MA – Digital Content LandscapeNEWSPAPERS AND THE DIGITALDILEMMA @_johnmills
The ‘Plan’ Outline newspaper heritage How newspaper income streams functioned in later 20th century The emergence of the ‘digital dilemma’ How newspapers have responded The Future????
Newspapers published in some form sinceHistory 17th Century 19th Century sees current format: standardised content and revenue directed from advertising model 20th Century sees development and demise of editorial ‘truth’ and expansion of newspaper publishers. Audience is ‘captive’ and editorial agendas increasingly follow political line Recent History Emergence of internet at ‘platform’ and ‘writing for the web’ Publication of ‘free-sheets’ to combat changing environment with analogue form
Why do we need newspapers, the media and the fourth estate? Inform (and entertain) the public Hold to hold powerful to account on behalf of the public To reflect the public’s mood and views and foster debate Separation of the press from government
Traditional income streams: how to fund a newspaper? • cover price • advertising • subscriptions 70 to 80 per cent of Newspaper income is generated through advertising DonicaMensing, Newspaper Research Journal
…and then, in 1981, digital arrives (kind of) Problems highlighted: How do we access news online? How is the process paid for? What do the consumers expect/require from the ‘product’? The industry is still wrestling with much of this
The Digital Dilemma(s) beyond the worldof 1981 “2009 saw newspaper advertising revenue fall by 38.1%” Newspaper Association of America Advertising pounds/dollars depart Readers shift to online and ‘free’ model: fundamental change in behaviour Niche publications become increasingly popular Newspaper publishers move beyond communities Multi-media output challenges traditional assumptionsUltimately, consumers wanted more content, for less money – or for even no money at all.
Some diagrammatical illustrations UK newspaper circulation falling Advertising revenue moving away from newspapers Driven by multiple advertising options – a factor fuelled by multi-platform age
DIGITAL = THREAT…?!?Why is add revenue and readership falling….?
Platforms: Digital first… Guardian announces ‘digital first’ strategy. Hopes to double digital revenue (currently £37 million) in five years The primary platform no longer made from trees Convergence: video, audio, live streaming, live collaboration, crowdsourcing. Newspaper groups become multimedia publishers
Diversificationof onlinerevenue streams A bit of a boring table
The Device, Apps and Apple New revenue streams Content subscriptions Apps HTML 5 web apps Users engage with content in new ways, at different times and in different locations Content can be produced that is dedicated to the device Users can generate content and access peer networks of publication
A publishers asset-base: a short diagram by Ross Dawson
The device – multimediain your pocket A technological and consumption paradigm shift in what users can consume and generate. Content goes out as well as in Communication and publication options expand Ability to connect and converse on a local, national and global level
Mark Deuze and the ‘device’ Suggests media forms part of individual and sociological make-up to the extent we live in media rather than with it. Viewed ontologically, the media around us shapes our understanding the world, ourselves and our perception of what is ‘real’. Replicates some of Baudrillard thinking - The Gulf War Did Not Take Place The device is the portal through which we consume this media, and we’re increasingly forming multi-level relationships with the devices we own. This creates opportunities and difficulties for publishers of all kinds
The Future…• Multi-platform and convergence•Paywalls, premium content and the free model• Tablets and smartphones offer new media opportunities andapp-based transactions• Tailored content to specific audiences• Disruptive technologies will impact on established publicationpractice• Digital platforms and hardware (tablets/smartphones) offer adifferent user experience and methods of streaming news andinformation. New consumption methods will continue toemerge• Analytic data will help publishers meet future demands• Diversification of non-traditional income streams• Developing mobile networks: 4G currently being rolled out• Less invasive landscapes: Ambient and incidental publication
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