How & why do people participate in online (learning)
communities?


Literature review
by
John Millner & Howard Baker
How & why do people participate in online (learning)
communities?


4 key questions:

1. What different types of engagemen...
Types of engagement - some theoretical models
Types of engagement - some theoretical models



Etienne Wenger's * quot;trajectories of participationquot;:

1. Periphera...
Types of engagement - some theoretical models


Amy Jo Kim's * 5-phase lifecycle of community participation:

1. Lurkers o...
Types of engagement - some theoretical models


Mizuko Ito, Danah Boyd et al *

A taxonomy of online social activity:

1. ...
Types of engagement - some theoretical models


Mizuko Ito, Danah Boyd et al *

quot;Peer-based, self-directed learning on...
Arthur's 1% rule:




In any virtual community

1% of people will contribute their own content
10% will interact with it
8...
Blast audience segmentation (based partly on 1% Rule)



                         Creators




                      Explo...
It follows from the 1% Rule that




1. You need an awful lot of watchers to get even a small number of
active contributor...
Motives for participation - some theoretical models
Motives for participation - some theoretical models

Peter Kollock*:

Motivations to take part in learning communities:

1...
Motives for participation - some theoretical models


Ayelet Noff and Yaniv Golan*:

Motivations to take part:

1. Desire ...
Stages of participation - some theoretical models
Stages of participation - some theoretical models




Gilly Salmon's* stages of engagement with eLearning (slightly
adapte...
Stages of participation - some theoretical models



Dave Curtis and Mike Lawson's* 7 stages of participation:

1.   Givin...
Stages of participation - some theoretical models


Ruth Brown's* affective model of online participation:

1. Supportive ...
Optimising for learning - some theoretical models
Optimising for learning - some theoretical models


Alfred Rovai* suggests 2 key factors in successful community
formation...
Optimising for learning - some theoretical models


James Gee's * Affinity Spaces:

• drawn from peer-group learning in on...
Optimising for learning - some theoretical models



Affinity Spaces:

•people relate primarily in terms of common interes...
Optimising for learning - some theoretical models



Affinity Spaces:

•encourage and honour tacit as well as explicit kno...
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Online Learning Communities

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Knowledge Infusion - Literature Review

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  • Online Learning Communities

    1. 1. How & why do people participate in online (learning) communities? Literature review by John Millner & Howard Baker
    2. 2. How & why do people participate in online (learning) communities? 4 key questions: 1. What different types of engagement are there? 2. What motivates people to participate? 3. What are the stages of involvement? 4. How to optimise an online environment for learning?
    3. 3. Types of engagement - some theoretical models
    4. 4. Types of engagement - some theoretical models Etienne Wenger's * quot;trajectories of participationquot;: 1. Peripheral - initial exposure to a community & its practice 2. Inbound - first steps toward full membership of the community 3. Insider - practice in the community becomes integral to individual's identity 4. Boundary - participants link practices across community boundaries 5. Outbound - participants move on to other practices, other communities * Pioneer social learning theorist, coiner of terms quot;Situated Learningquot;, quot;Legitimate Peripheral Participationquot; & quot;Community of Practicequot;
    5. 5. Types of engagement - some theoretical models Amy Jo Kim's * 5-phase lifecycle of community participation: 1. Lurkers or visitors - still relative outsiders; participation is ephemeral/ unstructured 2. Novices - new users who have invested time and are en route to full participation 3. Regulars - full members and committed participators 4. Leaders - members who broker interactions and encourage/sustain participation 5. Elders - en route to leaving, perhaps to join a different community * Neuroscientist and social network architect; author of quot;Community Building on the Webquot;
    6. 6. Types of engagement - some theoretical models Mizuko Ito, Danah Boyd et al * A taxonomy of online social activity: 1. Peer-driven engagement - online extension of offline friendships 2. Interest-driven engagement - involvement in new, special interest-based networks; may involve file-sharing, commenting and publication * Digital Youth Project (3 year, $3.3m ethnographic study into young people's online activity, reported 2008)
    7. 7. Types of engagement - some theoretical models Mizuko Ito, Danah Boyd et al * quot;Peer-based, self-directed learning onlinequot;: • Messing around - exploring new interests, tinkering with new media & technologies and aquiring new media/technology literacies • Geeking out - delving deep into a topic or craft, becoming expert and gaining reputation among fellow practitioners * Digital Youth Project (3 year, $3.3m ethnographic study into young people's online activity, reported 2008)
    8. 8. Arthur's 1% rule: In any virtual community 1% of people will contribute their own content 10% will interact with it 89% will just watch * * Charles Arthur, 2006. http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2006/jul/20/ guardianweeklytechnologysection2
    9. 9. Blast audience segmentation (based partly on 1% Rule) Creators Explorers Discoverers
    10. 10. It follows from the 1% Rule that 1. You need an awful lot of watchers to get even a small number of active contributors ... 2. So to build an active community you should go out to attract the watchers. But also.. 3. Make it easy for watchers to evolve into contributors
    11. 11. Motives for participation - some theoretical models
    12. 12. Motives for participation - some theoretical models Peter Kollock*: Motivations to take part in learning communities: 1. Anticipated reciprocity - the expectation that useful contributions will be returned in kind 2. Desire for recognition - ie to be thought highly of by one’s peers on account of contributions to the community 3. Desire for sense of efficacy - ie a feeling that one’s actions can have a useful impact on the world * UCLA academic; author, quot;The Economomies of Online Cooperation: Gifts and Public Goods in Cyberspacequot;
    13. 13. Motives for participation - some theoretical models Ayelet Noff and Yaniv Golan*: Motivations to take part: 1. Desire for connection - ie to feel plugged-in into a social network and/or a specialist interest or practice 2. Desire for emotional safety - ie a sense of belonging, identification and validation by the community 3. Altruism - ie the pleasure gained from helping others by sharing something with them. 'Dopamine over IP' * Israeli tech entrepreneurs and bloggers
    14. 14. Stages of participation - some theoretical models
    15. 15. Stages of participation - some theoretical models Gilly Salmon's* stages of engagement with eLearning (slightly adapted): 1. Online socialisation - familiarisation and bridge-building 2. Information exchange - task-oriented knowledge-sharing 3. Knowledge construction - conferencing, collaboration etc 4. Development - making connections, widening perspectives & reflection * Professor of Learning Technology, Leicester University
    16. 16. Stages of participation - some theoretical models Dave Curtis and Mike Lawson's* 7 stages of participation: 1. Giving and recieving help and support 2. Exchanging information and resources 3. Knowledge sharing, explaining & elaborating 4. Giving and recieving feedback 5. Challenging and encouraging each other 6. Planning and engaging in small group collaboration 7. Jointly reflecting on progress and process * Flinders University of South Australia
    17. 17. Stages of participation - some theoretical models Ruth Brown's* affective model of online participation: 1. Supportive interaction - finding similarities about which to communicate, and feeling good about this 2. Substantive validation - positive, detailed feedback from peers, reinforcing desire to participate 3. Full engagement - coming together with like-minded peers & forming online friendships 4. Earning of trust - by regular, high-quality, supportive input 5. Community conferment - general acceptance by peers as a valued member of the community; veteran status 6. Camaraderie - elliptical, multimodal and enjoyable interaction with long- standing peers * University of Nebraska
    18. 18. Optimising for learning - some theoretical models
    19. 19. Optimising for learning - some theoretical models Alfred Rovai* suggests 2 key factors in successful community formation: 1. Transactional distance, or degree of psychological and communication space between 'teachers' and 'learners', should be low. Community potential increases as transactional distance is reduced. Learning communities are egalitarian rather than hierarchical spaces. 2. Social presence - the amount of time learners spend online and engaged with others - should be high. There is a network effect from numbers participating. * Regent University, Virginia; author of Building Sense of Community at a Distance
    20. 20. Optimising for learning - some theoretical models James Gee's * Affinity Spaces: • drawn from peer-group learning in online social games such as WoW or Yu-Gi-Oh • quot;places - real world or virtual world - where people interact around a common passionquot; • flatter and less structured than models drawn from formal learning contexts * Sociolinguist, University of Wisconsin; author of quot;What Video Games Have to Teach us About Learning and Literacyquot;
    21. 21. Optimising for learning - some theoretical models Affinity Spaces: •people relate primarily in terms of common interests, goals or practices • newcomers are not segregated from masters: one space for all participants, however inexperienced or expert • anyone can generate material; everyone shares knowledge • discourse made up of both 'individual knowledge' and 'distributed knowledge'
    22. 22. Optimising for learning - some theoretical models Affinity Spaces: •encourage and honour tacit as well as explicit knowledge •many different forms of, routes to, and levels of participation. A single participant may be peripheral at one time and central at another. • many different routes to status • leaders and mentors are resources. These roles are 'porous' - ie, they are swapped around

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