Tulving episodic semantic
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Episodic and Semantic Memory Systems

Episodic and Semantic Memory Systems

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Tulving episodic semantic Presentation Transcript

  • 1.
    • ENDEL TULVING
    • EPISODIC AND SEMANTIC MEMORY SYSTEMS
    • PRESENTED BY: JOHN R. TURNER
    • Introduction
    • History
    • Models of Memory
    • Forerunners to Tulving
    • Verbal Learning
    • Differentiation
    • Critics
    • Evidence
    • Recent Studies
    • Conclusion
  • 2.
    • Introduction
    • Endel Tulving is most famous for introducing two separate types of memory systems: Episodic Memory and Semantic Memory
    • 1953 BA – Psychology from the University of Toronto
    • 1954 MA – Psychology from the University of Toronto
    • 1957 PhD – Experimental Psychology from Harvard University
    • Returned to University of Toronto where he currently teaches
    • Introduction
    • Models of Memory
    • Forerunners to Tulving
    • Verbal Learning
    • Differentiation
    • Critics
    • Evidence
    • Recent Studies
    • Conclusion
  • 3.
    • Models of Memory
    • Atkinson and Shiffrin ’s information-processing model
      • Information is separated into three main system:
        • Sensory Memory
        • Short-Term Memory (Working Memory)
        • Long-Term Memory
      • One of the first models to separate short-term from long-term
    • Introduction
    • Models of Memory
    • Forerunners to Tulving
    • Verbal Learning
    • Differentiation
    • Critics
    • Evidence
    • Recent Studies
    • Conclusion
  • 4.
    • Models of Memory –cont-
    • Long-term Memory has been divided into two separate domains:
      • Procedural Memories
      • Propositional Memories
    • Tulving thought it was necessary to differentiate propositional memories into two separate systems:
      • Episodic Memories
      • Semantic Memories
    • Introduction
    • Models of Memory
    • Forerunners to Tulving
    • Verbal Learning
    • Differentiation
    • Critics
    • Evidence
    • Recent Studies
    • Conclusion
  • 5.
    • Forerunners to Tulving
    • Early Dichotomous Classification of Memory
      • Aristotle
        • Experience / Wisdom
      • Henri Bergson (1911)
        • Habit / True Memory
      • Claparede (around 1911)
        • Those established between connections / those established between connections and the self
      • Furlong (1948)
        • Retrospective Memory / Non-Retrospective Memory
    • Introduction
    • Models of Memory
    • Forerunners to Tulving
    • Verbal Learning
    • Differentiation
    • Critics
    • Evidence
    • Recent Studies
    • Conclusion
  • 6.
    • Verbal Learning Experiments
    • Tulving conducted experiments in verbal learning while at Harvard
      • Verbal Learning Experiments
        • Subjects are given words to study, retain, and recall over a number of trials
      • Tulving found that test subjects were remembering the occurrence of the word events rather than learning or recalling them
      • Tulving began studying event-memory tests rather than verbal learning tests
      • These event-memory tests began the preliminary phases of two memory systems, episodic and semantic
    • Introduction
    • Models of Memory
    • Forerunners to Tulving
    • Verbal Learning
    • Differentiation
    • Critics
    • Evidence
    • Recent Studies
    • Conclusion
  • 7.
    • Differences between Episodic and Semantic Memories
      • Retrieval
        • Episodic involves autonoetic awareness (time stamped events) and the mental re-experience of a previous moment in the past
        • Semantic has no autonoesis, no mental time travel
      • Storage
        • Episodic has temporal co-occurrence of two words, A and B
        • Semantic entails a meaningful relation between two words, the A-B association
    • Introduction
    • Models of Memory
    • Forerunners to Tulving
    • Verbal Learning
    • Differentiation
    • Critics
    • Evidence
    • Recent Studies
    • Conclusion
  • 8.
    • Differences between Episodic and Semantic Memories –cont-
      • Vulnerability to Interference
        • Episodic is more vulnerable to interference
          • Interference Theory
      • Interdependence
        • Episodic and Semantic memory systems often interact closely to one another.
        • However, they still have interdependent functions
          • Eagle-BIRD Pair
    • Introduction
    • Models of Memory
    • Forerunners to Tulving
    • Verbal Learning
    • Differentiation
    • Critics
    • Evidence
    • Recent Studies
    • Conclusion
  • 9.
    • Critics to Episodic / Semantic Differentiation
      • The idea of episodic was vague
      • Tulving ’s episodic theory did not follow established scientific research
      • No reason to distinguish memory into two systems
      • Lack of evidence
      • Unitary memory system
    • Introduction
    • Models of Memory
    • Forerunners to Tulving
    • Verbal Learning
    • Differentiation
    • Critics
    • Evidence
    • Recent Studies
    • Conclusion
  • 10.
    • Scientific Evidence Differentiating Episodic from Semantic
      • Neurological Patients with Brain Damage
        • Brain Damage (accident or disease)
        • Research has shown that two memory systems, episodic and semantic, are present
      • Functional Neuroimaging Techniques
        • Examine brain activity
        • One empirical regularity:
          • Left prefrontal cortex is differentially more involve than right in encoding information into the episodic memory
          • Right prefrontal cortex is differentially more involved than left in episodic retrieval
          • Semantic retrieval is seldom observed in the right hemisphere
    • Introduction
    • Models of Memory
    • Forerunners to Tulving
    • Verbal Learning
    • Differentiation
    • Critics
    • Evidence
    • Recent Studies
    • Conclusion
  • 11.
    • Scientific Evidence Differentiating Episodic from Semantic –cont-
      • Semantic retrieval is localized to the left hemisphere
      • Episodic retrieval involves right hemisphere
    • Introduction
    • Models of Memory
    • Forerunners to Tulving
    • Verbal Learning
    • Differentiation
    • Critics
    • Evidence
    • Recent Studies
    • Conclusion
  • 12.
    • Recent Studies Involving Episodic and Semantic Memory
    • Herbert & Burt (2004)
      • Early learning – episodic
      • Transformation to semantic
      • Knowledge is schematized
    • Semb & Ellis (1994)
      • Instructional content vs. Qualitative changes in memory structure (schemas)
      • Long-term retention
    • MacKenzie & White (1982)
      • Qualitative differences in episodic experiences
      • Long-term retention
    • Introduction
    • Models of Memory
    • Forerunners to Tulving
    • Verbal Learning
    • Differentiation
    • Critics
    • Evidence
    • Recent Studies
    • Conclusion
  • 13.
    • Recent Studies Involving Episodic and Semantic Memory –cont-
    • Herbert & Burt (2004)
      • Groups with episodic rich material vs. groups without
    • Semb & Ellis (1994)
      • Levels of original learning & students with high ability
    • Introduction
    • History
    • Models of Memory
    • Forerunners to Tulving
    • Verbal Learning
    • Differentiation
    • Critics
    • Evidence
    • Recent Studies
    • Conclusion
  • 14.
    • Conclusion
    • Empirical Research has validated claims of two memory systems: episodic and semantic
    • Learning has been shown to increase when knowledge is schematized
    • Instructional material and student ’s (employees) ability matter
    • Match training / job tasks to employees original knowledge and ability
    • Introduction
    • History
    • Models of Memory
    • Forerunners to Tulving
    • Verbal Learning
    • Differentiation
    • Critics
    • Evidence
    • Recent Studies
    • Conclusion
  • 15.
    • Bergson, H. (1911). Matter and memory. London, England: Allen & Unwin.
    • Claparede, E. (1911). Arch Psychol. 11, 79-90. [Translated in organization and pathology of thought (ed. D. Rapaport0. Colombia University Press, New York (1951)].
    • Furlong, E. J. (1948). Memory. Mind, No. 224, 57, 16-24.
    • Herbert, D. M. B. & Burt, J. S. (2004). What do students remember? Episodic memory and the development of schematization. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 18, 77-88.
    • MacKenzie, A. A. & White, R. T. (1981). Fieldwork in geography and long-term memory. American Educational Research Journal, 19, 623-632.
    • Semb, G. B., & Ellis, J. A. (1994). Knowledge taught in school: what is remembered. Review of educational research, 64, 253-286.