedited Site Characterization More than 500 soil borings drilled More than 1400 soil samples collected More than 1400 soil samples analyzed for VOCs More than 1100 samples analyzed for SVOCs, PCBs, pesticides, metals & TPH/GROs Mobile labs used to expedite field screening More than 350 soil vapor samples collected and analyzed for VOCs Water Board RI approval letter issued April, 2005 June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 22
  35. 35. RI Site-Characterization Report and Remedial Detected Preliminary Screening for Potential Work Plan and Investigation Implementation Chemicals Shallow-Soil Hot Spots Soil Gas; Johnson & Ettinger 1 mg/m3 Vapor Intrusion Model (assumption) Risk-Assessment Processes Risk and Hazard Estimates at Unit Concentrations Soil; Risk Risk- and Hazard- 1 mg/kg Assessment Estimates (assumption) Methodology Per Unit Concentration Cumulative Risk & Hazard Estimate of Cumulative Risk- and Hazard- Analytical (for all chemicals at the area) Risk and Hazard Estimates × Results for At Hot-Spot Locations Per Unit Concentration Hot Spots Is Remedial Action Decisions No No Further Action Cumulative Risk Estimate >10-5 IRM Work Plan and Final RAP (NFA) Or Hazard>1? Yes Figure 1 Develop and Implement IRM and Final RAP *** (based on most-stringent, relevant exposure scenario) Risk Management Honeywell El Segundo, California Decision Flow June 23, 2009 23 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. *** Potential impact to groundwater from deep soil are addressed in the fate & transport analysis of the final RAP. Diagram PARSONS
  36. 36. Identification of shallow soil hot spots 46 hot spot areas initially identified 23 hot spot areas retained after site- based on available regulatory specific risk assessment as hot screening levels (PRGs, ESLs, spots for remediation CHHSLs, SLs, etc.) June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 24
  37. 37. Expedited Shallow Soil Remediation TRIAD approach for IRM using a stepwise excavation-confirmation process Step 1 removed impacted soils based on initial estimate Removal action continued until concentrations of all risk drivers were below RBCGs for the hotspot More than 20,000 cubic yards of soils were removed from the 23 hotspot areas Post-IRM risk assessment conducted to ensure achieving target risk management goal June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 25
  38. 38. Final Regulatory Approval Completion of shallow soil IRM satisfied required shallow soil matrix remedial actions Agency approval of the IRM Completion Report satisfied the requirement for shallow soil closure The NFA letter for shallow soil was issued in June 2005 as consistent with the redevelopment plan A remedial action plan (RAP) was also submitted and approved by agency in 2006 which satisfied the remainder requirement for the property sale and redevelopment *** It may be worthy of noting that deep soil and groundwater cleanup is not required prior to site redevelopment June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 26
  39. 39. Mission Accomplished Feb. Dec. 2003 2007 June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 27
  40. 40. Project Progress Some aerial photos showing progress of site demolition, grading, deep remediation system installation and redevelopment construction project Some photo shots after redevelopment construction has completed and retail center opened for business June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 28
  41. 41. 2004 - Post Demolition and Prior to Grading Activities Piles of crushed concrete from demolished buildings/foundations June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 29
  42. 42. 2005 – SVE System Installation Prior to Building Construction, SVE Wells and SVE Pipe Laterals June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 30
  43. 43. April 2005 – Retail Store Construction June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 31
  44. 44. Jan. 2007 – Aerial View of Plaza El Segundo June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 32
  45. 45. Nov. 2006 – New Retail Stores Open for Business June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 33
  46. 46. Nov. 2006 – Retail Stores Open for Business June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 34
  47. 47. Nov. 2006 – Retail Stores Open for Business June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 35
  48. 48. Conclusions Strategic planning to identify and focus on critical success factors, critical path scope elements, and innovative solutions to address them are critical for the ultimate success of the project Teamwork from the entire project team including the owner, developer and regulatory agencies, were crucial factors for the success of the project June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 36
  49. 49. Questions? June 23, 2009 Copyright 2009 by CH2M HILL. Reproduction and distribution in whole or in part without the written consent of CH2M HILL is prohibited. 37
  50. 50. Site Remediation and Management in Shanghai (罗启仕) Qishi Luo(罗启仕) Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences June 23, 2009
  51. 51. Outline 1. Recent development on site management in China 2. Process management of site remediation in Shanghai 3. Site Remediation by SAES: Case studies 4. Site Remediation Research in SAES
  52. 52. Recent development on site management in China
  53. 53. 《瞭望》(2009年第9期) 与土壤污染的较量正在中国广袤的国 土上拉开大幕。 土上拉开大幕。 就世界范围而言,土壤污染尚是一个“ 就世界范围而言,土壤污染尚是一个 新的问题”,在中国尤其如此。 新的问题 ,在中国尤其如此。 如何做到环境保护与经济发展的平衡 统一,是全世界面临的复杂课题。 统一,是全世界面临的复杂课题。土 壤科研人员发现, 壤科研人员发现,即使是在南极上空 或喜马拉雅山脉之巅,仍然会有DDT 或喜马拉雅山脉之巅,仍然会有DDT或 DDT或 六六六的残留。 六六六的残留。 严酷的现实逼问人类: 严酷的现实逼问人类:如果失去了清 洁的空气、水、土壤、安全的食品和 洁的空气、 土壤、 平衡的生态空间, 平衡的生态空间,经济发展还有什么 意义? 意义? 对于人多地少的中国, 对于人多地少的中国,每一寸安全而 健康的国土都须加倍爱惜, 健康的国土都须加倍爱惜,治理土壤 污染已是刻不容缓, 污染已是刻不容缓,好在战车已经启 动。
  54. 54. Current status on soil management in China:
  55. 55. Process management of site remediation in Shanghai
  56. 56. 重视搬迁企业遗留污染场地管理 场地调查与评估 场地污染风险评估 修复方案制定及实施 修复过程管理 修复后评估
  57. 57. Site Remediation by SAES: Case studies
  58. 58. 场地调查、风险评估、修复方案制定、工程 监理和工程后评估 RBCA kit、GS+、ArcGIS、BICHLOR、 MODFLOW/MT3D等软件 Royal Haskoning公司:RBCA模型使用 谢菲尔德大学:污染土壤和地下水的风险评 价、修复和管理,模型使用
  59. 59. 世博会场地修复和评估
  60. 60. What We did for EXPO Site Remediation Developed “Standard of Soil Quality Assessment for Exhibition Sites”; Recommended demolish guideline; Investigated and monitored EXPO sites; Developed master plan of soil remediation on EXPO site; Conducted soil remediation; Carried out an after-care program.
  61. 61. 在上海世博园区场地土壤修复中创造了四个第一: 在上海世博园区场地土壤修复中创造了四个第一: 第一次进行了大面积的、以工程为目的的场地污染调查; 第一次进行了大面积的、以工程为目的的场地污染调查; 制定了我国第一部用于污染场地质量评价的标准: 制定了我国第一部用于污染场地质量评价的标准:《展览会 用地土壤环境质量评价标准(暂行)(HJ350-2007) 用地土壤环境质量评价标准(暂行)(HJ350-2007)》; )(HJ350 实施了我国最大规模的土壤修复工程; 实施了我国最大规模的土壤修复工程; 进行了我国最大规模的一次场地风险评价。 进行了我国最大规模的一次场地风险评价。
  62. 62. (一)上海世博园区土壤质量的调查 上海世博园区场地污染调查与监测, 上海世博园区场地污染调查与监测,贯彻整个世博园区土 壤修复的全过程:(1 重点企业土壤污染调查,(2 壤修复的全过程:(1)重点企业土壤污染调查,(2)国 :( ,( 外自建馆的土壤污染调查, 外自建馆的土壤污染调查,和(3)非重点区域场地污染 土壤调查。 土壤调查。 在现场土壤采样、样品运输保存、样品分析、 在现场土壤采样、样品运输保存、样品分析、数据整理和 分析、污染评估等方面积累了丰富经验。 分析、污染评估等方面积累了丰富经验。
  63. 63. Developed site sampling and monitoring methods and demolish guideline Using GPS Deep sampling Geostatistics Demolish guideline to prevent new pollution
  64. 64. (二)世博园区土壤质量评价 制定了我国第一部用于污染场地质量评价的标准: 制定了我国第一部用于污染场地质量评价的标准:中华人 民共和国环境保护行业标准--《 民共和国环境保护行业标准--《展览会用地土壤环境质量 -- 评价标准(暂行)(HJ350-2007) 评价标准(暂行)(HJ350-2007)》,并依据该标准对世 )(HJ350 博园区土壤质量进行了评价,确定了土壤修复指导限值。 博园区土壤质量进行了评价,确定了土壤修复指导限值。
  65. 65. Developed Standard of soil quality for exhibition sites The State EPA issued “Standard of Soil Quality Assessment for Exhibition Sites” on June 15, 2007, effective on August 1, 2007; China has the first criteria of soil quality assessment for SITE.
  66. 66. (三)世博园区土壤土壤修复 制定了“中国2010年上海世博会园区污染土处置项目管理 中国2010 制定了 中国2010年上海世博会园区污染土处置项目管理 大纲”,分三个阶段对世博园区实施了土壤修复和处置。 大纲 ,分三个阶段对世博园区实施了土壤修复和处置。 修复过的场地经第三方监测,土壤各项指标均达到《 修复过的场地经第三方监测,土壤各项指标均达到《展览 会用地土壤环境质量评价标准(暂行)(HJ350-2007) )(HJ350 会用地土壤环境质量评价标准(暂行)(HJ350-2007)》 的要求,可以作为展览馆用地。 的要求,可以作为展览馆用地。 在场地土壤修复、 在场地土壤修复、工程监理和修复后评估方面积累了丰富 经验。 经验。
  67. 67. Dig and dump of high contaiminated soil Off site treatment of Cu-Zn con soils
  68. 68. Off site treatment of SVOC con soils
  69. 69. Stabilization and solidification (S/S)
  70. 70. (四)世博园区场地风险评价 对世博会园区ABCDE五个片区面积为4.46 ABCDE五个片区面积为4.46平方公里 对世博会园区ABCDE五个片区面积为4.46平方公里 区域进行了场地土壤健康风险评估, 区域进行了场地土壤健康风险评估,建立了场地 暴露模型,确定了本土化评估参数。 暴露模型,确定了本土化评估参数。 评估结果表明, 评估结果表明,修复过的世博园区土壤对对参观 人员、管理人员和参展人员没有任何危害风险, 人员、管理人员和参展人员没有任何危害风险, 可以安全使用。 可以安全使用。
  71. 71. 本项目地址-- 本项目地址 广兰路地铁站 当地 当地 当地 地河 河流 河流 河 青桐路 香楠路 当地 地河 地河 地河 SB-5 MW-16 MW-15 地块8 河流 流 广兰路 广兰路 广兰路 广兰路 MW-13 河 流 流 流 SB-1 SB-6 地 现 有 房 地块5 SB-7 MW-12 当 SB-9 DSB-3 地块6 MW-1 现 有 路 面 MW-17 MW-9 • 场地土壤地下水调查监测 MW-7 MW-14 DSB-2 SB-10 路 地块7 • 场地污染评估和健康风险评估 张江中心 地块1 地块2 地块3 地块4 之MW-11 小学 冲 MW-2 MW-3 DSB-1 祖 MW-10 MW-8 SB-11 • 污染土壤及地下水修复方案 SB-4 SB-3 MW-6 • 土壤修复工程(一期)监理 MW-5 土壤修复工程(一期)后评估 MW-4 • 广兰路场地调查、修复和评估
  72. 72. • 场地污染风险评估 • 场地修复技术方案编制 • 修复工程监理和后评估 通用南翔灯泡厂场地污染评估
  73. 73. 环境突发事件引起的土壤污染应急处置 浦东槽车硫酸泄露事故 嘉定化学品倾倒事故 青泽镇污泥违法倾倒事故
  74. 74. 奉贤镇和庄行镇含油污泥违法倾倒事故 广兰路车站场地污染事故 释放恶臭气体的堆场 青浦青东农场污染事故处置
  75. 75. Site Remediation Research in SAES
  76. 76. 以稳定固化技术为核心的技术研发和工程应用 受污染土壤快速阻断与修复技术研究与设备研发(国家863项目) 国家863项目 国家863项目 世博园区原工厂旧址受损土壤修复技术与应用(市科委世博科技专项) 市科委世博科技专项) 世博会城市最佳实践区场地土壤维护工程(上海世博局项目) (上海世博局项目) 青浦区田山庄村建筑垃圾固化利用项目(上海鼓华公司) (上海鼓华公司) DOX-底泥固化体固化性能测试及评估(日本贝律泰睦公司) (日本贝律泰睦公司) Na3T15对疏浚底泥、尾水和土壤中重金属稳定作用研究(韩国原野化工公司) (韩国原野化工公司)
  77. 77. 获得了普适性速凝型固化剂的核心组分 获得了数组高效吸附性固化剂
  78. 78. 建立了固化剂研发和性能测试的技术方法 形态、结构和性能的研究手段 固化剂性能的测试和表征方法 稳定固化机理研究也比较深入
  79. 79. TCLP浸出测试 1800 150 Cu Pb 1500 Cd 120 重金属形态分级测试(BCR提取法) 重金属浓度(ug) 1200 重金属浓度(ug) 90 碳酸盐结合态 铁锰氧化物结合态 氧化态 900 残渣态 100% 60 600 80% 30 300 Zn形态含量百分比 60% 0 0 5 .2 5 0 2 4 6 8 稳定剂添加量 (%) 40% 5 .2 0 20% 浸出液pH值 5 .1 5 0% CK 1 2 3 4 5 .1 05 6 底泥样品 5 .0 5 5 .0 0 0 2 4 6 8 稳 定 剂 添 加 量 (% )
  80. 80. 扫描电镜分析(SEM) 傅立叶转换红外光谱(FTIR)分析 100 50000 X射线衍射(XRD)分析 1 高岭石 80 40000 2 1%STA 2 石英 3 正长石 4 钠长石 50000 30000 强度 60 2 1 高岭石 透射率 1636 2 石英 O 40000 空白土壤 3437 v1+v3 H2O v2 H2 3 正长石 1420 20000 2- 776 40 4 钠长石 v3 CO3 石英 2 30000 10000 3 2 强度 552 2 2 22 2 1 2- v4 SiO4 4 2 2 2 20000 20 空白 1030 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1%添加量 v1+v3 SiO4 50000 468 2- 10%添加量 v2 SiO4 2- 2倍衍射角 1 高岭石 2 2 10000 0 3 3600 2 2 230002 2400 2 1800 2 40000 1200 600 10%STA 2 石英 3 正长石 1 4 2 2 2 0 波数(cm-1) 4 钠长石 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 30000 强度 2倍衍射角 不同STA添加量土壤的FTIR光谱 20000 2 10000 2 2 22 2 2 1 3 4 2 2 2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 2倍衍射角
  81. 81. 配备了稳定固化技术研发的专业设备
  82. 82. 土 单 壤 轴 粉 搅 碎 拌 机 机 球磨机 翻转振荡机 TCLP翻转振荡机 低湿电子干燥柜 标 准 振 振 筛 恒 动 机 温 台 干 燥 压力试验机 箱 压滤机 万能液压试验机
  83. 83. 启动了土壤稳定固化模块化设备的研发工作
  84. 84. 土壤筛分破碎搅拌斗 固化剂添加系统 履带式拖拉机 振 动 压 混 动力源 合 实 搅 重力碾压轮 拌 土壤筛分破碎过程 螺旋取土构件 装 装 置 置 回填装置 边缘切刀 开沟机 土壤铣刀 原土 回填压实固化土 污染土壤快速固化一体化集成设备设计简图 挖掘沟槽
  85. 85. 所开发的稳定固化剂已在世博会城市最佳实践区 场地修复工程中得到成功应用
  86. 86. S/S based Projects conducted by SAES 池塘生态重建 河岸护坡 尾矿 村镇建筑垃圾 城市建筑垃圾 路面固化 固化水渠 海岸护堤
  87. 87. Pavement made by Ore tailing (2007),Nanjing Meishan Iron Ore Mine
  88. 88. Construction garbage reused by Stabilization and solidification (S/S)
  89. 89. Sediments reused by (S/S) in Haining, Zhejiang Province
  90. 90. S/S based ecological engineering
  91. 91. END Just Started, Not Perfect, Need to Improve a Lot, Will be Better.
  92. 92. Thank you for your attention !
  93. 93. Shanghai Forum for Revitalization of Contaminated Properties Shanghai Forum for Revitalization of Contaminated Properties June 23, 2009 The Sustainable Approach to Environmental Remediation Tao Wu tao.wu@honeywell.com
  94. 94. Honeywell.com Sustainability • What does this really mean? • Idea of “Sustainability” or “Sustainable Development” from the UN’s 1987 Brundtland Report: – Environmental protection will not be sustained unless it is coordinated with economic development – Our natural resource base is finite, and we must re-think and re-engineer development to preserve that resource base for ourselves and future generations – Communities/stakeholders should be deeply engaged in environmental decisions to make the results sustainable 2 Honeywell Proprietary
  95. 95. Honeywell.com Honeywell’s Sustainable Opportunities Policy: By integrating health, safety and environmental considerations into all aspects of our business ... – We actively promote and develop opportunities for expanding sustainable capacity by increasing fuel efficiency, improving security and safety, and reducing emissions of harmful pollutants. – We identify, control and endeavor to reduce emissions, waste and inefficient use of resources and energy. – We are open with stakeholders and work within our communities to advance laws, regulation and practices that safeguard the public … These are our commitments to health, safety, and the environment, and to creating Sustainable Opportunity everywhere we operate. 3 Honeywell Proprietary
  96. 96. Honeywell.com Sustainable Development • Redevelopment and/or reuse of contaminated properties is the optimal way to make an environmental remediation (remedy) sustainable. • A sustainable remedy has the best opportunity for satisfying stakeholders and communities. • Sustainable remedies have highest likelihood of success. 4 Honeywell Proprietary
  97. 97. Honeywell.com Redevelopment and Reuse • Why does redevelopment and reuse work? – Links environmental protection and economic development – Preserves finite natural resources – Involves affected stakeholders • The new frontiers for the sustainability – It’s the climate, – Brown to green – The urban planning approach 5 Honeywell Proprietary
  98. 98. Honeywell.com Redevelopment and Reuse • Case studies – Syracuse, NY – Baltimore Inner Harbor, MD – Jersey City, NJ 6 Honeywell Proprietary
  99. 99. Honeywell.com Syracuse, NY Renewable Fuels Town of Town of Van Van Liverpoo Buren Liverpoo Buren ll Honeywell Willow T To To edd n of s To edd n of s ow To ed G w lllu Demonstration G w u wn ow d wn es wn es Toami n To mil Ca C of n o es of n o s T ed of of S G Sa ff G w de all iin naa Onondag Onondag a Lake a Lake Ninemile Ninemile Creek Creek k ree yC Le e cu s s e cu a rra Sy Sy NYS Shrub Fairground Willow Farm s West Flume Carouse l Mall LCP Geddes Geddes Mathews Brook Brook Former Metro Ave Main Plant 7 Honeywell Proprietary
  100. 100. Honeywell.com Syracuse, NY Renewable Fuels Project Approach 8 Honeywell Proprietary
  101. 101. Honeywell.com Syracuse, NY Renewable Fuels Project Approach 9 Honeywell Proprietary
  102. 102. Honeywell.com Syracuse, NY Renewable Fuels Project Approach 10 Honeywell Proprietary
  103. 103. Honeywell.com Syracuse, NY Renewable Fuels Project Approach Walking Trails Wildlife Viewing Areas Saltwater Marsh Shrub Willow Stands Varied Berm Planting 11 Honeywell Proprietary
  104. 104. Honeywell.com Syracuse, NY Renewable Fuels Project Approach • So, Linking – Environmental & economic improvements – Preserving & enhancing resources – Deep engagement with affected community – Climate – Brown to Green 12 Honeywell Proprietary
  105. 105. Honeywell.com Baltimore Inner Harbor, MD Project Location Site 13 Honeywell Proprietary
  106. 106. Honeywell.com Baltimore Inner Harbor, MD 14 Honeywell Proprietary
  107. 107. Honeywell.com Baltimore Inner Harbor, MD 15 Honeywell Proprietary
  108. 108. Honeywell.com Baltimore Inner Harbor, MD 16 Honeywell Proprietary
  109. 109. Honeywell.com Baltimore Inner Harbor, MD 17 Honeywell Proprietary
  110. 110. Honeywell.com Baltimore Inner Harbor, MD • So, Linking – Environmental & economic improvements – Preserving & enhancing resources – Deep engagement with affected community – Brown to Green 18 Honeywell Proprietary
  111. 111. Honeywell.com Jersey City, NJ Project Location 19 Honeywell Proprietary
  112. 112. Honeywell.com Jersey City, NJ 100 Acres Along The Hackensack River 20 Honeywell Proprietary
  113. 113. Honeywell.com Jersey City, NJ Connected to the rest of City through an Proposed Layout Showing Green Space extension of the existing Light Rail Walkway Along the Hackensack River 21 Honeywell Proprietary
  114. 114. Honeywell.com Jersey City, NJ • So, Linking – Environmental & economic improvements – Preserving & enhancing resources – Deep engagement with affected community – Brown to Green – The urban planning approach 22 Honeywell Proprietary
  115. 115. Honeywell.com Sustainability = Success • Redevelopment and reuse is what will truly make an environmental cleanup sustainable – Resource conservation – Coordinate Economic/Environmental development – Working with impacted communities on clean up and end use • Redevelopment and reuse encourage the kind of growth we want and need for a sustainable future: – Smart growth development that concentrates spaces to live, work, play and commute, optimizes energy efficiency, and preserves open space • Redevelopment and/or reuse should make the sustainability link more explicit by encouraging renewable energy, green buildings and brownfield area planning • Sustainable remedies key to best lifecycle remedy: if it’s sustainable, everyone will have a stake in making it work for the long run 23 Honeywell Proprietary
  116. 116. Review of Contaminated Land Environmental Liabilities in China 中国的污染场地的环境责任 Charles R. McElwee, II cmcelwee@ssd.com Squire, Sanders & Dempsey, LLP 美国翰宇律师事务所 Shanghai, China SQUIRE, SANDERS & DEMPSEY L.L.P.
  117. 117. General Proposition: Polluter pays Environmental Protection Law (Article 41): A unit that has caused an environmental pollution hazard shall have the obligation to eliminate it and make compensation to the unit or individual that suffered direct losses. SQUIRE, SANDERS & DEMPSEY L.L.P.
  118. 118. 一般提议:由污染者买单 中华人民共和国环境保护法 (第四十一条): 造成环境污染危害的,有责任排除危害,并对直接 受到损害的单位或者个人赔偿损失。 赔偿责任和赔偿金额的纠纷,可以根据当事人的请 求,由环境保护行政主管部门或者其他依照法律规 定行使环境监督管理权的部门处理;当事人对处理 决定不服的,可以向人民法院起诉。当事人也可以 直接向人民法院起诉。 SQUIRE, SANDERS & DEMPSEY L.L.P.
  119. 119. On-Site Contamination • Very few provisions of Chinese law address responsibility for investigation or remediation of on-site contamination. • Those that do generally only impose obligations when the ownership/control or use of property changes. SQUIRE, SANDERS & DEMPSEY L.L.P.
  120. 120. 现场污染 • 中国法律很少有规定涉及现场污染的调 查或补救责任。 • 有此规定的法律一般仅在财产所有权/控 制权或使用权变更时才附加义务。 SQUIRE, SANDERS & DEMPSEY L.L.P.
  121. 121. Regulation on Discarded Hazardous Chemicals (effective 2005/10/01) Article 14: "In case any entity that undertakes the production, storage or use of hazardous chemicals changes its line of production, stops production, stop business operation or dissolves, it shall . . . in light of the relevant state standards and criterions on environmental protection, test the soil and underground water around the factory, compile environmental risk assessment report, and report its findings to the relevant EPB." SQUIRE, SANDERS & DEMPSEY L.L.P.
  122. 122. 废弃危险化学品污染环境防治办法 (实施日期 2005/10/01) 第十四条: 危险化学品的生产、储存、使用单位转产、 停产、停业或者解散的,应当按照《危险化学品安全 管理条例》有关规定对危险化学品的生产或者储存设 备、库存产品及生产原料进行妥善处置,并按照国家 有关环境保护标准和规范,对厂区的土壤和地下水进 行检测,编制环境风险评估报告,报县级以上环境保 护部门备案。 对场地造成污染的,应当将环境恢复方案报经县级以 上环境保护部门同意后,在环境保护部门规定的期限 内对污染场地进行环境恢复。对污染场地完成环境恢 复后,应当委托环境保护检测机构对恢复后的场地进 行检测,并将检测报告报县级以上环境保护部门备案。 SQUIRE, SANDERS & DEMPSEY L.L.P.
  123. 123. Notice on Duly Carrying Out the Work Associated With the Prevention and Treatment of Environmental Pollution During Enterprise Relocation (2004/06/01) • Enterprises & Laboratories that produce hazardous waste cease production or nature of operations changes: – Arrange for soil sampling – Responsible for controlling & rehabilitating the usage and function of soil SQUIRE, SANDERS & DEMPSEY L.L.P.
  124. 124. 关于切实做好企业搬迁过程中环 境污染防治工作的通知(2004/06/01) • 生产有害废物的企业和实验室停止生产 或者经营性质变更: – 安排土壤采样 – 负责控制和恢复土壤的使用及功能 SQUIRE, SANDERS & DEMPSEY L.L.P.
  125. 125. Solid Waste Law (Article 35) • If a unit where industrial solid waste is generated need to be terminated, it shall, in advance, take measures to prevent and control pollution from the facilities and grounds for storage or treatment of industrial solid waste and make proper arrangements in respect of the untreated industrial solid waste to prevent environmental pollution. • Where the parties before the change is made have agreed otherwise in respect of their responsibilities for prevention and control of pollution by industrial solid waste and by the facilities and grounds for its storage and treatment, their agreement shall prevail; but they shall not thus be relieved of their duty to prevent and control pollution. • The expenses for safe treatment of the industrial solid waste that has been left untreated by the unit terminated before implementation of this Law and for safe treatment of the facilities and grounds for storage or treatment of such waste shall be borne by the people's government concerned; but if the land use right enjoyed by such unit has been transferred according to law, the said expenses shall be borne by the transferee of the said right. If the parties have agreed otherwise, their agreement shall prevail; but they shall not thus be relieved of their duty to prevent and control pollution. SQUIRE, SANDERS & DEMPSEY L.L.P.
  126. 126. 固体废物污染环境防治法(第三十五条) • 产生工业固体废物的单位需要终止的,应当事先对工业固体废物 的贮存、处置的设施、场所采取污染防治措施,并对未处置的工 业固体废物作出妥善处置,防止污染环境。 • 产生工业固体废物的单位发生变更的,变更后的单位应当按照国 家有关环境保护的规定对未处置的工业固体废物及其贮存、处置 的设施、场所进行安全处置或者采取措施保证该设施、场所安全 运行。变更前当事人对工业固体废物及其贮存、处置的设施、场 所的污染防治责任另有约定的,从其约定;但是,不得免除当事 人的污染防治义务。 • 对本法施行前已经终止的单位未处置的工业固体废物及其贮存、 处置的设施、场所进行安全处置的费用,由有关人民政府承担; 但是,该单位享有的土地使用权依法转让的,应当由土地使用权 受让人承担处置费用。当事人另有约定的,从其约定;但是,不 得免除当事人的污染防治义务。 SQUIRE, SANDERS & DEMPSEY L.L.P.
  127. 127. Potential Liabilities of Purchaser • Criminal • Administrative • Civil (third-party) SQUIRE, SANDERS & DEMPSEY L.L.P.
  128. 128. 买方的潜在责任 • 刑事责任 • 行政责任 • 民事责任(第三方) SQUIRE, SANDERS & DEMPSEY L.L.P.
  129. 129. Criminal • Unlikely unless significant off-site property damage or personal injury occurs in a sudden manner SQUIRE, SANDERS & DEMPSEY L.L.P.
  130. 130. 刑事责任 • 除非突发重大非现场财产损害或人身伤 害,否则不会承担刑事责任 SQUIRE, SANDERS & DEMPSEY L.L.P.
  131. 131. Administrative • Probably won’t be asked to clean up until one of regulations above triggered or off- site migration is beginning to present problems for adjacent property owners. SQUIRE, SANDERS & DEMPSEY L.L.P.
  132. 132. 行政责任 • 除非上述法规有此规定或者场外迁移对 相邻财产所有人造成干扰,否则可能不 会被要求进行清理。 SQUIRE, SANDERS & DEMPSEY L.L.P.
  133. 133. Civil (third-party) • Most likely of three – Nuisance action – Property Damage/Personal Injury Claims SQUIRE, SANDERS & DEMPSEY L.L.P.
  134. 134. 民事责任(第三方) • 最有可能的三种诉讼 – 排除妨碍之诉 – 财产损害/人身伤害之诉 SQUIRE, SANDERS & DEMPSEY L.L.P.
  135. 135. Buyer’s Options at Transfer Option Benefits Disadvantages Establish fund paid Assures a certain sum will be Difficult to agree upon the for by seller to pay for available for any future clean- size of fund and scope of future liabilities up obligations coverage Negotiate reduction in Assures that a quantifiable May be difficult to purchase price to benefit has been obtained to negotiate a meaningful cover future liabilities offset any future clean-up reduction obligations Negotiation with Defines risk more accurately May be difficult to government to define negotiate, and enforce liability going forward understanding with government Ask seller to clean up Eliminates liability; may be May be difficult to sites as condition of suitable for small scale manage, and will delay sale problems solvable with close of deal “excavation” SQUIRE, SANDERS & DEMPSEY L.L.P.
  136. 136. 在出售时的买房的选择 方式 优势 劣势 建立由卖方出资的基 确保有一定资金可用 难以商定基金的规模 金,以备将来承担责 来在将来履行清理义 以及适用范围 任 务 协商减少购买价格, 确保取得具体数量的 可能难以就可行的降 以虑及将来的责任风 优惠,以抵消将来的 价进行协商 险 任何清理责任 与政府部门进行协 更准确地界定风险 可能难以与政府部门 商,以界定将来的责 进行协商并达成谅解 任 要求卖方清理现场, 消除责任;适用于可 可能难以管理,并将 作为销售条件 通过“挖掘”解决的 导致成交迟延 小问题。 SQUIRE, SANDERS & DEMPSEY L.L.P.
  137. 137. cmcelwee@ssd.com SQUIRE, SANDERS & DEMPSEY L.L.P.
  138. 138. REMEDIATION Summer 2009 Sustainable Remediation White Paper—Integrating Sustainable Principles, Practices, and Metrics Into Remediation Projects David E. Ellis Paul W. Hadley 1.0 INTRODUCTION The remediation industry was born in the late 1970s, following a steady stream of highly publicized discoveries of toxic chemicals in landfills, drinking water, and even neighborhoods. The government responded to these discoveries of environmental contamination. Environmental laws were passed at the state and national level, and programs were created within environmental regulatory agencies to oversee and sometimes fund the cleanups. Industry and consultants kept pace by hiring staff, building programs, and initiating cleanups. The remediation industry was off at a sprint before it had learned to crawl. With the public demand for swift and sometimes immediate cleanups, responsible parties and the remediation industry invested heavily in energy-intensive engineered projects, such as groundwater pump-and-treat systems, soil excavation and off-site disposal, incineration, and thermal treatment. The public’s attitude was that no cleanup could be initiated soon enough or implemented fast enough. While such energy-intensive remediation systems are well intended, they generally have not achieved acceptable cleanup levels (National Research Council [NRC], 2005). These energy-intensive engineered remedies frequently cannot overcome the basic technical limitations encountered when recovering contaminants from the environment once the contaminants are widespread and dilute. As a result, most engineered groundwater remediation systems reach a certain concentration and go no further regardless of the energy expended. The concentration that can be reached is often far higher than the cleanup level. Within the last ten years, a growing body of information suggests that global climate change can be correlated with fossil fuel use and carbon dioxide releases into the atmosphere. As members of the broader environmental industry, remediation experts are well aware of this concern and have firsthand knowledge of the potential contribution of energy-intensive remediation systems to global climate change. For example, at one remediation project in New Jersey, it was estimated that the difference between two proposed remedies could be as high as 2 percent of the annual greenhouse gas emissions c 2009 U.S. Sustainable Remediation Forum Published online in Wiley Interscience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/rem.20210 5

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