Transcript of "Yuqiao Reservoir and Lake Erie: Excess Nutrients, Watershed Protection, Collaboration, and Integrated Approaches"
Yuqiao Reservoir and Lake Erie Excess Nutrients, Watershed Protection, Collaboration, and Integrated ApproachesJohn UngvarskyEnvironmental ScientistUSEPA Region 9 photo credit: Peter Husby
Yuqiao Reservoir NE China, Tianjin Province Tianjin is 6th largest urban center in ChinaYuqiao Reservoir provides drinkingwater for 6 million peopleSource water conveyed 100 km
Yuqiao Reservoir “Safe Drinking Water for Sustainable Cities” grant to the Civil Engineering Research Foundation in 2003 Primary objective of the project was to ensure delivery of safe drinking water to Tianjin The Yuqiao Reservoir is representative of water quality concerns in China. Classified as Environmental Quality Standard Grade V because of excess nutrients. Goal is Grade III.
Yuqiao Reservoir Watershed Hebei Province Tianjin Province Yuqiao Reservoir Watershed, Principle Features and Monitoring Stations
Problem Statement & Identification• Drinking water treatment can be adversely impacted by algal blooms and result in formation of disinfection byproducts Eutrophication pattern can occur during summer and fall• The algal blooms in the Yuqiao Reservoir result from excess nutrients in the water
Assessment of Yuqiao• Objective: Assess the quantity/quality of water and relative contribution of nutrient sources• Utilize all available methods to collect needed data• Data collection methods used - GIS - Mapping - Surveys - Water quality sampling - Water quantity measurement - Meteorological data - Models - Extrapolation
Primary Sources of Nutrients Affecting the Yuqiao Runoff from villages Runoff from agricultural lands Wastewater: restaurants and hotels Sediments in Yuqiao (phosphorus) Sources in Hebei Province • sources in neighboring watershed • stormwater and wastewater from Zunhua
Runoff from Villages and Farms• 128 villages around Yuqiao• Roads• Farmland• Animal manures
Key Partners … US Environmental Protection Agency Tianjin Environmental Protection Bureau Tianjin Environmental Monitoring Center Jixian Environmental Protection Bureau ESD China Civil Engineering Research Foundation
RecommendationsShort-Term Focus on Sources Around Yuqiao • Comprehensive and Integrated Approach at a Village ScaleLong-Term Watershed Management Needed Provincial and watershed boundaries
Feasibility Study for Demonstration Project• Comprehensive approach drafted by Tianjin Academy of Environmental Sciences in December 2007 Modify traditional waste management to reduce nutrient and pathogen runoff from village; collect and transport to central location Treat animal waste and crop residue in a digester to create renewable energy (biogas) and reduce greenhouse gas emissions Renewable fuel source for cooking and improved air quality Introduce nutrient management concepts to reduce runoff from farms and protect groundwater while utilizing nutrient-rich digester byproducts for crop production Additional goals … • Cost-effective, replicable, • Village acceptance/ownership and easy management
Monitoring Water • surface water • runoff • groundwater Air • indoor and ambient Solids • manure, crop residues Biogas Runoff sampling sites • volume generated
Project Status• Full Implementation (2010) – Monitoring plan for water quality, biosolids, biogas, air quality – 200 + household digesters (most 8 m3) in the ground – Full operation (2010)• Training and Capacity Building (2009/2010) – waste management, operation & maintenance of digesters – nutrient management involving US experts• Project Evaluation (2010/2011) – Measuring success : environmental benefits, economics, village acceptance• Extended Successes to Other Areas
Acknowledgments• Tianjin Environmental Protection Bureau• Tianjin Academy of Environmental Sciences• Tianjin Environmental Monitoring Center• Jixian Environmental Protection Bureau• Yaobaizhuang & Dagujezhuang• US Environmental Protection Agency• Terry Oda, consultant and formerly with EPA• Professor Robert Burns, University of Tennessee• Hailin Zhang, Oklahoma State University• Forbes Walker, University of Tennessee
Clean Water Act & Safe Drinking Water Act The Source Water Protection Team Beneficial Uses Standards Water QualityStandardsCommercial Treatment Fishing Habitat Recreation Monitoring Supply
Case Study: Lake Erie• Drinking water source for 11 million people; 26,000 km2• During the 1960s Lake Erie was perceived to be "dying" as excessive phosphorus causing eutrophic conditions• Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement signed by the United States and Canada in 1972. Coordinated, international approach• Phosphorus concentrations declined from treatment technologies implemented (e.g., POTWs), phosphorus banned in laundry detergents• Unprecedented success in producing environmental results through international cooperation
Lake Erie Lakewide Management Plan (LaMP) • Watershed approach • Federal, state and provincial governments • Restore and protect the Lake Erie ecosystem but … algal blooms have returned Blue-green algae Microcystis • Can produce toxin microcystin • Could impact drinking water, recreational use, and aquatic community.
• Nutrient Management Strategy pending (2010)• More focus on non-industrial sources (e.g., agriculture) – 61% of P load• Soluble reactive phosphorus
Nutrient Innovations Task Group “Over 2.5 million acres of lakes, reservoirs and ponds and 80,000 miles of rivers and streams across the United States are not meeting a state’s water quality goals due to nutrients.”“All major sources of nutrients must beheld accountable for their contributionsto the problem.”
Water Quality & Nutrients Web Sites• Water Quality Criteria for Nitrogen and Phosphorus Pollution http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/criteria/nutrient/• Lake Erie Binational Site http://www.epa.gov/lakeerie• Nutrient Innovations Task Group http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/waterquality/standards/ criteria/aqlife/pollutants/nutrient/
Thank You! 谢谢您! John Ungvarskyungvarsky.email@example.com 415-972-3963
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