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Transcript

  • 1. Black Holes are Outta Sight Peter Watson, Dept. of Physics
  • 2. Peter Watson
  • 3. Peter Watson
  • 4. Peter Watson
  • 5. Black Holes Peter Watson
  • 6. Black Holes• Invented by .....? Peter Watson
  • 7. Black Holes• Invented by .....?• Einstein Peter Watson
  • 8. Black Holes• Invented by .....?• Einstein• Hawking? Peter Watson
  • 9. Black Holes• Invented by .....?• Einstein• Hawking?• Well, actually, John Michell, rector of Thornhill Church in Yorkshire Peter Watson
  • 10. Black Holes• Invented by .....?• Einstein• Hawking?• Well, actually, John Michell, rector of Thornhill Church in Yorkshire• geologist?philosopher? astronomer? Seismologist? Peter Watson
  • 11. Black Holes• Invented by .....?• Einstein• Hawking?• Well, actually, John Michell, rector of Thornhill Church in Yorkshire• geologist?philosopher? astronomer? Seismologist?• Polymath. Peter Watson
  • 12. Black Holes• Invented by .....?• Einstein• Hawking?• Well, actually, John Michell, rector of Thornhill Church in Yorkshire• geologist?philosopher? astronomer? Seismologist?• Polymath.• presented his ideas to the Royal Society in London in 1783. Peter Watson
  • 13. Peter Watson
  • 14. • If we throw something up from the earth, it will fall back Peter Watson
  • 15. • If we throw something up from the earth, it will fall back• Throw it at 11 km/s and it escapes Peter Watson
  • 16. • If we throw something up from the earth, it will fall back• Throw it at 11 km/s and it escapes• But if the escape velocity is the speed of light c, nothing can escape. Peter Watson
  • 17. • If we throw something up from the earth, it will fall back• Throw it at 11 km/s and it escapes• But if the escape velocity is the speed of light c, nothing can escape.• If the earth was 4 mm in radius, it would be a Black hole Peter Watson
  • 18. • If we throw something up from the earth, it will fall back• Throw it at 11 km/s and it escapes• But if the escape velocity is the speed of light c, nothing can escape.• If the earth was 4 mm in radius, it would be a Black hole Peter Watson
  • 19. • If we throw something up from the earth, it will fall back• Throw it at 11 km/s and it escapes• But if the escape velocity is the speed of light c, nothing can escape.• If the earth was 4 mm in radius, it would be a Black hole Peter Watson
  • 20. • One way to see a black hole: it’s black!• If we are really lucky....(or unlucky) as a gap in the sky Too Close to a Black HoleCredit & Copyright: Robert Nemiroff (MTU)< Peter Watson
  • 21. Peter Watson
  • 22. • Stuff falling in will become very hot and produce X-rays• Cygnus X-1: visible star ~20 mass of sun• Invisible object M~9Mo• Power output in X-rays is 10,000 x total power output by sun! Peter Watson
  • 23. • Stuff falling in will become very hot and produce X-rays• Cygnus X-1: visible star ~20 mass of sun• Invisible object M~9Mo• Power output in X-rays is 10,000 x total power output by sun! Peter Watson
  • 24. But there are much bigger black holes around Peter Watson
  • 25. But there are much bigger black holes around • This is the Milky way, showing the whole sky Peter Watson
  • 26. But there are much bigger black holes around • This is the Milky way, showing the whole sky Peter Watson
  • 27. • If we look at it with radio waves, see very intense source at centre Peter Watson
  • 28. • which gets brighter as we zoom in Peter Watson
  • 29. • The stars there are swirling round something 10 million times as heavy as the sun Peter Watson
  • 30. • The stars there are swirling round something 10 million times as heavy as the sun Peter Watson
  • 31. • All galaxies seem to have a huge black hole at the centre Peter Watson
  • 32. • And this is maybe where it is happening now:• Two galaxies have collided and the black holes seem to be coalescing Peter Watson
  • 33. • And this is maybe where it is happening now:• Two galaxies have collided and the black holes seem to be coalescing 3C75 X-rays from Chandra Peter Watson
  • 34. • So what do huge things like galaxies have to do with tiny things like protons?• We don’t understand gravity• e.g take two electrons Peter Watson
  • 35. • So what do huge things like galaxies have to do with tiny things like protons?• We don’t understand gravity• e.g take two electrons Peter Watson
  • 36. • So what do huge things like galaxies have to do with tiny things like protons?• We don’t understand gravity• e.g take two electronsThere are attracted gravitationally Peter Watson
  • 37. • So what do huge things like galaxies have to do with tiny things like protons?• We don’t understand gravity• e.g take two electronsThere are attracted They are repelled gravitationally electrostatically Peter Watson
  • 38. • So what do huge things like galaxies have to do with tiny things like protons? • We don’t understand gravity • e.g take two electrons There are attracted They are repelled gravitationally electrostatically However the electric force is4000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 larger Peter Watson
  • 39. • So what do huge things like galaxies have to do with tiny things like protons? • We don’t understand gravity • e.g take two electrons There are attracted They are repelled gravitationally electrostatically However the electric force is4000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 largerActually 4.2x1042 times larger: Hitchhiker’s Guide fans note! Peter Watson
  • 40. • One way out:• Maybe space has more dimensions than 3:• This would make gravity much stronger at short distances: Peter Watson
  • 41. If Peter Watson
  • 42. If Peter Watson
  • 43. • This is true, then we will get a new kind of black holesIf• Very small• Very short-lived• This is what it might look like at in ATLAS Peter Watson
  • 44. • This is true, then we will get a new kind of black holesIf• Very small• Very short-lived• This is what it might look like at in ATLAS Peter Watson
  • 45. Peter Watson
  • 46. • How do we know they won’t grow and escape and consume the world? Peter Watson
  • 47. • How do we know they won’t grow and escape and consume the world?• The theory that predicts them predicts they will decay (easy come, easy go!) Peter Watson
  • 48. • How do we know they won’t grow and escape and consume the world? • The theory that predicts them predicts they will decay (easy come, easy go!)• but better: nature has been doing this experiment for 14 billion years with cosmic rays• and we are still here! Peter Watson
  • 49. Peter Watson
  • 50. • SO if they exist, the world has 3..4 or 5 or 6 dimensions Peter Watson
  • 51. • SO if they exist, the world has 3..4 or 5 or 6 dimensions• Thanks to Don Monet, John Flynn for the invitation Peter Watson
  • 52. • SO if they exist, the world has 3..4 or 5 or 6 dimensions• Thanks to Don Monet, John Flynn for the invitation Peter Watson