EPA’s Water Quality Laws Safe Drinking Water Act Drinking water standards Public water supply supervision Underground injection control Source water protection • Sole source aquifer program • Wellhead protection program • Source water assessments • Protection programs Clean Water Act Water quality standards Discharge permits Wastewater treatment 3
Safe Drinking Water Act Multiple-Barrier ApproachSOURCE WATER PROTECTION TREATMENT MONITORING COMMUNITY reduce contaminant threats & INVOLVEMENT COMPLIANCE
What is Source Water ? Source water is untreated water from streams, rivers, lakes, springs or aquifers which is used for drinking water supply.What is Source Water Protection? Taking actions to prevent or reduce the contamination of lakes, rivers, streams and groundwater that serve as sources of drinking water. Wellhead Protection is a frequently used term that applies to source water protection for groundwater sources. Source water protection is one barrier in the multi-barrier approach to providing water that is safe to drink
Safe Drinking Water Act Source Water Protection & AssessmentsThe 1986 amendments to the SDWA required states to develop aWellhead Protection Program to protect groundwaters used bypublic water systems.The 1996 amendments to the SDWA required that states develop aSource Water Assessment Program. assess and prioritize contamination threats to source waters (ground and surface) used by public water systems.States are encouraged to use information in the source waterassessments to further source water protection effects. Implementation is state, local, water system driven
Safe Drinking Water Act Source Water Assessment & ProtectionDELINEATE your drinking water source protection areaINVENTORY known and potential sources of contamination within theseareasDETERMINE THE SUSCEPTIBILITY of your water supply system tothese contaminantsNOTIFY AND INVOLVE THE PUBLIC about threats identified in thecontaminant source inventory and what they mean.DEVELOP A SOURCE WATER PROTECTION STRATEGY (aka,PLAN) including strategies and schedule to reduce contaminants posing thegreatest threatsIMPLEMENT STRATEGIES to prevent, reduce, or eliminate threatsDEVELOP CONTINGENCY PLANNING STRATEGIES to deal withwater supply contamination or service interruption emergencies
Current ContextTransition from source water assessments (SWAs) tosource water protection (SWP) The Vision use SWA information to address risks engage/partner with stakeholders develop a strategy/plan implement The Reality SWP plans are voluntary State and local leadership is essential
SWP RolesEstablish national SWP goal• By 2011, 50% of community water systems, and 62% of population served by those systems, will be “substantially implementing” source water protection plans• 2009 results: 35% CWSs and 54% populationState promotes and helps facilitate plan development andimplementation, especially for large systemsTribal governments generally develop and implement sourcewater assessments, protection plans, and activities.Local water system/community takes lead in developing andimplementing a SWP plan or strategy
EPA Support and CoordinationEducation and Technical Assistance Workshop funding Grants to SWP partners (e.g., National Rural Water Assoc., Trust for Public Land) Grants to Tribes to develop and implement source water assessment and protection activities. Information sharing and technical reviewsInternal Coordination Communication with HQ and regional SWP Coordinators Integration of CWA, SDWA, and other programs e.g., Underground Injection Control, Underground Storage Tanks, Non-Point SourceExternal Coordination Assistance to and oversight of states Coordination with key stakeholders Western States Forum Source Water Collaborative ASDWA, GWPC, AWWA Conduit between HQ and state, water industry, public
National Source Water Collaborative• Launched in 2006• 23 national organizations• includes EPA and AWWA• setting a national vision for source water protection
WorkshopsEPA funded 10 source water collaboration workshopsin 2009, including the Western States Forum in PacificGrove in May.EPA will support another 10 workshops in 2010.These workshops have … promoted source water protection at the local level, created or strengthened collaborative partnerships, and enhanced integration with other programs at state and federal levels.
AgricultureSource water protection curriculum for highschool agricultural science students by FFA(formerly Future Farmers of America) under aninteragency agreement between EPA and USDAAvailable this Spring and online
Water & Land UseOngoing Collaboration withThe Trust for Public LandPath to ProtectionSource Protection HandbookEnabling Source Water Protection: Integration Grantsfor State Water and Land Use Protection Programs • Grants awarded in 2007 to The Trust for Public Land and Smart Growth Leadership Institute. Partnering with Association of State Drinking Water Administrators and The River Network • Encourage states to work across program and agency lines to more effectively support protection of drinking water sources at the local and watershed level • Work completed in New Hampshire, Maine, and Ohio and underway in North Carolina, Utah and Oregon; two states to be added in mid-April 2010
NutrientsNutrients Innovations Task Group State and EPA water programsAn Urgent Call to Action Addresses drinking water and ecological impactsOptions for new and existing tools to reducenutrient pollution … Numeric standards Pilot projects to test alternative strategies Incentive-based tools Technology-based strategies
Oversight & Assistance Example: Helping CA Assess SWP EffortsInterviewed 16 of the largest water systems in CA, such as … • Santa Clara Valley Water District • Sacramento Department of Utilities, • East Bay Municipal Utilities District • Irvine Ranch Water District • Los Angeles Dept of Water & PowerExamples of tools that benefit SWP • Watershed Sanitary Surveys • Source Water Assessments • Groundwater Management Plans • Integrated Regional Water Management Plans • Regional/Urban Water Management Plans
SWP Players in CA (not a complete list)Local StateCity Government Department of Health ServicesCounty Government State Water Resources Control BoardWater Agency/Utility/District Regional Water Quality Control BoardsSpecial Districts (e.g., Irrigation) Department of Water ResourcesWatermaster Department of Toxic SubstancesIndustry Department of Pesticide RegulationGeneral Public Department of Fish & Game Integrated Waste Management BoardFederalNatural Resources Conservation Service State/Federal AgencyBureau of Reclamation Cal-Fed Bay Delta ProgramForest ServiceEnvironmental Protection Agency NGOsGeological Survey Clean Water Action Natural Resources Defense Council
Key Findings from CA InterviewsSignificant amount of SWP is in place, althoughfew systems have a comprehensive SWP Plan.CWSs often have limited, if any, authority overimported source water.Responsibility for SWP of imported water isdiffuse and progress involves multiple playersworking together.
Success Stories ExamplesContra Costa Water District Comprehensive source water protection • Alternative Intake Project • Partnering with local agriculture to move drains and implement BMPs • Drinking Water Quality Management PlanCity of Fresno Enterprise Canal Protection Plan Fresno Irrigation District, DPH City of Clovis, Sheriff’s Department general public
Success Stories ExamplesMetropolitan Water District Proactive monitoring for perchlorate Traced to Kerr-McGee facility in NV Resulting decline in concentrationTahoe Water Suppliers Association Twelve medium and small water systems Numerous outreach campaigns Buffer zones around shoreline and wellheads Annual Watershed Control Program Report
Funding & Assistance ExamplesWorkshopsClean Water & Drinking Water State Revolving FundsCWA 319 Non-Point Source grantsCA Propositions 84 & 50NDEP Integrated Source Water Protection ProgramAmerican Recovery and Reinvestment ActTribal Water ProtectionRural Water AssociationUSDA Environmental Quality Incentives Program(agricultural sources only) EPA administered
SummaryEPA is a resource, but …SWP tends to be state and locally drivenSWP is voluntaryFunding is limited/competitiveDeveloping and implementing a SWP plan orstrategy provides short and long-term benefitsIntegration and collaboration is keyLet’s talk about your SWP experiences
Thank you! email@example.com 415-972-3963 EPA Source Water Protection site http://cfpub.epa.gov/safewater/sourcewater/ Source Water Collaborative www.protectdrinkingwater.org Report by Nutrient Innovations Task Grouphttp://www.epa.gov/waterscience/criteria/nutrient/ nitgreport.pdf NV Division of Environmental Protection http://ndep.nv.gov/bwpc/sourcewater.htm CA Department of Health Serviceshttp://www.cdph.ca.gov/certlic/drinkingwater/Pages/DWSAP.aspx Trust For Public Land (search on source water protection) http://www.tpl.org/
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