Black Holes are  Outta Sight Peter Watson, Dept. of Physics
Peter Watson
Peter Watson
Peter Watson
Black Holes     Peter Watson
Black Holes• Invented by .....?                       Peter Watson
Black Holes• Invented by .....?• Einstein                       Peter Watson
Black Holes• Invented by .....?• Einstein• Hawking?                       Peter Watson
Black Holes• Invented by .....?• Einstein• Hawking?• Well, actually, John Michell, rector of Thornhill Church  in Yorkshir...
Black Holes• Invented by .....?• Einstein• Hawking?• Well, actually, John Michell, rector of Thornhill Church  in Yorkshir...
Black Holes• Invented by .....?• Einstein• Hawking?• Well, actually, John Michell, rector of Thornhill Church  in Yorkshir...
Black Holes• Invented by .....?• Einstein• Hawking?• Well, actually, John Michell, rector of Thornhill Church  in Yorkshir...
Peter Watson
• If we throw something up from the earth, it will fall back                                Peter Watson
• If we throw something up from the earth, it will fall back• Throw it at 11 km/s and it escapes                          ...
• If we throw something up from the earth, it will fall back• Throw it at 11 km/s and it escapes• But if the escape veloci...
• If we throw something up from the earth, it will fall back• Throw it at 11 km/s and it escapes• But if the escape veloci...
• If we throw something up from the earth, it will fall back• Throw it at 11 km/s and it escapes• But if the escape veloci...
• If we throw something up from the earth, it will fall back• Throw it at 11 km/s and it escapes• But if the escape veloci...
• One way to see a black hole: it’s black!• If we are really lucky....(or unlucky) as a gap in  the sky         Too Close ...
Peter Watson
• Stuff falling in will become very hot and produce X-rays• Cygnus X-1: visible star ~20 mass of sun• Invisible object M~9M...
• Stuff falling in will become very hot and produce X-rays• Cygnus X-1: visible star ~20 mass of sun• Invisible object M~9M...
But there are much bigger   black holes around               Peter Watson
But there are much bigger   black holes around                              • This is the                               Mi...
But there are much bigger   black holes around                              • This is the                               Mi...
• If we look at it with radio waves, see very intense source at centre                              Peter Watson
• which gets brighter as we zoom in                          Peter Watson
• The stars there are swirling round something 10 million times as heavy as the sun                          Peter Watson
• The stars there are swirling round something 10 million times as heavy as the sun                          Peter Watson
• All galaxies seem to have a huge black hole at the centre                                 Peter Watson
• And this is maybe where it is happening now:• Two galaxies have collided and the black holes seem to be coalescing      ...
• And this is maybe where it is happening now:• Two galaxies have collided and the black holes seem to be coalescing      ...
• So what do huge things like galaxies have to do with tiny things like protons?• We don’t understand gravity• e.g take tw...
• So what do huge things like galaxies have to do with tiny things like protons?• We don’t understand gravity• e.g take tw...
• So what do huge things like galaxies have to do with tiny things like protons?• We don’t understand gravity• e.g take tw...
• So what do huge things like galaxies have to do with tiny things like protons?• We don’t understand gravity• e.g take tw...
• So what do huge things like galaxies have to do   with tiny things like protons?  • We don’t understand gravity  • e.g t...
• So what do huge things like galaxies have to do     with tiny things like protons?   • We don’t understand gravity   • e...
• One way out:• Maybe space has more dimensions than 3:• This would make gravity much stronger at short distances:        ...
If     Peter Watson
If     Peter Watson
• This is true, then we will get a new kind of     black holesIf• Very small• Very short-lived• This is what it might look...
• This is true, then we will get a new kind of     black holesIf• Very small• Very short-lived• This is what it might look...
Peter Watson
• How do we know they won’t grow and escape and consume the world?                          Peter Watson
• How do we know they won’t grow and escape and consume the world?• The theory that predicts them predicts they will decay...
• How do we know they   won’t grow and escape   and consume the world? • The theory that predicts   them predicts they wil...
Peter Watson
• SO if they exist, the world has 3..4 or 5 or 6 dimensions                             Peter Watson
• SO if they exist, the world has 3..4 or 5 or 6 dimensions• Thanks to Don Monet, John Flynn for the invitation           ...
• SO if they exist, the world has 3..4 or 5 or 6 dimensions• Thanks to Don Monet, John Flynn for the invitation           ...
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    1. 1. Black Holes are Outta Sight Peter Watson, Dept. of Physics
    2. 2. Peter Watson
    3. 3. Peter Watson
    4. 4. Peter Watson
    5. 5. Black Holes Peter Watson
    6. 6. Black Holes• Invented by .....? Peter Watson
    7. 7. Black Holes• Invented by .....?• Einstein Peter Watson
    8. 8. Black Holes• Invented by .....?• Einstein• Hawking? Peter Watson
    9. 9. Black Holes• Invented by .....?• Einstein• Hawking?• Well, actually, John Michell, rector of Thornhill Church in Yorkshire Peter Watson
    10. 10. Black Holes• Invented by .....?• Einstein• Hawking?• Well, actually, John Michell, rector of Thornhill Church in Yorkshire• geologist?philosopher? astronomer? Seismologist? Peter Watson
    11. 11. Black Holes• Invented by .....?• Einstein• Hawking?• Well, actually, John Michell, rector of Thornhill Church in Yorkshire• geologist?philosopher? astronomer? Seismologist?• Polymath. Peter Watson
    12. 12. Black Holes• Invented by .....?• Einstein• Hawking?• Well, actually, John Michell, rector of Thornhill Church in Yorkshire• geologist?philosopher? astronomer? Seismologist?• Polymath.• presented his ideas to the Royal Society in London in 1783. Peter Watson
    13. 13. Peter Watson
    14. 14. • If we throw something up from the earth, it will fall back Peter Watson
    15. 15. • If we throw something up from the earth, it will fall back• Throw it at 11 km/s and it escapes Peter Watson
    16. 16. • If we throw something up from the earth, it will fall back• Throw it at 11 km/s and it escapes• But if the escape velocity is the speed of light c, nothing can escape. Peter Watson
    17. 17. • If we throw something up from the earth, it will fall back• Throw it at 11 km/s and it escapes• But if the escape velocity is the speed of light c, nothing can escape.• If the earth was 4 mm in radius, it would be a Black hole Peter Watson
    18. 18. • If we throw something up from the earth, it will fall back• Throw it at 11 km/s and it escapes• But if the escape velocity is the speed of light c, nothing can escape.• If the earth was 4 mm in radius, it would be a Black hole Peter Watson
    19. 19. • If we throw something up from the earth, it will fall back• Throw it at 11 km/s and it escapes• But if the escape velocity is the speed of light c, nothing can escape.• If the earth was 4 mm in radius, it would be a Black hole Peter Watson
    20. 20. • One way to see a black hole: it’s black!• If we are really lucky....(or unlucky) as a gap in the sky Too Close to a Black HoleCredit & Copyright: Robert Nemiroff (MTU)< Peter Watson
    21. 21. Peter Watson
    22. 22. • Stuff falling in will become very hot and produce X-rays• Cygnus X-1: visible star ~20 mass of sun• Invisible object M~9Mo• Power output in X-rays is 10,000 x total power output by sun! Peter Watson
    23. 23. • Stuff falling in will become very hot and produce X-rays• Cygnus X-1: visible star ~20 mass of sun• Invisible object M~9Mo• Power output in X-rays is 10,000 x total power output by sun! Peter Watson
    24. 24. But there are much bigger black holes around Peter Watson
    25. 25. But there are much bigger black holes around • This is the Milky way, showing the whole sky Peter Watson
    26. 26. But there are much bigger black holes around • This is the Milky way, showing the whole sky Peter Watson
    27. 27. • If we look at it with radio waves, see very intense source at centre Peter Watson
    28. 28. • which gets brighter as we zoom in Peter Watson
    29. 29. • The stars there are swirling round something 10 million times as heavy as the sun Peter Watson
    30. 30. • The stars there are swirling round something 10 million times as heavy as the sun Peter Watson
    31. 31. • All galaxies seem to have a huge black hole at the centre Peter Watson
    32. 32. • And this is maybe where it is happening now:• Two galaxies have collided and the black holes seem to be coalescing Peter Watson
    33. 33. • And this is maybe where it is happening now:• Two galaxies have collided and the black holes seem to be coalescing 3C75 X-rays from Chandra Peter Watson
    34. 34. • So what do huge things like galaxies have to do with tiny things like protons?• We don’t understand gravity• e.g take two electrons Peter Watson
    35. 35. • So what do huge things like galaxies have to do with tiny things like protons?• We don’t understand gravity• e.g take two electrons Peter Watson
    36. 36. • So what do huge things like galaxies have to do with tiny things like protons?• We don’t understand gravity• e.g take two electronsThere are attracted gravitationally Peter Watson
    37. 37. • So what do huge things like galaxies have to do with tiny things like protons?• We don’t understand gravity• e.g take two electronsThere are attracted They are repelled gravitationally electrostatically Peter Watson
    38. 38. • So what do huge things like galaxies have to do with tiny things like protons? • We don’t understand gravity • e.g take two electrons There are attracted They are repelled gravitationally electrostatically However the electric force is4000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 larger Peter Watson
    39. 39. • So what do huge things like galaxies have to do with tiny things like protons? • We don’t understand gravity • e.g take two electrons There are attracted They are repelled gravitationally electrostatically However the electric force is4000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 largerActually 4.2x1042 times larger: Hitchhiker’s Guide fans note! Peter Watson
    40. 40. • One way out:• Maybe space has more dimensions than 3:• This would make gravity much stronger at short distances: Peter Watson
    41. 41. If Peter Watson
    42. 42. If Peter Watson
    43. 43. • This is true, then we will get a new kind of black holesIf• Very small• Very short-lived• This is what it might look like at in ATLAS Peter Watson
    44. 44. • This is true, then we will get a new kind of black holesIf• Very small• Very short-lived• This is what it might look like at in ATLAS Peter Watson
    45. 45. Peter Watson
    46. 46. • How do we know they won’t grow and escape and consume the world? Peter Watson
    47. 47. • How do we know they won’t grow and escape and consume the world?• The theory that predicts them predicts they will decay (easy come, easy go!) Peter Watson
    48. 48. • How do we know they won’t grow and escape and consume the world? • The theory that predicts them predicts they will decay (easy come, easy go!)• but better: nature has been doing this experiment for 14 billion years with cosmic rays• and we are still here! Peter Watson
    49. 49. Peter Watson
    50. 50. • SO if they exist, the world has 3..4 or 5 or 6 dimensions Peter Watson
    51. 51. • SO if they exist, the world has 3..4 or 5 or 6 dimensions• Thanks to Don Monet, John Flynn for the invitation Peter Watson
    52. 52. • SO if they exist, the world has 3..4 or 5 or 6 dimensions• Thanks to Don Monet, John Flynn for the invitation Peter Watson
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