history and philosophy of science


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  • Modern science established only 400 years ago while Philosohy for 3000 years3.Philosophy uses logical arguments and dialectics while science uses hypothesis testing (empirical-based).5.Science bases its explanations from experimentation and observation while philosophy bases its explanation on an argument of principles.Epistemology- theory of knowledge in philosophical inquiry
  • Gale3.Reynolds4.If the research findings fail to corresponds with the theoretcal assertions, additional research or change to the theories are madePythagoras believed knowledge of the natural world would develop from mathematical reasoningEinstein- best example. Theory of relativity. Mostly mathematical equations no experiments.
  • Aristotle believed advances in biological science wod develop through systematic observation of objects and events1. Gale2. Bacon4.Reynolds
  • Minimal interest in the history of science, nature of scientific discovery
  • Experiment- observe- preliminary hypothesis- experiment to test the hypothesis- modify the hypothesisTheory and empirical facts are independent of each other. There is only one objective truth
  • FoucaltSchultzbrown
  • Empiricist -for science to maintain objectivity. data collection and analysis must be independent of theoryObjective truth exist in the world, waiting to be discovered.Brown A chemist and a child walking past a house, the chemist perceived the smell of sulfur dioxide and the child smelled rotten eggs. (same observable data but different cognitive interpretations.)
  • history and philosophy of science

    1. 1. History and Philosophy of Science Alfred Roy P. Manuzon, RN
    2. 2. Content • Rationalism • Empiricism • Science and Theory in the Early 20th Century • Science and Theory in the Late 20th Century
    3. 3. Rationalism • Power of reason • Emphasizes the importance of priori reasoning as the appropriate method in advancing knowledge • Theory-then-research strategy • Develop a systematic explanation (theory) of a given phenomenon then subject this to experiments
    4. 4. Empiricism • Power or sensory experience • Scientific truth was discovered through generalizing observed facts in the natural world. • Collection of facts precedes attempts to formulate generalizations • Research-then-theory strategy
    5. 5. Science and Theory in the Early 20th Century • Philosophers focused on the analysis of theory structure • Scientists focused on empirical research • Minimal interest in the history of science, nature of scientific discover, or the similarities between the philosophical views of science and the scientific methods • Positivism emerged as dominant view of science
    6. 6. Positivism • Logical positivist- empirical research and logical analysis were two approaches that would produce scientific knowledge. • Theories must be tested through observation and experimentation • Empirical facts exist independently of theories and offer the only basis for objectivity in science
    7. 7. Science and Theory in the Late 20th Century • Empirical knowledge was arranged in different patterns at a given time, and in a given culture • Scientists seeking to understand the social world cannot cognitively know an external world that is independent of their own life experiences • Focus on science as a process of continuing research rather than the emphasis on accepted findings • Emphasis was on understanding scientific discovery and the process involved in changes in theories over time
    8. 8. Science and Theory in the Late 20th Century • Theories play a significant role in determining what the scientist will observe and how it will be interpreted • Observations are influenced by ideas in the mind of the observer • Science is viewed as an ongoing process • It is a myth that science can establish final truths. • Tentative consensus based on reasoned judgements about available evidence is the most that can be expected
    9. 9. End