Crop production precision ag technologies 3 20-2013

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Introduction to precision agriculture technologies.

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  • Variable-rate fertilizer application allows crop producers to apply different rates of fertilizer at each location across fields. The technology needed to accomplish variable-rate fertilization includes an in-cab computer and software with a field zoneapplication map, fertilizer equipment capable of changing rates during operation and the Global Positioning System (GPS). The fertilizer rate at specific locations within fields is based on the georeferenced field zone map on the in-cab computer.The system includes a vehicle-mounted GPS unit to monitor field locations, allowing the computer to change the application rate between zones. Electronic communication between the in-cab computer and the rate controller on the application machine functions to change the fertilizer rate across the field.
  • Diagram Source: Kranz, William, C Shapiro, R Grisso. Calibrating Anydrous Ammonia Applicators. Nebraska Cooperative Extension EC 94-737-DGaseous NH3 enters the heat exchanger and then converted to liquid. Liquid NH3 leaves-the heat exchanger and goes to the flow meter, and then to the flow control valve. The flow control valve is electronically controlled from the computer/controller in the tractor cab. Liquid NH3 goes from the controller to the manifold for distribution to the shanks and injectors.
  • Raven Pictures: http://www.ravenprecision.comGaseous NH3 enters the heat exchanger and then converted to liquid. Liquid NH3 leaves-the heat exchanger and goes to the flow meter, and then to the flow control valve. The flow control valve is electronically controlled from the computer/controller in the tractor cab. Liquid NH3 goes from the controller to the manifold for distribution to the shanks and injectors.
  • Flex-Air Pictures: http://www.caseih.com/products/series.aspx?seriesid=1998&RL=ENNACase IH SCS 4600 controller for Single bin configuration, with or without Liquid product systems. Case IH Viper controller for any Flex-Air configuration.
  • Northeast Missouri GPS Equipped Tractor Drawn Cart Project. John Brumett , Charles Ellis, Gary Hoette, Don Smith - Regional Extension Specialists. Kent Shannon – Associate Director – Missouri Precision Agriculture Center. John and Whiley Melton - NFS Manufacturing - Montgomery City, MO. Cecil, and Cecil Jr. Harness – Harness Livestock & Grain - New Hartford, MORawson Pictures: http://www.rawsoncontrol.com/
  • Northeast Missouri GPS Equipped Tractor Drawn Cart Project. John Brumett , Charles Ellis, Gary Hoette, Don Smith - Regional Extension Specialists. Kent Shannon – Associate Director – Missouri Precision Agriculture Center. John and Whiley Melton - NFS Manufacturing - Montgomery City, MO. Cecil, and Cecil Jr. Harness – Harness Livestock & Grain - New Hartford, MORawson Pictures: http://www.rawsoncontrol.com/
  • LiDAR – Light Detection and Ranging . Basically, this technology involves directing laser beams from an airplane to the earth surface, and measuring the length of time it takes for the laser beams to reflect back to a detector on the airplane. This data can be used to quantity features on the surface such as trees and buildings as well as the actual elevation map of the earth surface.Computer technology is used to segregate the laser returns to first returns (used for features other than the ground surface, such as trees) and bare earth returns used for an elevation map.
  • Additional reference GIS layers can be displayed in the Fugro viewer. These layers are available without charges for North Dakota from the ND GIS Hub at: http://www.nd.gov/gis/
  • Users can select any point on the map to list the elevation for that area.
  • John, We have been working with several partners on LiDAR data collects during2010 and 11 for the james river basin and surrounding areas of ND and SD.Unfortunately none of the data has been delivered yet. We are expecting data to begin showing up in the next 30-60 days. Please check back then. Chuck Chuck LoeschHabitat and Population Evaluation TeamUSFWS3425 Miriam Ave.Bismarck, ND 58501701-355-8537chuck_loesch@fws.gov
  • This site allows users to find areas by township and range, towns, or by zooming in to a specific area on their map.
  • Shannon Huber Norwood, Multi-County Extension Agent, Brenda Ortiz, Assistant Professor and Grain Crops-Precision Agriculture Specialist; Amy Winstead, Regional Extension Agent, John Fulton, Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist, Alabama Cooperative Extension System.
  • Shannon Huber Norwood, Multi-County Extension Agent, Brenda Ortiz, Assistant Professor and Grain Crops-Precision Agriculture Specialist; Amy Winstead, Regional Extension Agent, John Fulton, Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist, Alabama Cooperative Extension System.
  • Shannon Huber Norwood, Multi-County Extension Agent, Brenda Ortiz, Assistant Professor and Grain Crops-Precision Agriculture Specialist; Amy Winstead, Regional Extension Agent, John Fulton, Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist, Alabama Cooperative Extension System.
  • Application Maps: http://hollandscientific.com/crop-circle-mappingvrt-system/
  • http://www4.agr.gc.ca/abstract-resume/abstract-resume.htm?lang=eng&id=14859000000337
  • http://www4.agr.gc.ca/abstract-resume/abstract-resume.htm?lang=eng&id=14859000000337 4001921-8CABLE - OPTRX SENSOR EXTENSION (8 FT)$35.00$70.00 4100844OPTRX BRACKET KIT - FRONTMOUNT TOOLBAR, 2-4"$160.00$480.00 4100804OPTRX MASTER MODULE KIT$1,500.00$1,500.00 4100807OPTRX SENSOR KIT - 3 SENSORS$9,000.00$9,000.00Order total:$11,050.00Bottom of Form  Jeff DickensTerritory Manager (ND & SD)Ag Leader TechnologyYankton, SDCell: (605) 929-8786Fax: (515) 239-8998jdickens@agleader.com
  • http://ag.topconpositioning.com/en/ag-products/x20-application-kits/cropspec
  • http://www.google.com/patents/US20110286636
  • Walt Albus, NDSUOakes Research Station
  • Slide 4 shows relationship between NDRE values from Crop Circle sensor and yield at Jones field. Comparing NDVI Red Edge Readings with YieldReadings taken at silk stage. (Percentage of highest reading in field)High correlation
  • http://www4.agr.gc.ca/abstract-resume/abstract-resume.htm?lang=eng&id=14859000000337
  • Crop production precision ag technologies 3 20-2013

    1. 1. Crop ProductionPrecision Ag TechnologiesJohn NowatzkiExtension Ag Machine Systems Specialist
    2. 2. Precision Ag for Crop Production• GPS and Guidance and Computers• Section Control – Planters and Sprayers• Variable Rate Technology• How to Make Field Management Zones• In-field Sensing
    3. 3. GPS Guidance• GPS-assisted• Auto-steer• GPS Correction Options:• Free GPS Corrections• Commercial Options• Continuously Operating ReferenceStation (CORS) – Internet-based• RTK
    4. 4. Section and Row Control• Planters• Air SeedersPneumaticElectricPlanter RowONWaterway
    5. 5. Precision Spraying Technology• Boom Height Control• Section and Nozzle Control• Nozzle Flow Control• Droplet Size Control• As-Applied Maps
    6. 6. Variable Rate Fertilization• Fertilizer, Seed, VarietyEquipment TechnologyLayers to Delineate Management Zones
    7. 7. Variable Rate Fertilization• Equipment and Technology• Zone Maps• Equipment Capable of Changing Rates• In-cab Computer Controller• GPS• Farmer Equipment Options:• Fertilizer Applicator• Air Seeder – Planter• Commercial Options• Consultant Services for Maps• Fertilizer Companies
    8. 8. NH3 Variable Rate Options• Anhydrous Applicator – Fall, Pre-plant, In-season• Strip Till Machine• One-pass when Planting• Separate Seeder or Planter OperationAnhydrous Ammonia
    9. 9. NH3 Cold-flow UnitMaintainsLiquid FormAnhydrous AmmoniaChange NH3 Gas to LiquidMeasure Flow RateVary Flow Rate
    10. 10. NH3 Equipment Costs - Modifications• Heat Exchanger• Flow Control Meter• Flow Control Valve• Wiring• Speed MeasurementAnhydrous AmmoniaFlow Meter - $400Control Valves - $400Heat Exchanger - $1,500
    11. 11. Granular Variable Rate Options• Air/Boom Applicator, Floater/Spreader, Spreader Cart• Fall, Pre-plant, In-season• Air Seeder without Seed• One-pass Air SeederGranular Fertilizer
    12. 12. Granular Equipment and CostsSpreader CartVariable Rate Hydraulic Motor - $1,500-2,500Control Valve – Encoder - $300Controller - $1,200Granular Fertilizer
    13. 13. Equipment SuppliersDickey JohnHinikerRavenRawsonMicro-TrakTeejetSuppliers for Dealers
    14. 14. Variable Rate FertilizationDeveloping Management Zones• Grower Knowledge• Historical Yield Data• Remote Sensing• Elevation• In-field Sensors
    15. 15. Yield Monitoring and Data Management• Yield Monitors with GPS• GIS Programs
    16. 16. Remote Sensing : Suitability and AccuracyGoogle Earth NAIP – 1 meterSatellite – 15-30 m Zone Maps
    17. 17. LiDAR Technology• Light Detection And Ranging• Optical Remote Sensing using Lasers• Measuring Distance to Ground from Airplanemeasures the time delay between transmissionof a pulse and detection of the reflected signal
    18. 18. 3D View in Fugro Viewer
    19. 19. 1 meter Contours 7.84 meters25.7 feet
    20. 20. James River BasinLiDAR Data• ND Water Commission• http://lidar.swc.nd.gov
    21. 21. Red River Basin LiDAR Datawww.internationalwaterinstitute.org/lidar.htm
    22. 22. Crop Sensors• In-seasonFertilization• Yield Estimate• ManagementZones
    23. 23. Crop SensorsFact Sheethttp://www.ag.ndsu.edu/agmachinery
    24. 24. How Crop Sensors Identify Crop Health• Red Light Absorbed• NIR ReflectedPlants Absorb and Reflect LightRed NIRSensorRed Absorbed, NIR Reflected
    25. 25. Sensor Field Operation• Rate Determination:• NDVI Value• Compare NDVI toOptimum Area• Growing Degree Days• Potential Yield• Activate Rate Controller
    26. 26. GreenSeeker – Trimble• $10,000 - $17,000• Processor• 4 sensors• Cables• Uses N-Rich Strip
    27. 27. OptRx – Ag Leader• $17,000• 3 Sensors• Integra Display• Direct Command kit• Uses Virtual Reference Strip
    28. 28. CropSpec – Topcon• $18,000• Uses N-Rich Strip
    29. 29. Crop Circle – Holland Scientific• $17,500• 3 sensor system with Integra display and DirectCommand kit• Uses Virtual Reference Strip
    30. 30. GreenSeeker Handheld• $500• Uses N-Rich Strip
    31. 31. Handheld Crop SensorHolland ScientificCBDA
    32. 32. Crop TableHolland ScientificCrop %N lbs/BuMaximum yield (bu/ac)15 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275Spring Wheat 2.45 60 66.8 134 200 167 334 401 468Winter Wheat 2.30 60 3.76 62.7 125 188 251 314 376 439Dryland corn 1.35 56 99.3 132 165 199 232 265 298 331Irrigated Corn 1.25 56 127 159 191 223 255 286 318 350Barley 1.70 48 22.3 31.7 74.2 111 148 185 223 260Triticale 2.10 54 30.9 51.5 103 155 206 258 309 361Sorghum 1.34 56 102 136 172 205 239 273 307canola 3.10 50 42.3 70.5 141 211 2820.30 x 165 = 49.5 lbs. N1234
    33. 33. $100$50iPad – iPhone app Android coming soon!
    34. 34. Click Tap Read, Repeat
    35. 35. FieldScout App Readout:
    36. 36. In-season Variable Rate• Mount Sensors on side-dress applicator• N-rich strip in each field• Applicator will sense the N-rich strip• Compare each readings with N-rich strip• Use the difference to determine N to apply
    37. 37. Implications of Crop Sensors• Real-time Plant Nitrogen Requirements• Maximize Yield• Reduce Total N Application• Save Second Application in Droughts• Early Yield Prediction• Precision Desiccant Application
    38. 38. Why Precision Agriculture?• Maximize Profits• Less Overlap• Reduce Inputs• Increase Yields• Reduce Stress• Protect Environment• Feed 7 Billion PeopleCurrent World Population:7,105,012,7601804 1 billion1850 1.2 billion1900 1.6 billion1927 2 billion1950 2.55 billion1955 2.8 billion1960 3 billion1965 3.3 billion1970 3.7 billion1975 4 billion1980 4.5 billion1985 4.85 billion1987 5 billion1990 5.3 billion1995 5.7 billion1999 6 billion2000 6.1 billion2005 6.45 billion2010 6.8 billion2011 7 billion
    39. 39. Questions - CommentsOffice 701-231-8213 Cell 701-261-9842John.Nowatzki@ndsu.eduhttp://www.ag.ndsu.edu/agmachinery

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