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Using Rheology to Solve an Applications Problem for Process Control or Quality Assurance. By:  John Casola , Malvern Instr...
Review Some General Processes <ul><li>Paint </li></ul><ul><li>Epoxy </li></ul><ul><li>Coating  </li></ul><ul><li>This disc...
Paint Shear Stress (Pa) or  Shear Rate (s-1)  Viscosity (Pa . s Hard to apply / Poor Coverage Splatter /  Poor Coverage St...
Epoxy time (s) or Temperature ( o C) Viscosity (Pa . s Modulus  G’   G”  (Pa) Initial Viscosity Minimum Viscosity Gel-Cure...
Paper Coating Viscosity (Pa . s Shear Rate (s-1) A B C D Rate at Blade / Nip Film thickness Dry time
Outline of this discussion <ul><li>Background and need: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The existing procedures are not good enough....
What is the problem? <ul><li>Equi-viscous method to determine Mix & Compaction temperatures has been used for many years a...
Why a new method? <ul><li>Equi-viscous method to determine Mix & Compaction temperatures has been used for many years and ...
Why a new method? <ul><li>Equi-viscous method to determine Mix & Compaction temperatures has been used for many years and ...
Equi-Viscous Method  (rotational viscosity or Brookfield test) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 1 10 5 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 ...
Modified have significantly different temperature susceptibility Modified  Neat 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 1 10 5 100 110 120 130 140...
First step, what are the samples <ul><li>1. Select a range of typical asphalt binders. </li></ul><ul><li>Including both ne...
Asphalt Binders In the Test Plan Polymer modified grade unmodified grade B -40 C E A -34 I O D -28 M, N G,H,L F -22 J -16 ...
Asphalts Tested Air Blown All these asphalt binders have the same modulus at the TruGrade Un-Modified     Modified  
2 nd  Step,  What is the correct answer.  <ul><li>2. Experimentally , determine working values for Mixing & Compaction on ...
Mix Coating Tests <ul><li>Lab Pugmill Mixer and Bucket Mixer to simulate Batch Plant and Drum Plant Mixing </li></ul><ul><...
Mix Workability Test
Mix Compactability <ul><li>Four compaction temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Use SGC at low gyrations to amplify effect of bi...
The Plan; Clear Vision of the Goal <ul><li>3. Use Rheology to develop an empirical index which relates to the Mixing & Com...
3 rd , Identify the Correct Property <ul><li>What do we know about the process?  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixing of rocks & s...
Viscosity at 135 o C Newtonian Behavior is Predominate
Viscosity at 100 o C Some of the Modified begin to show Non-Newtonian Behavior
4 th , Data Comparisons to Establish a Ranking <ul><li>Identify a threshold for comparison </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency...
Dynamic Shear Rheology  Comparing 2 Binders;  Neat vs. Modified
Actual Rheological Results
Asphalt A  Time Temperature Superposition to 80 o C
Sample A  Identify Freq at Phase of 86 o  at a Temperature of 80 o C
Sample A Freq = 118.45rad/sec  Phase = 86.06 o   Temp = 80 o C
Asphalt B Freq = 1.100   Phase = 86.08  Temp = 80C
Asphalt C Freq = 0.206035   Phase = 85.98  Temp = 80C
Asphalt D Freq=122.563  Phase=85.98  Temp=80C
Asphalt E Freq= 37.85   Phase= 86.17  Temp= 80C
Asphalt F Freq =  74.57   Phase = 86.3  Temp = 80C
Asphalt G Freq = 0.0265   Phase = 85.96  Temp = 80C
Asphalt H Freq = 0.2206   Phase = 86.1  Temp = 80C
Asphalt I Freq = 2.975   Phase = 86.05  Temp = 80C
Asphalt  J Freq=565.2rad/sec  Phase=85.97 o  Temp=80C
Sample K Freq = 800   Phase = 86  Temp = 80C
Asphalt M Freq = 0.0684   Phase = 85.9  Temp = 80C
Comparison of ranking Indicated we had the right approach Un-Modified     Modified  
Created Mix Temperature Chart  Freq at Phase of 86 o  vs. Experimental Temp Results
Identify a model fit
Model the relationship  <ul><li>Mixing  Temperature  (ºF)  =  325 ω -0.0135 </li></ul><ul><li>Compaction Temperature (ºF) ...
Predicted Mix & Compaction Temperatures
The Procedure…AASHTO & ASTM
Thank you for your interest & time   Questions! <ul><ul><li>John Casola   (US based) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(+1) 973-7...
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Using Rheology To Solve An Application Problem 3.3.2009

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Using rheology to determine a process control parameter or for quality control/assurance

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  • Transcript of "Using Rheology To Solve An Application Problem 3.3.2009"

    1. 1. Using Rheology to Solve an Applications Problem for Process Control or Quality Assurance. By: John Casola , Malvern Instruments & Dr. Randy West , National Center for Asphalt Technology At Auburn University (NCAT)
    2. 2. Review Some General Processes <ul><li>Paint </li></ul><ul><li>Epoxy </li></ul><ul><li>Coating </li></ul><ul><li>This discussion will detail the solution for </li></ul><ul><li>Asphalt Hot Mix </li></ul>
    3. 3. Paint Shear Stress (Pa) or Shear Rate (s-1) Viscosity (Pa . s Hard to apply / Poor Coverage Splatter / Poor Coverage Stipple Orange Peel Running Dripping Rheological Index A B C
    4. 4. Epoxy time (s) or Temperature ( o C) Viscosity (Pa . s Modulus G’ G” (Pa) Initial Viscosity Minimum Viscosity Gel-Cure Time/Temp Ultimate Modulus
    5. 5. Paper Coating Viscosity (Pa . s Shear Rate (s-1) A B C D Rate at Blade / Nip Film thickness Dry time
    6. 6. Outline of this discussion <ul><li>Background and need: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The existing procedures are not good enough. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A single reliable method is required. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The problem: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate coating of the aggregate with asphalt binder is required & knowing how to get proper compaction density. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needed are process control variables which are difficult to determine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different asphalts perform differently. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Go over the steps to develop a solution. </li></ul>
    7. 7. What is the problem? <ul><li>Equi-viscous method to determine Mix & Compaction temperatures has been used for many years and works well with neat, unmodified asphalt binders. </li></ul>0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 1 10 5 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Temperature,  C Viscosity, Pa  s Compaction Range Mixing Range
    8. 8. Why a new method? <ul><li>Equi-viscous method to determine Mix & Compaction temperatures has been used for many years and works well with neat, unmodified asphalt binders. </li></ul><ul><li>However, engineered binders which are modified mostly with polymers are not as easy to predict with this method. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Why a new method? <ul><li>Equi-viscous method to determine Mix & Compaction temperatures has been used for many years and works well with neat, unmodified asphalt binders. </li></ul><ul><li>However, engineered binders which are modified mostly with polymers are not as easy to predict with this method. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, using the equi-viscous method generally over predicts the temperatures which would cause over heating of the liquid asphalt binder, destroying the polymers along with the beneficial properties they impart in the product. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Equi-Viscous Method (rotational viscosity or Brookfield test) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 1 10 5 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Temperature,  C Viscosity, Pa  s Compaction Range Mixing Range
    11. 11. Modified have significantly different temperature susceptibility Modified Neat 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 1 10 5 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Temperature,  C Viscosity, Pa  s Compaction Range Mixing Range
    12. 12. First step, what are the samples <ul><li>1. Select a range of typical asphalt binders. </li></ul><ul><li>Including both neat (with out polymers) and modified (with polymers). </li></ul><ul><li>Polymers include Styrene, Butadiene, Latex rubber, & Wax (SBS, SBR, Saso) </li></ul><ul><li>Others types of modification included Poly Phosphoric Acid (PPA) & Oxidation to stiffen the asphalt. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Asphalt Binders In the Test Plan Polymer modified grade unmodified grade B -40 C E A -34 I O D -28 M, N G,H,L F -22 J -16 K -10 PG 82 PG 76 PG 70 PG 64 PG 58 PG 52 Temp Range (C)
    14. 14. Asphalts Tested Air Blown All these asphalt binders have the same modulus at the TruGrade Un-Modified     Modified  
    15. 15. 2 nd Step, What is the correct answer. <ul><li>2. Experimentally , determine working values for Mixing & Compaction on the selected asphalt binders. This was performed at NCAT using various methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem – experimental tests & methods working with Hot Mix are very variable and operator dependent. Multiple tests were performed in order to determine minimum & maximum working range. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Mix Coating Tests <ul><li>Lab Pugmill Mixer and Bucket Mixer to simulate Batch Plant and Drum Plant Mixing </li></ul><ul><li>Mix binders with a standard aggregate blend at four temperatures for a set time </li></ul><ul><li>Rate aggregate coating percentage </li></ul>Temperature Percent Coating
    17. 17. Mix Workability Test
    18. 18. Mix Compactability <ul><li>Four compaction temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Use SGC at low gyrations to amplify effect of binder stiffness </li></ul>Temperature Compaction Resistance Binder A Binder B Binder C known
    19. 19. The Plan; Clear Vision of the Goal <ul><li>3. Use Rheology to develop an empirical index which relates to the Mixing & Compaction temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem. Wide range </li></ul><ul><li>of viscosity & modulus. </li></ul>Common Modulus A at 10rad/sec Common Modulus B Polymer modified grade unmodified grade B -40 C E A -34 I O D -28 M, N G,H,L F -22 J -16 K -10 82 76 70 64 58 52 Temp Range
    20. 20. 3 rd , Identify the Correct Property <ul><li>What do we know about the process? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixing of rocks & stones with addition of liquid asphalt. (Shear & Frequency) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viscosity controls neat binders but not polymer modified binders. (Elasticity) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What exhibits the greatest difference between samples? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High temps, viscosity & modulus behave the same for similar binders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visco-elastic spectra differs greatly. (Phase Angle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to see at lower temperatures. </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Viscosity at 135 o C Newtonian Behavior is Predominate
    22. 22. Viscosity at 100 o C Some of the Modified begin to show Non-Newtonian Behavior
    23. 23. 4 th , Data Comparisons to Establish a Ranking <ul><li>Identify a threshold for comparison </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency & Phase angle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Time-Temperature Superposition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A clear point where the material is no longer Newtonian. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phase equals 86 o. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Correlate to actual Lab Mix performance Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine a simple empirical model </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Dynamic Shear Rheology Comparing 2 Binders; Neat vs. Modified
    25. 25. Actual Rheological Results
    26. 26. Asphalt A Time Temperature Superposition to 80 o C
    27. 27. Sample A Identify Freq at Phase of 86 o at a Temperature of 80 o C
    28. 28. Sample A Freq = 118.45rad/sec Phase = 86.06 o Temp = 80 o C
    29. 29. Asphalt B Freq = 1.100 Phase = 86.08 Temp = 80C
    30. 30. Asphalt C Freq = 0.206035 Phase = 85.98 Temp = 80C
    31. 31. Asphalt D Freq=122.563 Phase=85.98 Temp=80C
    32. 32. Asphalt E Freq= 37.85 Phase= 86.17 Temp= 80C
    33. 33. Asphalt F Freq = 74.57 Phase = 86.3 Temp = 80C
    34. 34. Asphalt G Freq = 0.0265 Phase = 85.96 Temp = 80C
    35. 35. Asphalt H Freq = 0.2206 Phase = 86.1 Temp = 80C
    36. 36. Asphalt I Freq = 2.975 Phase = 86.05 Temp = 80C
    37. 37. Asphalt J Freq=565.2rad/sec Phase=85.97 o Temp=80C
    38. 38. Sample K Freq = 800 Phase = 86 Temp = 80C
    39. 39. Asphalt M Freq = 0.0684 Phase = 85.9 Temp = 80C
    40. 40. Comparison of ranking Indicated we had the right approach Un-Modified     Modified  
    41. 41. Created Mix Temperature Chart Freq at Phase of 86 o vs. Experimental Temp Results
    42. 42. Identify a model fit
    43. 43. Model the relationship <ul><li>Mixing Temperature (ºF) = 325 ω -0.0135 </li></ul><ul><li>Compaction Temperature (ºF) = 287 ω -0.012 </li></ul>
    44. 44. Predicted Mix & Compaction Temperatures
    45. 45. The Procedure…AASHTO & ASTM
    46. 46. Thank you for your interest & time Questions! <ul><ul><li>John Casola (US based) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(+1) 973-740-1543 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final report to be released for Project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NCHRP 9-39 from the US Federal Government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.malvern.com (Education)(On-Demand) </li></ul></ul>

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