<ul><li>ENDEL TULVING </li></ul><ul><li>EPISODIC AND SEMANTIC MEMORY SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENTED BY: JOHN R. TURNE...
<ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Endel Tulving is most famous for introducing two separate types of memory systems: ...
<ul><li>Models of Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Atkinson and Shiffrin ’s information-processing model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inf...
<ul><li>Models of Memory –cont- </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term Memory has been divided into two separate domains: </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Forerunners to Tulving </li></ul><ul><li>Early Dichotomous Classification of Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aristotl...
<ul><li>Verbal Learning Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Tulving conducted experiments in verbal learning while at Harvard </...
<ul><li>Differences between Episodic and Semantic Memories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Differences between Episodic and Semantic Memories –cont- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vulnerability to Interference </li...
<ul><li>Critics to Episodic / Semantic Differentiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The idea of episodic was vague </li></ul></ul...
<ul><li>Scientific Evidence Differentiating Episodic from Semantic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurological Patients with Brain ...
<ul><li>Scientific Evidence Differentiating Episodic from Semantic –cont- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic retrieval is loca...
<ul><li>Recent Studies Involving Episodic and Semantic Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Herbert & Burt (2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Recent Studies Involving Episodic and Semantic Memory –cont- </li></ul><ul><li>Herbert & Burt (2004) </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical Research has validated claims of two memory systems: episodic and semantic ...
<ul><li>Bergson, H. (1911).  Matter and memory.  London, England: Allen & Unwin. </li></ul><ul><li>Claparede, E. (1911).  ...
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Tulving episodic semantic

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Episodic and Semantic Memory Systems

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Tulving episodic semantic

  1. 1. <ul><li>ENDEL TULVING </li></ul><ul><li>EPISODIC AND SEMANTIC MEMORY SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENTED BY: JOHN R. TURNER </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Models of Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Forerunners to Tulving </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Critics </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Recent Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Endel Tulving is most famous for introducing two separate types of memory systems: Episodic Memory and Semantic Memory </li></ul><ul><li>1953 BA – Psychology from the University of Toronto </li></ul><ul><li>1954 MA – Psychology from the University of Toronto </li></ul><ul><li>1957 PhD – Experimental Psychology from Harvard University </li></ul><ul><li>Returned to University of Toronto where he currently teaches </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Models of Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Forerunners to Tulving </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Critics </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Recent Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Models of Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Atkinson and Shiffrin ’s information-processing model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information is separated into three main system: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory Memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short-Term Memory (Working Memory) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long-Term Memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the first models to separate short-term from long-term </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Models of Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Forerunners to Tulving </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Critics </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Recent Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Models of Memory –cont- </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term Memory has been divided into two separate domains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural Memories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propositional Memories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tulving thought it was necessary to differentiate propositional memories into two separate systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Episodic Memories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic Memories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Models of Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Forerunners to Tulving </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Critics </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Recent Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Forerunners to Tulving </li></ul><ul><li>Early Dichotomous Classification of Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aristotle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experience / Wisdom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Henri Bergson (1911) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Habit / True Memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Claparede (around 1911) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Those established between connections / those established between connections and the self </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Furlong (1948) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retrospective Memory / Non-Retrospective Memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Models of Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Forerunners to Tulving </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Critics </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Recent Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Verbal Learning Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Tulving conducted experiments in verbal learning while at Harvard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal Learning Experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects are given words to study, retain, and recall over a number of trials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tulving found that test subjects were remembering the occurrence of the word events rather than learning or recalling them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tulving began studying event-memory tests rather than verbal learning tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These event-memory tests began the preliminary phases of two memory systems, episodic and semantic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Models of Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Forerunners to Tulving </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Critics </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Recent Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Differences between Episodic and Semantic Memories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Episodic involves autonoetic awareness (time stamped events) and the mental re-experience of a previous moment in the past </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic has no autonoesis, no mental time travel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Episodic has temporal co-occurrence of two words, A and B </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic entails a meaningful relation between two words, the A-B association </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Models of Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Forerunners to Tulving </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Critics </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Recent Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Differences between Episodic and Semantic Memories –cont- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vulnerability to Interference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Episodic is more vulnerable to interference </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interference Theory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interdependence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Episodic and Semantic memory systems often interact closely to one another. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However, they still have interdependent functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eagle-BIRD Pair </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Models of Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Forerunners to Tulving </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Critics </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Recent Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Critics to Episodic / Semantic Differentiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The idea of episodic was vague </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tulving ’s episodic theory did not follow established scientific research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No reason to distinguish memory into two systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unitary memory system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Models of Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Forerunners to Tulving </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Critics </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Recent Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Scientific Evidence Differentiating Episodic from Semantic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurological Patients with Brain Damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brain Damage (accident or disease) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research has shown that two memory systems, episodic and semantic, are present </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional Neuroimaging Techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examine brain activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One empirical regularity: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Left prefrontal cortex is differentially more involve than right in encoding information into the episodic memory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right prefrontal cortex is differentially more involved than left in episodic retrieval </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic retrieval is seldom observed in the right hemisphere </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Models of Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Forerunners to Tulving </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Critics </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Recent Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Scientific Evidence Differentiating Episodic from Semantic –cont- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic retrieval is localized to the left hemisphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Episodic retrieval involves right hemisphere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Models of Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Forerunners to Tulving </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Critics </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Recent Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Recent Studies Involving Episodic and Semantic Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Herbert & Burt (2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early learning – episodic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformation to semantic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge is schematized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semb & Ellis (1994) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructional content vs. Qualitative changes in memory structure (schemas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term retention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MacKenzie & White (1982) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative differences in episodic experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term retention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Models of Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Forerunners to Tulving </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Critics </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Recent Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Recent Studies Involving Episodic and Semantic Memory –cont- </li></ul><ul><li>Herbert & Burt (2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups with episodic rich material vs. groups without </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semb & Ellis (1994) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Levels of original learning & students with high ability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Models of Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Forerunners to Tulving </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Critics </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Recent Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical Research has validated claims of two memory systems: episodic and semantic </li></ul><ul><li>Learning has been shown to increase when knowledge is schematized </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional material and student ’s (employees) ability matter </li></ul><ul><li>Match training / job tasks to employees original knowledge and ability </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Models of Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Forerunners to Tulving </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Critics </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Recent Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Bergson, H. (1911). Matter and memory. London, England: Allen & Unwin. </li></ul><ul><li>Claparede, E. (1911). Arch Psychol. 11, 79-90. [Translated in organization and pathology of thought (ed. D. Rapaport0. Colombia University Press, New York (1951)]. </li></ul><ul><li>Furlong, E. J. (1948). Memory. Mind, No. 224, 57, 16-24. </li></ul><ul><li>Herbert, D. M. B. & Burt, J. S. (2004). What do students remember? Episodic memory and the development of schematization. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 18, 77-88. </li></ul><ul><li>MacKenzie, A. A. & White, R. T. (1981). Fieldwork in geography and long-term memory. American Educational Research Journal, 19, 623-632. </li></ul><ul><li>Semb, G. B., & Ellis, J. A. (1994). Knowledge taught in school: what is remembered. Review of educational research, 64, 253-286. </li></ul>
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