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Lane ave bridge report

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A few of my peers and I created this Report on the Lane Ave Bridge in Columbus Ohio. It is a landmark on The Ohio State University Campus.

A few of my peers and I created this Report on the Lane Ave Bridge in Columbus Ohio. It is a landmark on The Ohio State University Campus.

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  • 1. The Lane Avenue Bridge The Reasons For and Making Of Prepared for ACSM 305 Class The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 Prepared by CSM Students Jordan Harlan John Mangini Zack Sanborn Allen Waddle The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 May, 14 2012
  • 2. May 16, 2012 ACSM 305 Students The Ohio State University Dept. of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering 590 Woody Hayes Dr. Columbus, OH 43210 Dear classmates: The report you requested and authorized in April of 2012 is included. You will find information about the construction methods and materials used in the bridge as well as the impacts it has had since completion. We sought to understand why the Lane Avenue bridge was constructed in the manner it was. During our research, we learned the possible designs, process and elements behind its construction, the artistic impacts, and environmental impacts. Our research has led to the conclusion that the cable spayed design with concrete construction was the most efficient design due to corrosion over time and environmental friendliness. Due to increased focus on environmentally conscience designs, we believe more bridges should be built in such a manner where rivers and wildlife will be affected. Furthermore, due to the strength of the concrete and cable stayed supports, the bridges life expectancy should be doubled that of the previous version. Artistic designs complete the bridge making it appealing to the eye in addition to its other benefits. Several first hand sources were used and found to be incredibly useful. Amongst the most useful were the Franklin County office and the personal interviews with Meeks, Roe, and Sherman. Thank you for allowing us to research the Lane Avenue Bridge. We have learned much about cable spayed bridges; both in their history and in the building practices of them. Please feel free to ask us any additional questions and we look forward to answering them. Sincerely, John Mangini CSM Group Team Leader
  • 3. Table of Contents Letter of Transmittal i Executive Summary iii Introduction Purpose Scope Limitations 1 1 1 1 History 2 Functionality 2 The Lane Avenue Bridge Design Longevity Traffic Concerns Construction Process 3 4 4 5 Artistic Impacts Architectural Panel 6 6 Environmental Impacts 8 Conclusions 9 References 10 List of Illustrations Figure 1 Artistic Rendering of Lane Avenue Bridge 3 Figure 2 North Architectural Panels 6 Figure 3South Architectural Panels 7
  • 4. The Lane Avenue Bridge The reasons for and making of Executive Summary With the main campus divided by a river and more than 50,000 students attending The Ohio State University, a bridge is a necessity to allow access for all of the commuters. Due to the age of the previous bridge, it had to be replaced with the current model. With so much traffic and activity coming and going through the campus, however, this bridge had to be the perfect blend of structural integrity, aesthetic appeal, and environmental appreciation. Our research found that the bridge was a well designed and efficient choice for several reasons. Traffic is slowed severely whenever the bridge experiences damage and must be repaired or replaced; this new model should last twice as long, preventing unnecessary closures while the cables ensure the integrity of the bridge will not be compromised over time by weather and vehicles. With architectural panels, the bridge becomes a symbol of pride and strength for the university. This encourages self expression to onlookers and utilizes otherwise wasted space for decorative purposes and adds appeal. Those concerned with the local environment are satisfied, as this design does not dam the river. The Lane avenue bridge was a success and should be implemented elsewhere due to: The effective load capacity due to the cable stayed design The long life expectancy of the bridge Minimal amounts of down time due to maintenance Minimal restriction to water flow and soil erosion Aesthetic possibilities with artwork and metal fabrication
  • 5. Introduction The previous bridge spanning the Olentangy River was outdated and needed replaced. The Ohio State University explored possible design options to replace it. The cable stayed bridge was selected and implemented. The following report will discuss the various aspects of the bridge in detail. Purpose The purpose is to inform you about the Lane Avenue bridge. This requires an understanding of how it was constructed, what features and design parameters were included, and the impactit has had on the environment. Scope In this report, we will discuss the history of the cable stayed bridge, how it works, the design (including the intended how long it is intended to last, traffic concerns during construction, and the actual building process), the artistic value through architectural panels, and environmental group issues. We do not discuss other bridges considered for this type of situation. Nor do we discuss the negative impacts of the chosen bridge design. Limitations The research was limited to research obtained from first hand sources, such as interviews with people involved in the project, and online research. While our group members are all CSM majors, we collectively have very little experience and knowledge of bridge building. Time constraints, also, have been placed which limited the amount of research we could gather and use.
  • 6. History The use of cable stayed bridges can be traced back to over four centuries ago(Delaware). Although the use of cable stayed bridges in the United States is fairly new, the Egyptians implemented cable-stayed features in their boats and use cable-stays in rope bridges for pedestrians (ACROW). In the year 1607 a Venetian engineer named Faustus Verantius designed a way to use diagonal stays with tension cables. The first known engineer to design a fully supported stayed bridge was a German carpenter named C.T. Loescher in the year 1784, this bridge made completely of timber spanned a length of 105 feet. Various designs of this stayed bridge were created after 1784 up until about 1824, after two cable stayed bridges failed. The first cable stayed bridge to collapse was in 1818 wasnear Dryburgh-Abbey, England and was due to strong wind forces. Shortly after this occurrence; another cable stayed bridge collapsed in 1824 in Nienburg, Germany due to exceeding its weight capacity (ACROW). This created a bad name in the world of engineering for the use of cable stayed bridges. Although, the true reason behind these failures was lack of knowledge on how cable stayed bridges really work. It was not until 1938 that cable stayed bridges were reborn as we know them today. German engineer Franz Dischinger was designing a bridge to cross the ElbeRiver in Hamburg, Germany when he found that using cable-stays in a suspension bridge lessened the vertical deflection under a railroad load. This would later lead to the rebuilding of Europe’s infrastructure with the use of cable stays due to the lack of steel following World War II(ACROW). Functionality How a cable stay works is like scale or balance. The compression tower acts as the rotating hinge of the balance and the tension cables that connect the towers to the girders on each side of the bridge act as counter balances to keep the bridge in equilibrium. The compression towers of cable stayed bridges absorb large amounts of compression forces that are eventually transferred into the bedrock beneath
  • 7. the bridges foundation. A very apparent difference in suspension and cable-stayed bridges are the number of compression towers. The typical suspension bridge would use only two compression towers, although can use more. Today, there are many variation of the cable stayed bridge. Some of these variation include the side-spar cable-stayed bridge, the cantilever-spar, the multi-span, the extra dosed, and the cradle-system cable stay systems. Each of these variations have their own specific situation in which to be used. Lane Avenue Bridge Design The design for the new Lane Avenue Bridge was picked for its environmental and artistic impacts. Below is figure 1, an Artistic rendering of the proposed Lane Avenue Bridge design. Figure 1: Artistic rendering of the proposed Lane Avenue Bridge by Mark Sherman, P.E., Chief Deputy with the Franklin County Engineer's Office (Source: Franklin County Engineer 2008)
  • 8. The unique design above (Figure 1) was chosen by a civic committee because it artistically reflected the social and economic life of the Lane Avenue corridor and had the least environmental impact on the river (Franklin County Engineer’s Office, 2012). Longevity However, there were many challenges when it came to designing the bridge. It had to be able to last for one hundred years, instead of the normal fifty year standard. In order to accomplish this feat Franklin County Engineers did not overlook any details in the design process. The metal exposed to the elements is stainless steel to delay the effects of corrosion. (Sherman, 2012) All the joints and bolts are hidden from view to protect them and are set to one eighth of an inch tolerance. (Roe, 2012) Extra care was taken to have no dirt in the aggregate as well. (Sherman, 2012) The cables are incased in a plastic cover and have a spiral pattern on the outside to guide rain water off the cables. (Roe, 2012) The horizontal beams flanges under the bridge are at a steep angle and all cavities are filled with foam so no birds or other wildlife can live or defecate under the bridge. (Sherman, 2012) These extra steps taken in the design process make it a reality that the Lane Ave. Bridge will last one hundred years. Traffic Concerns The main challenge when it came to planning the construction was the amount of vehicles and pedestrian traffic that would be displaced by the bridge being out of commission. The average daily traffic was 1500 vehicles and there were up to 500 pedestrians and cyclists crossing the bridge per hour. (Meeks, 2012) This meant that the bridge would need to be built as fast as possible. A pedestrian bridge was built south of the original bridge to detour pedestrian traffic. The vehicle traffic had to be detoured through Doddridge St. north of the original bridge. (Meeks, 2012) Lane Ave.’s old earth-filled bridge remained open as long as possible during the first phases of construction. The old bridge was torn down the day after the last home OSU football game took place in 2002 with half of the south
  • 9. tower already built. (Franklin County Engineer’s Office, 2012, p. 3) Construction started on February 27, 2002 and “was opened five months ahead of schedule with a festive ribbon cutting ceremony on November 14, 2003.” (Franklin County Engineer’s Office, 2012, p. 1) The under two years of traffic displacement was well worth the sacrifice, because now there are six lanes of traffic with two 12 foot wide pedestrian sidewalks with a parapet barrier, opposed to the old bridge’s three lanes of traffic and unprotected walkways. Construction Process The construction company that built the bridge was CJ Mahan Construction Co. They built the Beach Rd. cable-stayed bridge before for Franklin County. The first step in building the bridge was the construction of the causeway and abutment so that construction vehicles could move more freely around the site. The first part of the bridge constructed was the south tower. For each tower’s pier, 1,484 cubic yards of concrete was poured and steel piles where driven 38 feet into the river bed. (Franklin County Engineer Records, 2004) After the south tower was complete work started on the north tower. As the deck was being built, it had to be supported by metal columns because the cables where not put into place yet. The cable anchorage assembly atop the towers weighs 52 tons and at the time was “largest single piece of metal to be galvanized.” (Franklin County Engineer’s Office, 2012, p. 7) The concrete edge girders are filled with post tension cables running horizontally through the bridge and are stressed to 871,000 lbs. of force. (Roe, 2012) There are 36 miles of post-tensioned cables supporting the deck and edge girders which give them their strength. (Roe, 2012) The 20 cables atop of the bridge where hung slack and post-tensioned between 218,000 and 511,000 lbs. In each of the cable there are between 9 and 19 strands of 0.6 in diameter. (Franklin County Engineer Records, 2004) The bridge is completely reliant on the cables. If more than two cables fail the bridge as a whole will fail. (Sherman, 2012) The last steps in construction of the bridge were the 107 lights and the two tower ties. The temporary pedestrian bridge, the metal supports, and the causeway were removed after the bridge
  • 10. was completed. The bridge after completion was 370 ft. long by 112 ft. wide. The towers reach a height of 145 ft. tall. The project cost 12.5 million dollars when completed. Artistic Impacts As mentioned above, the Lane Avenue Bridge was designed to artistically reflect the social and economic life of the Lane Avenue Corridor (Franklin County Engineer’s Office, 2012). The bridge has a modern look with an academic feel. Also, the Lane Avenue Bridge has many little details like four architectural panels and thirteen block O’s hidden throughout the bridge. Architectural panels Displayed on the stair landings of the bridge are four architectural panels, each displaying a different image and having a different meaning behind them. Two of the panels are on the north side and the other two panels on the south side of the Lane Avenue Bridge. In all four panels is a sun. The sun has rays that look like cables; this idea connects back to the bridge itself because the bridge has cables. Refer to Figure 2 below as the north architectural panels are described.The panel on the left depicts three people, an old man, a child, and an infant. The old man is shown picking an apple from the tree of knowledge. In his other hand is a rag doll, the rag doll represents imagination. The child is reading while the infant is playing. Overall this panel represents modes of discovery and learning. The panel on the right shows a bird, land and mountains, a fetus in a mountain, water, and clouds with curved lines coming from them. The bird, the land and mountains, the water, and the clouds stand for nature. The fetus in the mountain is the growth of humankind. As a whole this panel represents the beginning of the world.
  • 11. Figure 2: Lane Avenue Bridge north architectural panels, February 13, 2004 (Source: Franklin County Engineer 2008) Next the other two panels. Refer to Figure 3 below as the south architectural panels are described.The panel on the left depicts a conductor, music, a girl playing the violin, a boy singing, and a girl playing the trumpet. This panel represents the quality of life increasing because through engineering one can advance in creativity. The panel on the right shows the Downtown Columbus skyline, an airplane, the new Lane Avenue Bridge, the old Lane Avenue Bridge, and a person reading a map. The plane represents transportation. The new Lane Avenue Bridge stands for all that is new, where as the old Lane Avenue Bridge stands for all that is old. The person reading represents learning and our lives roadmap. Overall the panel shows us how over time learning leads to improving our lives.
  • 12. Figure 3: Lane Avenue Bridge south architectural panels, February 13, 2004(Source: Franklin County Engineer 2008) Environmental Impacts The Lane Avenue Bridge design had to have the least environmental impact on the Olentangy River. This design provided the smallest potential for environmental degradation on the river environment. A group involved the environmental impact of the bridge is Friends of the Lower Olentangy Watershed (FLOW). “FLOW is a non-profit organization dedicated to keeping the Olentangy River and its tributaries clean and safe for all to enjoy, through public education, volunteer activities, and coordination with local decision makers” (FLOW, 2005-2011).
  • 13. Conclusions The cable spayed design allowed a bridge to be constructed which should last for approximately one hundred years. The simple concrete aesthetics and lighting provide a pleasing sight for drivers while the architectural panels represents the university in a positive, empowering way. Even concerns for environmental awareness is met by allowing the river to continue to flow unrestricted.
  • 14. References ACROW Corporation of America. (2005). General Format. Retrieved from http://www.acrowusa.com/index.php?page=cable-stayed-bridge Delaware Department of Transportation (DelDOT). (2010, Nov). PDF format. Retrieved from http://www.deldot.gov/information/projects/indian_river_bridge/pdf/newsletter/November22 01.pdf FLOW. (2005-2011). FLOW. Retrieved from: http://olentangywatershed.org/ Franklin County Engineer’s Office. (2012). Lane Avenue Bridge Story. Retrieved From: http://www.fceo.co.franklin.oh.us/lane_avenue_bridge_story%201.htm Franklin County Engineer Records. (2004). Lane Avenue Time Lapse. John A. Weeks III. (1996-2012). General Format. Retrieved from http://www.johnweeks.com/cablestay/pages/hist01.html Meeks, M, P.E. Franklin County Engineer Traffic Engineer. Interviewed: May 2, Roe, S, P.E. Franklin County Engineer Assistant Bridge Engineer and Project Engineer. Interviewed: April 20, 2012. Sherman, M, P.E. Franklin County Engineer Chief Deputy Engineer. Interviewed: April 20, 2012