Washington, DC (Smithsonian) Conference Working Definitions "Arts-based Learning" and "Workforce Development"1) Working toward a definition of arts-based learning.First, what is meant by "art"? Usually art may refer to any one of three things: Process of using a creative skill Product of a creative skill Audience’s experience of a creative skillOften definitions discuss how arts-based learning can be used more than what it is. Perhaps theinitial often-referenced definition was proposed by Lotte Darsø in her 2004 book, ArtfulCreation: Learning -Tales of Arts-in-Business (Frederiksberg, Denmark: Samsfundlitteratur).Darso (14) gave four options for using the arts in business, as: Decoration Entertainment Instruments (skill & leadership development) Transformation (values, creativity, innovation, branding, marketing)Another approach is in a 2009 article for an Academy of Management journal. Steve Taylor &Donna Ladkin (56-60) name four ways that arts-based methods help develop managers andleaders. Skills Transfer Projective Technique (to "reveal inner thoughts and feelings that may not be accessible through more conventional development modes") Illustration of Essence ("to apprehend the essence of a concept, situation, or tacit knowledge, . . . revealing depth and connections" different from more typical methods) Making (fostering a deep "experience of personal expression and connection")In yet another view, according to Ted Buswick in an Americans for the Arts interview, the arts inbusiness are used for at least one of these four reasons: Inspire and/or provoke Introduce a difficult topic
Teach a definable skill or set of skills Change thinking and behaviorEach of these definitions was created to relate to the business community. Are adaptationsneeded for the STEM subjects? In the next two days, perhaps you can sort through the overlapsin these definitions and determine for yourself which pieces of these definitions match how youbelieve the arts should be used, whether in school or in informal learning.2) Workforce Development in arts-based learning for STEM subjectsWhich workforce? Is it those to be trained or those who are to do the training? A clear distinctionin terminology between the two should be made when "workforce development" is used. For theformer, "development" refers mostly to what the workforce should be taught, which may dependheavily on the ages, experience, and needs of those being trained. If the latter, developmentinvolves determination of who should do training in arts-based learning for STEM subjects,where it should occur, and how the educators, trainers, and curators should be trained in arts-based learning. Usually the idea of workforce development includes both of these workforces.Sources 1. Darsø, Lotte, Artful Creation: Learning -Tales of Arts-in-Business (Frederiksberg, Denmark: Samsfundlitteratur, 2004). 2. Private Sector Network of Americans for the Arts, "Arts-based Learning: An interview with Ted Buswick, http://www.americansforthearts.org/pdf/private_sector_affairs/Buswick%20Interview%2 0Revised.pdf, August 2010. 3. Taylor, Steve and Donna Ladkin, "Understanding arts-based methods in managerial development," Academy of Management Learning & Education, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 55-69.Chicago (IIT) ConferenceWith some 25 people in the group, the Chair, Randy Cohen, told a few pithy anecdotes to set thescene for the working group. He emphasized the fact that in the workforce any investment inpromoting creativity cannot happen without evidence that there is a Return on Investment.The group was then charged to answer three broad questions: What data do we need to advance this movement? What policies would we need?
What research will we need?PresentationsTed Buswick, Executive-in-Residence for Leadership and the Arts in the Graduate School ofManagement, Clark University, and Angel Ysaguirre, Director of Global Community Investingand Global Citizenship Initiative at Boeing, gave brief presentations to initiate the discussion.Ted Buswick made the point that the field of Arts-Based Learning (ABL) is broad,encompassing more than STEM education, including applications in business and medicine. Hepresented a number of examples that included the following. A Yale study (published in 2001) showed that students with visual arts training had measurably increased observational and diagnostic skills over a control group. - Columbia University Medical School requires every second-year student to take one of 12 arts/humanities courses. Columbia’s Program in Narrative Medicine is the leading one of its kind, focusing on developing empathy between doctor and patient. Violinist Michael Spencer was teaching corporate brand managers how to listen and developed this into a successful business: Sound Strategies. InterContinental Hotels is just one example of a group that is now learning how to tailor music to their locations around the world, which has led to an re-evaluation of their entire global strategy. Jazz saxophonist Michael Gold founded Jazz Impact where he uses the art of jazz improvisation to teach business improvisation and collaboration. Suzanne R. Merritt, former Senior Creatologist at Polaroid Corporation, has developed several programs for business including one, Aesthetics, that introduces eight patterns of beauty that executives are then taught to apply to their business, “to generate and judge new product and service ideas.” Tim Stockil uses Forum Theatre to help companies deal with their problems, winning two UK national training awards in 2008. http://www.creativeintelligence.uk.com/index.htm Alastair Creamer started the successful in-house innovation program, Catalyst, at Unilever in the UK. With marketing manager Oliver Lloyd, he left Unilever to start a consultancy based on their own experiences and perspectives as artists.As a brief bibliography in this area, Buswick cited: Daniel Pink, A Whole New Mind (2005)
Frans Johansson, The Medici Effect (2005) Robert and Michele Root-Bernstein, Sparks of Genius (1999) Lottie Darso, Artful Creation: Learning-Tales of Arts-in-Business (2004) Twyla Tharp, The Creative Habit (2003). Two special issues of the Journal of Business Strategy on arts-based learning for business (Vol. 31, No. 4, 2010 and Vol. 26, No. 5, 2005).Angel Ysaguirre then spoke to Boeing’s interest in attracting a creative workforce, and givingthe company a competitive edge, in the situation where there’s now a global workforce and othercountries outspend the US in R&D. Innovation is the key. He stated, "The most innovativecompanies will win the bids in the future."Mr. Ysaguirre told the story of how, when designing the “Dreamliner” 787 airplane, Boeingdecided to focus on how passengers want to feel on an airplane. As safety was a primaryconcern, and as a confined space feels less safe, Boeing went for a fuselage that felt bigger thanit was and brought in artists to work with their engineers to design it. They succeeded and pre-orders broke all records.A breakthrough for Boeing was in beginning the project with the question, “what will customersfeel?” It had previously partnered with a symphony orchestra and Rolls Royce to improvepassenger experience of engine noise by conducting frequency and sound troubleshooting.Working with the sound experts, the engineers came to better understand the impact of soundand improved the sound characteristics of engine design.Boeing understands it needs a pipeline to supply its workforce, so will often get involved withschools. In Beijing, for example, Boeing spends some $500k per year retraining elementaryscience educators in order to teach more creatively. IBM’s 2010 survey of 1,500 CEOs from 60countries and 33 industries worldwide showed that “creativity” was selected as the most crucialfactor for future business success.He stated that a challenge for companies wanting to increase creativity is to address their rigidstructures by reorganizing so there is less hierarchy.DiscussionIn the ensuing discussion, one participant thought the Boeing example applied only to engineers:a thin slice of the workforce. How did this approach affect the lineworker?
Mr. Ysaguirre replied that Boeing was very aware of needing a creative workforce at every level.The company saw positions in vocational technology, engineering, law, IT, building staff, etc.,all requiring different levels of creativity and innovation. He did acknowledge that the folks onthe line may not need as much creativity as others, but it was an issue for Boeing.To the question of how Boeing’s approach could “trickle down” to its suppliers, Mr. Ysaguirrereplied that Boeing was training its suppliers - in fact, this was becoming a new businessproposition as Boeing was becoming more expert in training creative thinkers than going into thesupply business.Another participant offered the analogy of a hotel training its staff and suppliers to think beyondtheir silos in order to support the hotel systemically.To the question of how this community could leverage the expertise in companies like Boeing,Mr. Ysaguirre replied that Boeing is in fact trying to do just that through effective partnering andby funding arts-based research efforts that would have a direct impact on its own workforcedevelopment.Another participant mentioned the U.S. auto industry, which, when losing market share throughthe popularity of OEM, didn’t have the ability to innovate in order to effectively compete anddied. Industry needs to reward businesses that do react creatively, instead of rewarding short-term quarterly returns.Another participant observed that while Boeing can initiate new procedures for the developmentof new products, those in education must do their redesign "while in flight."DistillationThe next section of the meeting was devoted to brainstorming about what should be done out ofthis project to create an actionable list of recommendations for government and industry.One participant, expressing delight that Mr. Ysaguirre was working with the arts at such a highlevel, thought this was a great model for others to follow. Not only was it giving high visibility tothe arts and quality-of-life issues, but it was showed Boeing’s understanding of the positiveworkforce development implications of using the arts in community investment.Research and Business 1. Businesses need to put the money where the children are, whether it’s for arts-based or science-based projects. One should always start with the young (Howard Hughes apparently once focused his giving on Informal Science Education, before moving to invest in higher education).
2. Business has to want what we are aiming to promote: creativity and innovation. Although some recognize the need, they are not necessarily investing in it. 3. We need much more solid data, and in particular from the findings of cognitive research, in order to enable CEOs to visualize the issues and possible future scenarios, and to make the case for funding arts-based research. 4. Need longer than 3-5 years for research grants - and need to find good, logical, long-term research partners. 5. Communication: not only do scientists in general need better training in communication, but we also need better communication and leverage between formal education, informal education, community organizations, and business, so that we can work together more effectively. 6. The NSF’s Industrial Innovation & Partnerships Division fosters partnerships between businesses and academic departments, and its director, Cheryl Albus, is interested in partnering more with NSF’s Education Directorate and to include partners that serve the communities where the research is happening. For the NSF, outcomes need to be educational - so research results should be translated into practical implications for community stakeholders and into making the case for support tailored to particular communities: the public, policy makers, private industry, etc. Several thought the NSF needs to be better informed on what the research agenda should be. 7. Ted Buswick asked how can one best engage and leverage success in industry? Do we focus on what (in terms of creativity and innovation) works best for a given company, or ask for a 20-year commitment to further research? He found it frustrating that successful arts-based learning operations have not been successfully replicated or scaled. 8. Research Needs: spatial intelligence research; equity related issues (if there’s no access to art then there’s no opportunity to cultivate the skills to compete).Education 1. While elements within the NSF are showing great interest in the possible effectiveness of using the arts in education, there is still no/little funding for it. 2. There was more discussion about the big disconnect with public education and its focus on standardized testing over creative thinking. Even with models and grants, how do you convince the leadership at the school level to adopt a change, when their agenda doesn’t support this?
3. Some felt there was still little general acceptance of the value of life-long learning and of the value of trying and failing. 4. Despite Boeing’s experience in China, the group felt that corporations should not be directly driving change in schools - but should be part of the conversation about change.PolicyWhat is our Public Policy Agenda? Where can we have the greatest impact? What are theconditions that support change? How do we create those conditions?Business models 1. In a discussion of business models, one participant thought we needed a matrix of innovation-focused business models for both business and education (that went far beyond the normative model for current schools). 2. Along with the models, we need research and proof-of-concept data that will be essential in presenting any ideas to potential corporate partners. 3. Business models are changing rapidly to meet changing global needs. The ability to cultivate and manage creativity is a key competitive advantage. 4. In discussing possible metrics, a participant said we would have to pitch using particular innovation-based business models. Making the connections between the arts and the sciences is one way to structure it. 5. Metrics: obviously any research report has to be couched in language and using metrics that the reader can understand, relate to and find value. Until the reader buys into the model, the research data will not be meaningful. 6. As most of those who will be working over the next 20 years are already in the workforce, mid-career training to adapt and change with the changing economic community is key. How can an arts-based approach carry their careers forward? 7. It was recommended that we create a set of business models for younger artists that might help them see the range of possibilities (beyond running a gallery). What are the business implications of their skill-sets; what are potentially good business connections?San Diego (CalIT2) Conference
Chair: Ted Buswick, Director, Boston Consulting Group History; Executive-in-Residence forLeadership and the Arts, Clark UniversityPresenting: Sarah Murr, Community Investor—Arts & Culture, The Boeing CompanyParticipants: Katie Carlstrom, Sandra Chong, Peter Economy, Lisa Ellsworth, Patricia Frischer,Cyrice Griffith, John Highkin, Kristen Koeblin, Amanda Lincoln, Kirin Macapugay, ThomasMacCalla, Josh Payne, Ellen Potter, Laurie Sanderson, Harvey Seifter, Susan Sirota, LorenThompson, Karen Vogt, Katharine Wardle, Ruth WestIntroduction: Ted Buswick and Harvey SeifterTed Buswick opened this session by introducing himself and the presenter, Sarah Murr. BeforeSarah began her presentation, Harvey Seifter framed the working group discussion: “We need tofind ways to respond to business needs. We have a frame with a blank canvas—there arepowerful stories, but the data has to be there. We aren’t going to move forward unlesspolicymakers make decisions. We need to quantify and target investments. It will be enormouslyimportant to the rest of the field to develop data, develop the case, and move forward.”Presentation: Sarah MurrSarah Murr began her presentation with a question: “Why is Boeing investing in arts education?”According to Sarah, in five years Boeing will be 100 years old. The company is the world’slargest aerospace company and a leading manufacturer of commercial jetliners and defense,space, and security systems. Boeing has more than 163,000 employees and it operates in 70countries outside the USA. The company’s workforce is educated: 77 percent of employees havea college degree, with 26 percent of those advanced degrees. Boeing’s continued successdepends on its workforce of innovative thinkers who continue to delight and amaze theircustomers with new products and services.Boeing currently devotes approximately $28 million a year in educational outreach, focusedmostly on STEM education. Boeing is actively involved in changes tothe American educationsystem . and works closely with selected colleges and universities to enhance undergraduatecurricula, support continuing education of Boeing employees, recruit for internships andemployment, and collaborate on research that benefits the long-term needs of our businesses.. Sarah believes that there’s an A (Arts) missing in Boeing’s focus on STEM, and she ispersonally working to change this.Sarah gave the example of the new Boeing 787 Dreamliner. When passengers board the aircraft,the first thing they see is the interior. Boeing works with the airline customers to find out whattheir customers want when they walk onto the plane, including such things as more space forcarry-ons, more light, and a feeling of more space. There is a design group within Boeingfocused on aircraft interiors. To make the interior of the 787 look larger, for example, they
suggested the installation of larger-than-usual windows. Installing larger windows, however,requires engineering input to determine what is feasible and cost effective. This example is ablending of art and science. The re-design of an overhead light which allows for a light bulb thatcan be easily replaced similarly requires a blending of art and science.Boeing employs very creative people who have the ability to look at what has happened in thepast, and to use this knowledge to infuse their own ideas for what improvements can be madetoday.Arts education and STEM develop the skills, competencies, and attributes Boeing seeks in theworkforce to be successful. There are 11 competencies needed in future Boeing workers, aslisted on job requisitions: Inquisitive Communication, verbal and written Creative Ability to work in a team Analytical Innovative Problem solver Self confident Initiative Strong work ethic Flexible/adaptive to changeThese 11 competencies are not taught in engineering schools—they are taught through artseducation. And arts education is disappearing in schools.Before current Boeing chairman Jim McNerney was brought on board, most of his predecessorscame from within Boeing’s engineering ranks. McNerney, however, was an outsider—from 3M,and before that, General Electric—and he brought with him new perspectives.Sarah also mentioned the need to pay attention to national and state legislation which impactseducation. Some current California legislative initiatives include: SB 789 (Senator Curren Price, chair of the Joint Committee on the Arts): Proposes the creation of an Advisory Committee to develop an “index of Creative and Innovative Education” and make related recommendations to the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. These rankings would be in addition to API scoring—not a replacement. SB 611, SB 612, and SB 547 (introduced by Senate Pro Tem Darrell Steinberg, and passed by the Senate Education Committee) are designed to change the state’s public education curriculum to make it more relevant to the emerging workplace, including
biotechnology, clean energy, health care, digital art, information technology, etc. SB 611 changes what gets taught, SB 612 changes how it gets taught, and SB 547 changes what gets measured. SB 402 curriculum frameworks legislation would require each framework to describe how content can be delivered to intentionally build creativity, innovation, critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, and communication into and across each content area.A recent report by the President’s Committee on the Arts and Humanities (PCAH) clearly showsthe effect of arts education on student academic achievement and creativity—reaffirming that anarts education provides a vital benefit to the private sector.The state of California was one of two states selected this year by the NEA to participate in theEducation Leadership Institute in Chicago. The California team will focus on visual andperforming arts education as a critical component in the future of California’s economy andviable workforce.Sarah suggested that working group members visit the California Alliance for Arts Educationwebsite (http://www.artsed411.org). The mission of the California Alliance is to ensure allCalifornia students have access to arts education in their schools.Boeing is making a point to look for engineering applicants who have been involved in the artswithin the past few years, because they possess the “compatibility skills” that are needed withinBoeing.DiscussionQuestion: Does Boeing document new hires with art experience?Sarah: Not that I’m aware of.Thomas: What if we had a regional art/science cluster?Response: You could form your own clusters. There are currently 15 clusters for STEM with$3.3 billion in SBA and Department of Defense funding.Sandra: How publicize the fact that Boeing is looking for arts background in new employees?Response: Provide exact parameters so school administrators will focus on what Boeing islooking for.Cyrice: Boeing can do this—who else?Sarah: Boeing has people on many different industry councils and groups and can get out theword. It would have to be in published form for internal/external release. I can ask about this.
Ted: Is there something you would like to see as a policy statement within Boeing?Sarah: We have developed this statement as a part of STEM: “The future Boeing workforcemust include people who have: a passion for technology and innovation; integrity and highethical standards; an ability to think critically, adapt to change, and collaborate with others in acomplex environment; top talent with hands-on experience.” Those skills are enabled by artseducation.Ted: NSF is sponsoring this conference, which gives it major credibility. Because so little data iscurrently available, the NSF wants Harvey Seifter to develop a research program and put it onthe fast track. Please provide input to Harvey on ideas for “low-hanging” research fruit and anyresearch already underway.Q: How are Boeing’s educational outreach funds distributed?Sarah: The money comes from Boeing’s bottom line. The company’s board decides how muchto allocate each year. Every major Boeing site gets outreach funds based on the headcount ofemployees in the region. The company sets guidelines, and regions do their own communityneeds assessments. Boeing gets requests for funds from the community all the time. 100 percentof my educational outreach budget (a bit less than $750,000) goes to arts education as deliveredby teachers in classrooms. To be considered for funding, the requestors must support thecountywide initiatives in either Los Angeles or Orange Counties.Comment: There has been research done on “interdisciplinary learning”—this is not labeled“arts learning.” The body of knowledge is already there.Ted: There is a lot of information out there, but it does not necessarily provide evidence that artseducation leads to better outcomes.Ellen: The research group is doing research. We need to better figure out how to bestcommunicate the information to decision makers. They don’t want to see all the data—they justwant the one-line bullet points.Ted: The priority should be to get information out in parallel with research.Kirin: There are ten times more nonprofits today than there were three years ago, but the amountof money available for them to share has not changed. A lot of funds are going into STEMprograms because they measure. We need a paradigm shift in the arts world.Cyrice: Have business—the Harvey Whites and Boeings—dictate the message. The message is“We’re finding that new hires who have arts education are making more desirable employees.”Ellen: We can get the data. The federal government grants are all research based. There is a $3.5million grant, for example, to determine if mobile science labs are effective teaching tools.
Sarah: Many business organizations—workforce investment boards, chambers of commerce,etc.—are beginning to talk about creativity and innovation. Go to the California Alliance for theArts website for talking points. I support local advocacy networks.Ted: It sounds like the movement is finally in the works—no need to focus here. Need to changeSTEM to STEAM. Creating already has a running start. Where should our focus be at the toplevel?Katharine: Athena is an organization that supports women in technology. When asked to includethe arts, they declined. We have built silos. We have to manage the conversation.Harvey: Eight convenings in DC in the past eight months—NSF, NEA, etc. They’re saying,“Interesting—what do we do with this?”Sarah: In California, there’s a working group to develop a creativity index.Harvey: We could spend 10 years considering these questions. Industry is telling us what skillsthey need. How partner with industry to get the word out?Cyrice: Technology is innovation. Arts education is creativity and innovation.Harvey: Business is not investing in arts education as a whole, and neither is the pubic sector.Maybe we aren’t supplying the key pieces of evidence that business needs to make the case.Comment: Consider foreign employees too. How much work is being outsourced to othercountries? What skills are the schools in those countries teaching?Ted: Businesses know the skills they need, but they aren’t making the connection to the arts.Ellen: Can we go into organizations?Harvey: The Conference Board and Americans for the Arts is working on this.Patricia: Maybe a low-hanging fruit is companies in trouble that we could approach with an arts-based “rescue plan.”Ted: It’s difficult for a troubled business to focus on anything other than their immediatefinancial distress.Katharine: Explorer Elementary Charter School in San Diego is an example of a school that is invery high demand—in part because of its approach to education, which includes the arts. Therewere 1,200 applicants in the lottery for only about 30 openings.Comment: We should write a report about what Boeing has done and get it into the mass mediaand to other companies. Sandra will write report.
Ellen: We should form a committee/working group to educate the public on the need for artseducation and influence opinion.Ruth: We should communicate in a broad sense the value of arts education.Katharine: Let’s continue this discussion in San Diego at the Balboa Park Institute.