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Cyberbullying-jf Presentation Transcript

  • 1. CYBER BULLYING
    ‘Demystifying and Deescalating Cyber Bullying’
  • 2. LESSON GOALS
    Terminology
    Assessment Issues & Protocol
    Decision Tree
    ‘PEAS’ PROGRAM:
    Psychological, Educational and Social School Response
  • 3. CYBER BULLYING IS…
    Being cruel to others by sending or posting harmful
    material using technological means;
    an individual or group that uses
    information and communication involving
    electronic technologies to facilitate
    deliberate and repeated harassment or
    threat to an individual or group.
    Also known as:
    ‘Electronic Bullying’ &
    ‘Online Social Cruelty’
  • 4. CYBER BULLIES’ TECHNOLOGY
    • E-mail
    • 5. Cell phones
    • 6. Pager text messages
    • 7. Instant messaging
    • 8. Defamatory personal web sites
    • 9. Defamatory online personal polling web sites
    • 10. Chat rooms
  • DIFFERENCES
    BULLYING
    DIRECT
    Occurs on
    school property
    Poor relationships
    with teachers
    Fear retribution
    Physical: Hitting, Punching & Shoving
    Verbal: Teasing, Name calling & Gossip
    Nonverbal: Use of gestures & Exclusion
    www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov
    CYBERBULLYING
    ANONYMOUS
    Occurs off
    school property
    Good relationships with teachers
    Fear loss of technology privileges
    Further under the radar than bullying
    Emotional reactions cannot be determined
    {McKenna & Bargh, 2004; Ybarra & Mitchell, 2004}
  • 11. CYBER BULLY CATEGORIES
    “Inadvertent”
    • Role-play
    • 12. Responding
    • 13. May not realize it’s cyber bullying
    “Vengeful Angel”
    • Righting wrongs
    • 14. Protecting themselves
    “Mean Girls”
    • Bored; Entertainment
    • 15. Ego based; promote own social status
    • 16. Often do in a group
    • 17. Intimidate on and off line
    • 18. Need others to bully; if isolated, stop
    “Power-Hungry”
    • Want reaction
    • 19. Controlling with fear
    “Revenge of the Nerds”
    (“Subset of Power-Hungry”)
    • Often Victims of school-yard bullies
    • 20. Throw ‘cyber-weight’ around
    • 21. Not school-yard bullies like Power-Hungry & Mean Girls
    {Parry Aftab. Esq., Executive Director, WiredSafety.org}
  • 22. CYBER BULLYING TYPES
    “Flaming’: Online fights using electronic messages with angry and vulgar language
    “Harassment”: Repeatedly sending offensive, rude, and insulting messages
    “Cyber stalking”: Repeatedly sending messages that include threats of harm or are highly intimidating. Engaging in other on-line activities that make a person afraid for his or her own safety
    “Denigration”: ‘Dissing’ someone online. Sending or posting cruel gossip or rumors about a person to damage his or her reputation or friendships
  • 23. CYBER BULLYING TYPES
    “Impersonation”: Pretending to be someone else and sending or posting material online that makes that person look bad, gets that person in trouble or danger, or damages that person’s reputation or friendships
    “Outing and Trickery”: Sharing someone’s secret or embarrassing information online. Tricking someone into revealing secrets or embarrassing information which is then shared online
    “Exclusion”: Intentionally excluding someone from an on-line group, like a ‘buddy list’
    {Nancy Willard, M.S., J.D., Director of the Center for Safe and Responsible Internet Use}
  • 24. CYBER BULLYING PREVALENCE
    Cyber bullying typically starts at about 9 years of age and usually ends after 14 years of age; after 14, it becomes cyber or sexual harassment due to nature of acts and age of actors {Aftab}
    Affects 65-85% of kids in the core group directly or indirectly through close friends (Aftab)
  • 25. CYBER BULLYING PREVALENCE
    Aftab’s statistics:
    • 90% of middle school students they polled had their feelings hurt online
    • 26. 65% of their students between 8-14 have been involved directly or indirectly in a cyber bullying incident as the cyber bully, victim or friend
    • 27. 50% had seen or heard of a website bashing of another student
    • 28. 75% had visited a website bashing
    • 29. 40% had their password stolen and changed by a bully (locking them out of their own account) or sent communications posing as them
    • 30. Problems in studies: not assessing the ‘real thing’
    i.e. Only 15% of parent polled knew what cyber bullying was
  • 31. CYBER BULLYING PREVALENCE
    In the 2003-04 school year, i-SAFE America surveyed students
    from across the country on a new topic: Cyber Bullying
    It is a topic that not many adults were talking about but one that is all too familiar with students.
    42% of kids have been bullied while online. 1 in 4 have had it happen more than once.
    35% of kids have been threatened online. Nearly 1 in 5 have had it happen more than once.
    21% of kids have received mean or threatening e-mail or other messages.
    58% of kids admit someone has said mean or hurtful things to them online. More than 4 out of 10 say it has happened more than once.
    53% of kids admit having said something mean or hurtful to another person online. More than 1 in 3 have done it more than once.
    58% have not told their parents or an adult about something mean or hurtful that happened to them online.
    Based on 2004 i-SAFE survey of 1,500 students grades 4-8 http://www.isafe.org
  • 32. CYBER BULLYING STATISTICS
    *Taken from an i-SAFE America survey of students nationwide.
  • 33. CYBER BULLYING LEGAL ISSUES
    Who May Be Involved:
    • School Counselor
    • 34. Principal
    • 35. Resource Officer
    • 36. Police
    • 37. Attorney (School or Private)
    • 38. Superintendent
    • 39. Internet Service Provider
    General (Willard, 2005)
    School Limits:
    Schools have policies against bullying
    Civil Law Limits:
    Cyber bullying may also meet standards for ‘institutional torts’ (wrongdoings)
    Defamation
    Material that Constitutes an Invasion of Privacy
    (1st Amendment)
    Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress
  • 40. CYBER BULLYING LEGAL ISSUES
    Criminal Law Limits
    The following kinds of speech can lead to arrest & prosecution:
    Making threats of violence to people or their property
    Engaging in coercion
    Making obscene or harassing phone calls
    Harassment or stalking
    Hate or bias crimes
    Creating or sending sexually explicit images of teens
    Sexual exploitation
    Taking a photo of someone in place where privacy expected
    General (Willard, 2005)
  • 41. CYBER BULLYING LEGAL ISSUES
    ‘Educator’s Guide To Cyber bullying:
    Addressing the Harm of On-line Social Cruelty’
    (Nancy Willard, 2005)
    Law Enforcement should be contacted if
    educator becomes aware of:
    Death threats or threats of other forms of violence to a person or property
    Excessive intimidation or extortion
    Threats or intimidation that involve any form of bias or discrimination
    Any evidence of sexual exploitation
  • 42. CYBER BULLYING LEGAL ISSUES
    ‘Offsite Internet Activities and Schools’
    (Copyright 2005 Parry Aftab, Esq. All rights reserved)
    Conflicting decisions in regard to school’s authority with respect to cases under state and federal jurisdictions
    School should seek legal consult often beyond regular school attorney(e.g., a constitutional or cyber-free speech lawyer)
    ‘Within School Authority’ Guidelines:
    Clear-cut threats
    Clearly disruptive of school discipline
    encouraged to visit website; student accesses or works on
    website in school
    School owned website or school-sponsored project website
    Any proof of in-school impact (e.g., materials on grounds; psychosocial, behavioral or academic impact on others)
    Proof the student’s website or harassment has had impact on
    staff
    (e.g., quits, leave of absence, medical TX for emotional issues)- otherwise seek outside legal recourse
  • 43. CYBER BULLYING LEGAL ISSUES
    ‘What Everyone Needs to Know About Cyber Bullying’
    (Aftab)
    Many cases of child cyber bullying, like adult
    counterparts of cyber-harassment, not criminal
    Law Enforcement needs to be aware of:
    Difference between annoying and dangerous communications
    How to investigate a cyber crime
    How to obtain information from an ISP
  • 44. CURRENT ANTI-BULLYING PROGRAMS
    Traditional Program Concerns
    (Fleming, Towey, Limber, Gross, Rubin, Wright & Anderson, 2002)
    Zero Tolerance & “3 Strikes & Out”
    Negatively impacts on willingness to report
    Casts large net
    Bullies need pro-social role models
    Anger Management, Skill Building, Empathy Building, Self-Esteem Enhancement
    Group members serve as role models & reinforcers of bullying, anti-social
    behavior
    Bullies don’t need self-esteem boosted
    Mediation
    Appropriate in cases of equal power, not bully & victim
    Parallels possible in doing mediation in domestic violence
    Appropriate message to bullies: Your behavior is inappropriate, won’t be
    tolerated
    Message to victim: No one deserves to be bullied and we’re going to try to
    stop it
  • 45. CURRENT ANTI-BULLYING PROGRAMS
    Articles:
    • “Zero Tolerance Policies Encourage ‘Lockdown Environment’ in Schools”(Fuentes, 2003)
    • 46. “One Strike and You’re Out of School” (Joiner, 2004)
    Youthful suicide, financial ruin, families torn apart for minor infractions.: How post Columbine hysteria is wrecking lives
    • “Every Child is Worth Saving” (http://endzeroltolerance.com)
    Additional Lists of Articles & Commentaries
    • ‘News” (http://www.jlc.org/EZT/News/default/html?id=Jan05)
    Summary
    Children taught to not fight back
    Frequently have adults such as teachers ‘protect’ them
    Those being bullied often want friends or are fearful so don’t ‘narc’
    Having been bullied, may have poor self-esteem
    All involved in cyber bullying not caught, assessed or disciplined
    Adults may be seemingly unresponsive
    …..retaliation on-line
  • 47. CURRENT CYBER BULLYING PROGRAMS & RESONSES
    (Aftab, PowerPoint communication)
    PROGRAM OFFERINGS:
    • Teenangels.org: trains teens & preteens to be part of solution
    • 48. WiredKids and WiredTeens” programs for schools and communities
    • 49. Wiredsafety.org: one to one hotline and multiple resources
    Videos, Lesson Plans and Activities
    • Parent and Community Programs
    • 50. Law enforcement training and briefings
    • 51. Local county level summits on cyber bullying
    • 52. Assistance on technological software & tools to help

  • 53. CURRENT CYBER BULLYINGPROGRAMS & RESPONSES
    What Everyone Needs to Know About Cyber bullying’ (Aftab)
    Education of Children:
    All actions have consequences
    Cyber bullying hurts
    They are just being used and manipulated by cyber bully
    Cyber bully and accomplices often become the target of cyber bullying themselves
    Care about others and stand up for what’s right
  • 54. CURRENT CYBER BULLYINGPROGRAMS & RESPONSES
    Comprehensive Plan (Willard, 2005)
    Schools
    • Policies concerning misuse of technology
    • 55. Evaluate how staff is and can more effectively monitor Internet use
    Parents
    • Discuss cyber bullying
    • 56. Supervise and increase effective monitoring of Internet use
    Since more adults supervise, more children will hide
    activities, strategies needed to change social norms
    in these on-line works, empower the victim with
    knowledge how to prevent & respond, & to
    discourage bullies from engaging in such activities
  • 57. CURRENT CYBER BULLYINGPROGRAMS & RESPONSES
    Schools should:
    Focus on values of kindness and respectful human relations
    Enhancement of empathic awareness
    Develop effective problem solving skills
    Empowerment of bystanders
  • 58. CURRENT CYBER BULLYING ASSESSMENT(Willard, 2005)
    Specific Step Wise Plan:
    1Engage in participatory planning {Integrate into Safe Schools. District Technology Awareness; Non-school Participants}
    2 Conduct needs assessment {Assessment available at Center for Safe & Responsible Internet Use}
    3 Ensure that an effective anti--bullying program in place {core not authoritarian values; predictive empathy; peer norms vs. bullying; peer intervention skills, effective administrative responses}
    4 Review policies & Procedures {Monitoring, report box, internet & other technological pp}
    5 Conduct Professional Development {key individual sophisticated in the area; all administrators, librarians, counselors and technology educators basic understanding; all other staff alerted to existence, how to detect}
    6 Provide Parent Education {prevention, detection & intervention strategies; alert child to potential consequences of school discipline, loss of family account, civil litigation, criminal prosecution}
    7 Evaluate {prevention & intervention programs}
  • 59. CURRENT CYBER BULLYINGPROGRAMS & RESPONSES
    Intervention Strategies for Cyber bullying Directed at Student
    1-Save the evidence
    2-Conduct a threat assessment {if cyber bullying poses substantial disruption, violence or suicide concerns; contact law enforcement if threats of violence}
    3-Assesss response options {direct school nexus may warrant school disciplinary action; if off campus and not substantial threat, no disciplinary action but help victim}
    4-Identify the Perpetrators {technical assistance; assess validity of person’s identity; offer technical assistance to parents}
    5-Supprt the victim {even if no disciplinary action, offer support and assistance to victim and parents; offer counseling mediation, technical assistance; direct to community resources}
    6-Provide guidance on how to remove the speech
    7-Seek to use informal resolution strategies {contact perpetrator parents, offer assistance, suggest legal consultation; offer counseling, mediation in school; recognize the cyber bully is a hurt kid and try to help both victim and perpetrator
    Intervention Strategies for Cyber bullying Directed at Staff
    1- Assess Type of Speech
    2- Take action based on assessment
  • 60. CURRENT CYBER BULLYING ASSESSMENT
    What Everyone Needs to Know About Cyber bullying’ (Aftab)
    Assessment to differentiate between ‘rude communications’ and ‘cyber bullying’:
    1- Kind of Threats
    2- Frequency of Threat
    3- Source of Threats
    4- Nature of the Threats
    … The more frequent, the greater the threat, the mention of more dangerous methods & the involvement of third parties tends to increase the seriousness of the threat
    Knowing the cyber bully may increase or decrease the threat
  • 61. ASSESSMENT TREE{‘PEAS’ PROGRAM}
    Cyber Bully Incident Report
    Complete report & collect evidence
    Assessment
    Methods
    Interview
    Collateral info
    Assess. Forms
    Standardized Instr. (SAVRY)
    Domains
    Family
    School
    Social
    Multiple Factors
    Risk vs. Resiliency
    Informants
    Parents
    Teachers
    Students
    Administrators
    Dispositions
    Contacts
    Parents
    Administration
    Police
    Disciplinary
    Detention
    Suspension
    Expulsion
    Arrest
    Therapeutic
    PEAS Program
    Family Support Ctr.
    Outside Counseling
    Residential Treatment
    Ongoing Prevention
  • 62. CYBER BULLYING ASSESSMENT{‘PEAS’ PROGRAM}
    ASSESSMENT:
    Interview & Evidence Gathering
    Collateral Information/Evidence Collection
    Cyber Bully Assessments
    Student Form
    School Counselor Form
    Standardized Instruments {SAVRY}
    RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DISPOSITION:
    DisciplinaryTherapeutic
    Detention Outside Counseling
    Suspension ‘PEAS’ Program:
    Expulsion Psychological Educational Social School Response
  • 63. ‘PEAS’ PROGRAMPsychological-Educational-And-Social
    ‘P’-PSYCHOLOGICAL:
    1. Outside Counseling Referral
    2. Family Support Center Referral
    3. In-School Counseling
    4. Anger Management group
    5. Peer Mediation & Conflict Resolution {cyber bullies}
    6. Apology & Impact Statement
    7. ‘On-Line Safe Box’
  • 64. ‘PEAS’ PROGRAMPsychological-Educational-And-Social
    ‘E’-EDUCATIONAL:
    1. CURRICULUM INFUSION
    ELA Assignments-
    Movie Documentary
    Book/Movie Review/Report
    Poem/Short Story/Song
    Writing a play/paper
    Watch Movie ‘Inbox’ and discuss impact/develop program
    Social Studies
    Review of People in History who were bullied
    Mock trial regarding injustices/victimization
    Technology
    Use/Misuses
    Safety Review
    Develop Positive Websites
    Art
    Anti-Cyber bullying posters
    ‘Cyber Bullying Curriculum’ (Nancy Willard)
  • 65. ‘PEAS’ PROGRAMPsychological-Educational-And-Social
    ‘E’-EDUCATIONAL: Continued
    2. PEER MATCHING:
    Higher/lower grade reading, tutor
    Higher/lower grade play production
    Higher/lower grade cyber bully {‘recovered’/’charged’}
    Pen Pals
    Extracurricular Activities (match cyber bullyer/ee)
    3. SCHOOL ASSEMBLIES:
    High school student small group discussion
    on impact/consequences of cyber bullying/being cyber bullied
    Lawyer to discuss possible legal consequences/
    Former student, possibly at the high school, involved in cyber bullying, and/or legally charged for cyber bullying
    Current Teacher/Administrator/Parent involved in cyber bullying
  • 66. ‘PEAS’ PROGRAMPsychological-Educational-And-Social
    ‘E’-EDUCATIONAL: Continued
    4. DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS:
    5. PARENT EDUCATION:
    Uses/Misuses of Technology
    Supervision Strategies
    6. SCHOOL STAFF IN-SERVICES:
    Types
    Assessment
    Responses
    Program Evaluation
  • 67. ‘PEAS’ PROGRAMPsychological-Educational-And-Social
    ‘S’-SOCIAL:
    1. EXTRACURRICULAR/PROJECTS:
    Intramural/Projects between Classes Beyond Sports
    Homework Completion & Pizza Party
    Fundraising & Award/Rewards
    School Socials
    Plays on Topic
    Art contest
    School/Community Newspaper article
    Visit to Foster care/geriatric settings
    2. DRESS POLICY:
    Dress Code - Decrease Comparisons & Possibility of ‘Deviant Dress’
    3. PEER MATCHING:
    Higher/lower grade reading, tutor
    Higher/lower grade play production
    Higher/lower grade cyber bully {‘recovered’/’charged’}
    Pen Pals
    Extracurricular Activities (match cyber bullyer/ee)
  • 68. CONCLUDING THOUGHTS
    A Need For:
    • A better understanding of what cyber bullying is
    • 69. Addressing appropriate computer protocol and specifically cyber bullying via the schools’ clearly defined and systematically implemented AUP so that schools can provide intervention even in instances that occur outside of school
    • 70. Clearer delineation of school responsibility in responding to incidents, especially off school grounds
    • 71. Clearer school policies and action plans; increased continuity in implementing school responses
    • 72. Increased assessment of incidents and those involved
    • 73. Decision making regarding the cyber bully and the individual being cyber bullied based on:
           A decision tree protocol
    Assessment process
    • Systematic, therapeutic responses, not isolated disciplinary reactions
    • 74. Integration of educational, psycho-social interventions
    • 75. Inclusion of prevention measures that are comprehensive and systemic in approach
    • 76. Communication among students, counselors, teachers, administrators, parents & community
    • 77. Individualized responses, with understanding that a wide degree of variation exists in motivation
    • 78. Change needs to come from all levels and grades: Individual
    Classroom
    School culture
    • Victimization often occurs with both the person being cyber bullied and the cyber bully
    • 79. Important to ‘not throw the baby out with the bathwater’…
    Our children are not disposable!