1Inspections Processes of Microchip Manufacturing              By John S. Watson
2                                                                        ContentsIntroduction ...............................
3                                               Introduction Microchips are silicon wafers onto which microscopic versions...
4                                       Manufacturing ProcessBulk micromachining is a fabrication technique tobuild elemen...
5                   Example Material Faults in Chip ManufacturingThe two material faults that occur in microchip manufactu...
6                 Solid Materials Inspection by Electron MicroscopeScanning Electron MicroscopyScanning electron microscop...
7               Solid and Gaseous Materials Inspection by IR SpectroscopyFourier Transform Infrared SpectroscopyFourier Tr...
8                                                    YieldMicrochip manufacturing is a very complicated process that often...
9
10                                                GlossaryBatch process: The collection of processes that produces a set a...
11Molecular Vibration: The molecular motion unique to the molecular structure of a material (World ofChemistry).This motio...
12                                           BibliographyBhattacharya, Pallab. Semiconductor Opto-electronic Devices. Pren...
13New Hampshire Materials labratory, INC. . "New Hampshire Materials Labratory INC. ." 1 4 2000. Fouier      Transform Inf...
14                                          About The Author                                                   John S. Wat...
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Inspections Processes Of Microchip Manufacturing

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This is the rewrite of graduate level paper I wrote on methods of inspection for semiconductor materials

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Inspections Processes Of Microchip Manufacturing

  1. 1. 1Inspections Processes of Microchip Manufacturing By John S. Watson
  2. 2. 2 ContentsIntroduction .................................................................................................................................................. 3Manufacturing Process ................................................................................................................................. 4Example Material Faults in Chip Manufacturing........................................................................................... 5Solid Materials Inspection by Electron Microscope...................................................................................... 6Solid and Gaseous Materials Inspection by IR Spectroscopy............................................................. 7Yield............................................................................................................................................................... 8Glossary ....................................................................................................................................................... 10Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................ 12About The Author ....................................................................................................................................... 14List of illustrations 1. Bulk Machining process 2. Material defect examples 3. Image of Particle enlarged through use of an electron microscope 4. Electron microscope used for semiconductor inspection 5. Parts of an IR Inspection unit 6. Flow plan for passing product 7. Flow path plan for failing product 8. Infrared Led 9. Electro Magnetic Spectrum 9 10. Wavelength
  3. 3. 3 Introduction Microchips are silicon wafers onto which microscopic versions of electronic components are etched to make up complex interconnected circuitry. These are manufactured of semiconductor material. The manufacturing process often involves multiple points where inspection is strategically checked to collect information that contributes to a yield forecast. A material is judged as a conductor or insulator by how easily electrons are shared or travel among its atoms. Electrons shared among atoms are called free electrons. An atom is a delicately balanced system of the forces that act upon electrons, neutrons, and protons. Neutrons and protons only exist in the nucleus. Electrons orbit the nucleus on the valance shells. Conductors such as copper have a small amount of electrons on the outer valance shell and therefore release electrons easily to travel among atoms. Insulators such as glass have too many electrons in the outer valance shell for electrons to be released easily. Semiconductors are a middle ground in these categories. I agree with the definition that they are neither good nor bad conductors, but this definition is vague. Actually, other than microchips, these materials are normally used to make components such as diodes, and thyristors. Such components can be placed in a conditioned environment that causes them to act as conductors or semiconductors. (Stutz Quantum Physics ) Manufactures judge the efficiency of a chip manufacturing process upon three factors (Spanos 7):  High volume which allows production of the needed volume per day.  Process design which is the engineering of how manufacturing processes act together.  Circuit design which is the function and the layout of the micro-components inside of the chips. Electronic function tests and materials inspection make sure the standards of the circuit design process are met.In this report I intend to mention information about:  A chip manufacturing process known as bulk micromachining  The inspection of microchip material using Electron Microscopy  The inspection of microchip material using Infrared Microscopy  The yield from a manufacturing process.
  4. 4. 4 Manufacturing ProcessBulk micromachining is a fabrication technique tobuild elements of interconnected electronic circuitryby etching away unwanted parts of a silicon waferleaving useful patterns of circuitry in the material.After this process is complete photo patterningcoats the left over material with a protective layer.The final product is then submerged into a liquidetchant such as potassium hydroxide to removeexposed silicon. Figure 1 is an example of a chipmanufacturing process that could use bulkmicromachining. This process can also be used tomake Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) chips. These are microscopic machine systems usedmostly in motion sensing applications. To make these products with bulk machining, mechanical sensorsare manufactured in place of the interconnected circuitry (Mcwhorter). This motion sensing device can beconnected to electronic circuitry forming a system that functions in reaction to sensed motion. The qualityoutput from a manufacturing process is the reason many chip manufacturing companies are continuallychosen for new contracts.
  5. 5. 5 Example Material Faults in Chip ManufacturingThe two material faults that occur in microchip manufacturing are material defects and contaminateparticles (Spanos 29). Material defects are deformations in material structure such as interconnectedpattering and mask misalignment (see figure 2 for examples of these defaults).Contaminate particles are any foreign substance on or embedded in semiconductor material averagingless than 0.50 a micron or 0.000020 of an inch in size. 50,000 units of this measurement is the length ofan inch. They are normally deposited on the surface of oxygen inside of semiconductor material duringmanufacturing by contact with people, material handling and process chambers. Clean rooms have airfiltrations systems to limit particle contamination but it does not prevent it 100%. Figure 3 is an example ofa particle magnified using an electron microscope.Examples of faults such as these and others can also be detected by means of Infrared spectroscopy.Infrared spectroscopy can also detect particles in the air prior to polluting material.
  6. 6. 6 Solid Materials Inspection by Electron MicroscopeScanning Electron MicroscopyScanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used for high resolution imaging of surfaces. It is often combinedwith an energy dispersive x-ray spectrum (EDS) examination to measure chemical quantities. Electronmicroscopy forms a three dimensional image of a surface viewed on a monitor. This image is a magnifiedreflection scanned by use of an electron beam onto the inside surface of the monitor. The resolution ofthis image is measured in nanometers or one thousandth of a micron. This measurement is 0.000000040of an inch which can also be written as of an inch. units of this measurement is thelength of 1 inch (Materials Evaluation and Engineering (MEE), Inc. 37-40). An example electronicmicroscope produced by Joules USA is pictured in figure 2.Materials Inspection Applications for SEM (Materials Evaluation and Engineering (MEE), Inc. 37-40)  Thin coating evaluations (Examples of this can be verified by IR spectroscopy)  Surface contamination examination (Examples of this can be verified by IR spectroscopy)  Examination of microchip damage after electronics function test failure (Examples of this can be verified by use IR Spectroscopy)Materials Inspection for Applications for EDS  Foreign material analysis (Examples of this can be verified by IR spectroscopy)  Coating composition analysis  Rapid material alloy identification  Small component material analysis  Phase identification and distribution
  7. 7. 7 Solid and Gaseous Materials Inspection by IR SpectroscopyFourier Transform Infrared SpectroscopyFourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is an analytical technique used to identify organic andinorganic substances such as Lipid, Amide Carbohydrate, Glycogen, Protein Phosphorylation, and silicon.This technique measures the absorption of infrared radiation by the sample material versus wavelength toidentify molecular compounds and structures. Material is exposed to IR radiation from a broadbandsource to excite molecules causing molecular vibration. Variables of this radiation are measured by use ofa spectrometer and interferometer. Figure 3 is the depiction for the optical diagram of a spectrometer.This vibration is unique to the structure of the material and results in absorbing wavelengths of light fromthe radiation. A detector measures variables of the radiation not absorbed. The difference in thesemeasurements can be used to identify characteristics of a material’s molecular structure. Informationcollected from this analysis is viewed on a monitor. This technique can examine a specimen in solid liquidor gaseous form and detects contaminants near 10um microns in size or 0.00040 inches. 2500 units ofthis measurement make the length of an inch (Materials Evaluation and Engineering (MEE), Inc. 17-18).For more information on FTIR spectroscopy see these definitions in the glossary spectrometer,interferometer, wavelength, Infrared radiation, Infrared detector, molecular structure, molecule, chemicalcompound, and molecular vibration.Typical Methods Material Inspection for FTIR Spectroscopy(Materials Evaluation and Engineering (MEE), Inc. 17-18) Identification of foreign materials such as particles, fibers, residue. (Verification of foreign materials analysis by EDS) Identification of bulk material compounds Identification of constituent materials (Shimadzu France ) The amount of material contaminates such as silicone, and esters. (Verification of surface contamination identification by SEM)
  8. 8. 8 YieldMicrochip manufacturing is a very complicated process that often involves samples to be inspectedseveral times throughout the manufacturing process. This multiple inspections process comes at a greatcost because it slows manufacturing and the equipment is expensive. This cost of inspection is validatedby the fact that it collects information about variability that determines the yield forecast for amanufacturing batch. Variability is the range over which a tolerance varies. Yield is the final product fromthe given material a process is started with (May and Spanos 16-19). When applied specifically tomanufacturing it is called the manufacturing yield and measured as the percentage of fabricated productthat results from raw material.Many factors are considered to determine the amount of product to be inspected and what amount mustpass for a batch to be considered good.Some of the main factors that decide this are:  The function of manufacturing machinery (ability to hold tolerance and quantity per time output)  Manufacturing processes used for a product output to occur  The amount of product in a batch  The tolerance of the quality control standardsThe yield forecast consists of information about chip functionality, and the amount of product yield. It canpredict expectations for product yield and cost for a batch process. The yield is measured in stages as itpasses each inspection. The final test yield is the manufacturing product that has passed all inspectionsprior to the final test. The functional yield is the portion of the manufacturing product that has passed thefinal inspection. The parametric yield is the overall performance achieved by the functional chips. This isdetermined by the results of the electric test. Wafer yield is the percentage of wafers that have passed allprior inspection methods and are currently being examined in a final inspection process. Wafer yield lossis the amount of imperfect wafers that are disposed of during chip manufacturing (May and Spanos 16-17, 150). Figure 4 and 5 are the depiction of chip manufacturing flow path plans with inspections taken atstrategic points to determine yield information. (May and Spanos 148)
  9. 9. 9
  10. 10. 10 GlossaryBatch process: The collection of processes that produces a set amount of yield per a set amount of time(May and Spanos 17).Chemical compound: “A substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients indefinite proportion by weight.” (The Free Dictionary Chemical Compound)Infrared Detector: A transducer that utilizes an illumination to current process to transform infraredenergy to current energy. Example components of this type include phototransistors, IR Light EmittingDiodes (LED) (Bhattacharya 347-357).Infrared Radiation: An invisible range of energy or light wavelengths that measure from about 750nanometers, just after the red spectrum of visible light, to 1 millimeter, just before the microwave region(The Free Dictionary Infrared).Interferometer: “An optical or radio frequency instrument that uses interference phenomena between areference wave and an experimental wave or between two parts of an experimental wave to determinewavelengths, wave velocities, measure very small distances and thicknesses, and calculate indices ofMolecule: A single particle composed of chemical compound of atoms (Capri Matter ).Molecular structure: The arrangement of a bonded configuration of molecules (Capri Chemical Bonding).
  11. 11. 11Molecular Vibration: The molecular motion unique to the molecular structure of a material (World ofChemistry).This motion exists in three forms:  Movement of the entire molecule in a random path in space.  Rotation of a molecule around an axis of the molecule.  Movement between the atoms of a molecule.Spectrometer: “Any instrument for producing a spectrum, especially one in which variables such aswavelength, energy, and intensity can be measured.” (The Free Dictionary Spectrometer)Spectrum: “The distribution of energy emitted by a radiant source, as by an incandescent body, arranged,in order of wavelength.” (The Free Dictionary Spectrum)Wavelength: “The distance between one peak or crest and the next corresponding peak or crest of awave of light, heat, or energy.” (The Free Dictionary Wavelength) Wavelength can be used to determinecharacteristics of a wave such as the: light source, radiation source, color, temperature, frequency,amount of energy (University of Wisconsin-Madison Electro Magnetic Spectrum), (Graphics & WebProgramming Team of the National High Magnetic Feild Labratory Sources of Visible light ).
  12. 12. 12 BibliographyBhattacharya, Pallab. Semiconductor Opto-electronic Devices. Prentice Hall, 1997.Capri, Anthony PHD. The Visionlearning Encyclopedia. 2000-2011. 20 10 2011 <http://www.visionlearning.com/>.Carr, G.L., et al. "Semiconductor Characterization." 1996. Infared Micro-spectroscopy of Semiconductors as the Diffraction-limit. 19 10 2011 <https://pubweb.bnl.gov/~carr/pdf/nist_man.pdf>.Graphics & Web Programming Team of the National High Magnetic Feild Labratory . Molecular Expressions Images from the Microscope . 2004. 20 10 2011 <http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/micro/about.html>.Hsu Sherman, C.P., PHD. "Handbook of Instrumental Techniques for Analytical Chemistry." 1997. Chapter 15 Infrared Spectroscopy. 20 10 2011 <http://www.prenhall.com/settle/chapters/ch15.pdf>.Joel. "Joel Semiconductor Manufacturing and Inspection Equipment ." 2006-2011. JFAD-7000BT Beam Tracer . 20 10 2011 <http://www.jeol.com/PRODUCTS/SemiconductorEquipment/WaferInspection/JFAS7000BTBea mTracer/tabid/431/Default.aspx>.Lucky Light . "Luck LED Electronics Company Ltd. ." n.d. LL-503IRC2E-2AEIRLED. 20 10 2011 <http://www.leds-manufacturer.com/503IRC2E-2AE.htm>.Materials Evaluation and Engineering (MEE), Inc. . "Materials Evaluation and Engineering (MEE), Inc. ." 2010. Handbook of Analytical Methods for Materials . 20 10 2011 <http://mee- inc.com/hamm.html>.May, S. Gary, PHD and J Costas PHD Spanos. "Fundamentals of Semiconductor Manufacturing and Process Control." 2006. 20 10 2011.<http://bib.tiera.ru/ShiZ/Great%20Science%20TextBooks/Great%20Science%20Textbooks%20DVD%20Library%202007%20-%20Supplement%20Four/Electronics/Fundamentals%20of%20Semiconductor%20Manufacturing%20and%20Process%20Control%20-%20G.%20May,%20C.%20Spanos%20(Wiley,%202006)%20WW.pdf>Mcwhorter, Paul. MEMS Technology . 2003-2008. 20 10 2011 <http://www.memx.com/technology.htm>.Michel, Hackerott. "Semiconductor Manufacturing and Engineering Data Analysis ." 2006. 20 10 2011 <http://inst.eecs.berkley.edu/~ee290h/fa05/Lecture/PDF/lecture%201%20intro%20IC%20Yeild. pdf>.
  13. 13. 13New Hampshire Materials labratory, INC. . "New Hampshire Materials Labratory INC. ." 1 4 2000. Fouier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy in the Materials Lab. 20 10 2011 <http://www.nhml.com/resources/2000/4/1/fourier-transform-infrared-ftir-spectroscopy-in- the-materials-lab>.Shimadzu France . "Shimadzu Solutions for Science ." 2010. IR Prestige-21. 20 10 2011 <http://www.shimadzu.fr/en/products/spectro/ftir/irprestige21/default.aspx>.Spanos, J. Costas. "EE290H Semiconductor Mnaufacturing ." 1999. Special Issues in Semiconductor, Lecture 011999.pdf. 20 10 2011 <http://inst.eecs.berkley.edu/~ee290h/fa05/Lectures/PDF/lectrue%201%20intro%20IC%20Yeild .pdf>.Stutz, Micheal. All About Circuits . 2000. 10 20 2011 <http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/>.The Free Dictionary . The Free Dictionary . 2011. 20 10 2011 <http://www.thefreedictionary.com/>.University of Wisconsin-Madison. "Satellite Meteorology ." 2002-2011. Electromagnetic Waves . 20 10 2011 <http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/satmet/modules/spectrum/wavelength.html>.World of Chemistry. "spectroscopy, Infrared." 2006. Gale Science in Context. 19 Oct 2011.<http://0-ic.galegroup.com.ilsprod.lib.neu.edu/ic/scic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?displayGroupName=Reference&disableHighlighting=false&prodId=SCIC&action=2&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CCV2432500382&userGroupName=mlin_b_northest&jsid=32f4460fc34190073af3bf09c04492cb>
  14. 14. 14 About The Author John S. Watson Mattapan, MA 02126 e-mail: careerjsw@yahoo.com LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/pub/john-watson/13/132/925This report is rewrite of information included in a final report I wrote for a required class of the MS degreein Technical Communications for Computer industry at Northeastern University. I scored an 80% on thepaper I turned in to the professor.I’ve been fascinated about engineering since entering the field over 10 years ago. Through my endeavorsas technician and engineering student I’ve developed skills in electronic circuit testing; printed circuitboard design and repair; programming; machining; manufacturing machinery setup and repair, andtechnical report writing.My earned degrees in engineering are an AS in Electrical Engineering Technology specializing in roboticsfrom Springfield Technical Community College (STCC) 1999, and a BS in Electronics EngineeringTechnology from Wentworth Institute of Technology 2011. In these programs I’ve learned much aboutengineering principles involved in electronics engineering. Most of my programming experience whichconsists of C++, C, Allen and Bradley PLC, robotics, Field Programmable Gate Arrays, andmicrocontrollers was acquired through my education at these colleges. Most of my electronics designexperience was acquired through education at these colleges.It consists of:  semiconductor components circuit design  electro-magnetic principles used in circuit board design, and micro wave transmission  motion detection  control circuitry used in battery charging, filter circuits, digital circuit design, and sensor technology.In regards to this I have over 5 years work experience in the areas of laser technology, electronicsassembly, and electronics test among experience in various other industries. I admit every position I willapply to has a learning curve. In this case I have much ability that shall greatly reflect in my ability to learnskills that could eventually lend to excelling in a promotional opportunity. I also desire to learn from anychallenge an engineering position shall present.Currently Im seeking to acquire a position where I can further practice my engineering skills whileenrolled as a student at Northeastern University. There I’m currently taking classes for a Master’s ofScience in Technical Communications for Computer Industry. I’m interested in how TechnicalCommunications and Usability are changing the comprehension of product function; procedures involvedin the manufacturing, testing, and designing of products; and information collaboration systems. In myprior experience I have utilized skills in this area as an engineering student and working as an assembler,electronics test technician, and technical writer. In these positions I used and wrote instructions, reports,and presentations that improved: the quality of understanding by clearly stating quality control standards;explaining complicated procedures using well written sequenced tasks; provide lists of parts andequipment need for an assembly; and explain the function of electronic equipment and involved testprocedures.You can send any comments, questions, or writing requests to the contact information mentioned above.Also for more information on my past experience please see my linkedin profile.Sincerely, John S. Watson

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