The Science of Learning


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The Science of Learning

  1. 1. The Science of Learning Prepared by: Pamela Joy S. Seriosa
  2. 2. Part I LEARNING
  3. 3. What is learning? Is a relatively permanent change in mental processing, emotional functioning and / or behaviour as a result of experience (Bastable 2002) Has a lasting or permanent change in behaviour A complex process which involves changes in mental processing, development of emotional functioning and social skills Starts from birth and ends in death
  4. 4. How does learning occur? 1. Interaction with the environment (e.g. society, culture) 2. Incorporation of new information or experience to pre-existing knowledge. 3. Learning style of the learner.
  5. 5. Learning Styles 1. Right brain/ left brain and whole brain thinking 2. Field-independent and field-dependent perception 3. Dunn and Dunn learning styles 4. Jung and Myer-Briggs typology
  6. 6. Learning Styles (Contd) 5. Kolb’s experiential learning model 6. 4MAT system 7. Theory of Multiple Intelligences 8. VARK learning styles
  7. 7. 1. Right brain/ left brain and whole brain thinking Although not technically a model, it adds our understanding on how the brain functions that are associated with learning. The brain is divided by 2 parts, the left and right hemisphere. These two parts are connected by the corpus callosum which serves as a link between the 2 hemispheres. Individuals have a preferred hemisphere (dominancy) or both
  8. 8. Hemisphere Functions Left Hemisphere • • • • • • • • • Thinking is critical, logical, convergent, focal Analytical Prefers talking and writing Recognizes and remembers names Solves problems via breaking of parts, sequential in problem solving and uses logic Good organizational skills Likes stability willing to adhere to rules Not as good in interpreting body language Controls emotions
  9. 9. Hemisphere Functions (Contd) Right Hemisphere • • • • Thinking is creative, intuitive, divergent, diffuse Synthesizing Prefers drawing and manipulating objects Solves problems by looking at the whole, the configurations, then approaches the problem through pattern via hunches • Loose organizational skills, sloopy • Good at interpreting body language • Free with emotions
  10. 10. 2. Field Independent/Dependent Learning Styles Studied by Witkin, Oltman, Raskin and Carp This is based on the bipolar distribution of the characteristics of how learners process and structure information within the environment. Field Independence hinges on the perceptual skill of "seeing the forest for the trees." A person who can easily recognize the hidden castle or human face in 3-D posters and a child who can spot the monkeys camouflaged within the trees and leaves of an exotic forest in coloring books tend toward a field independent style. The "field" may be perceptual or it may be abstract, such as a set of ideas, thoughts, or feelings from which the task is to perceive specific subsets. Field dependence is, conversely, the tendency to be "dependent" on the total field so that the parts embedded within the field are not easily perceived, though that total field is perceived most clearly as a unified whole (Brown: 1994).
  11. 11. Field independence Field dependence 1. Impersonal orientation 1. Personal orientation i.e. reliance on internal frame of reference in i.e. reliance on external frame of reference in processing information processing information 2. Analytic i.e. perceives a field in terms of its component parts; parts are distinguished from background 2. Holistic i.e. perceives field as a whole; parts are fused with background 3. Independent i.e. sense of separate identity 3. Dependent i.e. the self view is derived from others 4. Socially sensitive i.e. greater skill in interpersonal/social relationships 4. Not so socially aware i.e. less skilled in interpersonal/social relationships
  12. 12. 3. The Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model The Dunn and Dunn Learning Style Model indicates a range of variables proven to influence the achievements of individual learners from kindergarten age to adulthood. Each learner has his or her own unique combination of preferences. Some preferences may be strong, in which case the learner will benefit significantly if the need is addressed when he or she is learning challenging content. Others preferences may be moderate – worth addressing if learning isn’t progressing smoothly. For some variables, no preference may be indicated. The learner’s ability to engage with the work and to achieve success may depend on extraneous factors or his/her level of interest in the subject - or it may be that that particular variable has no real bearing on the learner’s ability to concentrate and study.
  13. 13. 4. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Myers and Briggs extrapolated their MBTI theory from Jung's writings in his book Psychological Types. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assessment is a psychometric questionnaire designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions. These preferences were extrapolated from the typological theories proposed by Carl Gustav Jung and first published in his 1921 book Psychological Types (English edition, 1923). Jung theorized that there are four principal psychological functions by which we experience the world: sensation, intuition, feeling, and thinking. One of these four functions is dominant most of the time. The original developers of the personality inventory were Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers; these two, having studied extensively the work of Jung, turned their interest of human behavior into a devotion of turning the theory of psychological types to practical use. They began creating the indicator during World War II, believing that a knowledge of personality preferences would help women who were entering the industrial workforce for the first time to identify the sort of wartime jobs that would be "most comfortable and effective". The initial questionnaire grew into the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, which was first published in 1962. The MBTI focuses on normal populations and emphasizes the value of naturally occurring differences. Robert Kaplan and Dennis Saccuzzo believe "the underlying assumption of the MBTI is that we all have specific preferences in the way we construe our experiences, and these preferences underlie our interests, needs, values, and motivation" (p. 499).
  14. 14. Concepts Fundamental to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is the theory of psychological type as originally developed by Carl Jung. Jung proposed the existence of two dichotomous pairs of cognitive functions: • The "rational" (judging) functions: thinking and feeling • The "irrational" (perceiving) functions: sensation and intuition Jung believed that for every person each of the functions are expressed primarily in either an introverted or extraverted form
  15. 15. Types Jung's typological model regards psychological type as similar to left or right handedness: individuals are either born with, or develop, certain preferred ways of perceiving and deciding. The MBTI sorts some of these psychological differences into four opposite pairs, or dichotomies, with a resulting 16 possible psychological types. None of these types are better or worse; however, Briggs and Myers theorized that individuals naturally prefer one overall combination of type differences.[1]:9 In the same way that writing with the left hand is hard work for a right-hander, so people tend to find using their opposite psychological preferences more difficult, even if they can become more proficient (and therefore behaviorally flexible) with practice and development. The 16 types are typically referred to by an abbreviation of four letters—the initial letters of each of their four type preferences (except in the case of intuition, which uses the abbreviation N to distinguish it from Introversion). For instance: • ESTJ: extraversion (E), sensing (S), thinking (T), judgment (J) • INFP: introversion (I), intuition (N), feeling (F), perception (P) This method of abbreviation is applied to all 16 types.
  16. 16. Four dichotomies Extraversion (E) – (I) Introversion Sensing (S) Thinking (T) Judging (J) – – – (N) Intuition (F) Feeling (P) Perception
  17. 17. Attitudes: extraversion/introversion (E/I) The preferences for extraversion and introversion are often called "attitudes". Briggs and Myers recognized that each of the cognitive functions can operate in the external world of behavior, action, people, and things ("extraverted attitude") or the internal world of ideas and reflection ("introverted attitude"). The MBTI assessment sorts for an overall preference for one or the other. People who prefer extraversion draw energy from action: they tend to act, then reflect, then act further. If they are inactive, their motivation tends to decline. To rebuild their energy, extraverts need breaks from time spent in reflection. Conversely, those who prefer introversion "expend" energy through action: they prefer to reflect, then act, then reflect again. To rebuild their energy, introverts need quiet time alone, away from activity. The extravert's flow is directed outward toward people and objects, and the introvert's is directed inward toward concepts and ideas. Contrasting characteristics between extraverts and introverts include the following: • Extraverts are "action" oriented, while introverts are "thought" oriented. • Extraverts seek "breadth" of knowledge and influence, while introverts seek "depth" of knowledge and influence. • Extraverts often prefer more "frequent" interaction, while introverts prefer more "substantial" interaction. • Extraverts recharge and get their energy from spending time with people, while introverts recharge and get their energy from spending time alo
  18. 18. Functions: sensing/intuition (S/N) and thinking/feeling (T/F) The two perceiving functions, sensing and intuition The two judging functions, thinking and feeling According to Jung's typology model, each person uses one of these four functions more dominantly and proficiently than the other three; however, all four functions are used at different times depending on the circumstances. Sensing and intuition are the information-gathering (perceiving) functions. They describe how new information is understood and interpreted. Individuals who prefer sensing are more likely to trust information that is in the present, tangible, and concrete: that is, information that can be understood by the five senses. Thinking and feeling are the decision-making (judging) functions. The thinking and feeling functions are both used to make rational decisions, based on the data received from their information-gathering functions (sensing or intuition). Those who prefer thinking tend to decide things from a more detached standpoint, measuring the decision by what seems reasonable, logical, causal, consistent, and matching a given set of rules. Those who prefer feeling tend to come to decisions by associating or empathizing with the situation, looking at it 'from the inside' and weighing the situation to achieve, on balance, the greatest harmony, consensus and fit, considering the needs of the people involved. Thinkers usually have trouble interacting with people who are inconsistent or illogical, and tend to give very direct feedback to others. They are concerned with the truth and view it as more important than being tactful. As noted already, people who prefer thinking do not necessarily, in the everyday sense, "think better" than their feeling counterparts; the opposite preference is considered an equally rational way of coming to decisions (and, in any case, the MBTI assessment is a measure of preference, not ability). Similarly, those who prefer feeling do not necessarily have "better" emotional reactions than their thinking counterparts.
  19. 19. Dominant function
  20. 20. A diagram depicting the cognitive functions of each type. A type's background color represents its Dominant function, and its text color represents its Auxiliary function. According to Jung, people use all four cognitive functions. However, one function is generally used in a more conscious and confident way. This dominant function is supported by the secondary (auxiliary) function, and to a lesser degree the tertiary function. The fourth and least conscious function is always the opposite of the dominant function. Myers called this inferior function the shadow. The four functions operate in conjunction with the attitudes (extraversion and introversion). Each function is used in either an extraverted or introverted way. A person whose dominant function is extraverted intuition, for example, uses intuition very differently from someone whose dominant function is introverted intuition.
  21. 21. Lifestyle: judging/perception (J/P) Myers and Briggs added another dimension to Jung's typological model by identifying that people also have a preference for using either the judging function (thinking or feeling) or their perceiving function (sensing or intuition) when relating to the outside world (extraversion). Myers and Briggs held that types with a preference for judging show the world their preferred judging function (thinking or feeling). So TJ types tend to appear to the world as logical, and FJ types asempathetic. According to Myers,judging types like to "have matters settled". Those types who prefer perception show the world their preferred perceiving function (sensing or intuition). So SP types tend to appear to the world as concrete and NP types as abstract. According to Myers, perceptive types prefer to "keep decisions open". For extraverts, the J or P indicates their dominant function; for introverts, the J or P indicates their auxiliary function. Introverts tend to show their dominant function outwardly only in matters "important to their inner worlds". For example: Because the ENTJ type is extraverted, the J indicates that the dominant function is the preferred judging function (extraverted thinking). The ENTJ type introverts the auxiliary perceiving function (introverted intuition). The tertiary function is sensing and the inferior function is introverted feeling. Because the INTJ type is introverted, however, the J instead indicates that the auxiliary function is the preferred judging function (extraverted thinking). The INTJ type introverts the dominant perceiving function (introverted intuition). The tertiary function is feeling and the inferior function is extraverted sensing.
  22. 22. 5. Kolb Experiencial Learning Style David Kolb published his learning styles model in 1984 from which he developed his learning style inventory. Kolb's experiential learning theory works on two levels: a four stage cycle of learning and four separate learning styles. Much of Kolb’s theory is concerned with the learner’s internal cognitive processes. Kolb states that learning involves the acquisition of abstract concepts that can be applied flexibly in a range of situations. In Kolb’s theory, the impetus for the development of new concepts is provided by new experiences. “Learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience” (David A. Kolb, 1984).
  23. 23. The Experiential Learning Cycle Kolb's experiential learning style theory is typically represented by afour stage learning cycle in which the learner 'touches all the bases': 1. Concrete Experience - (a new experience of situation is encountered, or a reinterpretation of existing experience). 2. Reflective Observation (of the new experience. Of particular importance are any inconsistencies between experience and understanding). 3. Abstract Conceptualization (Reflection gives rise t o a new idea, or a modification of an existing abstract concept). 4. Active Experimentation (the learner applies them to the world around them to see what results).
  24. 24. Effective learning is seen when a person progresses through a cycle of four stages: of (1) having a concrete experience followed by (2) observation of and reflection on that experience which leads to (3) the formation of abstract concepts (analysis) and generalizations (conclusions) which are then (4) used to test hypothesis in future situations, resulting in new experiences.
  25. 25. Kolb (1975) views learning as an integrated process with each stage being mutually supportive of and feeding into the next. It is possible to enter the cycle at any stage and follow it through its logical sequence. However, effective learning only occurs when when a learner is able to execute all four stages of the model. Therefore, no one stage of the cycle is an effective as a learning procedure on its own.
  26. 26. 6. 4MAT System Developed by Bernice McCarthy, author of 4MAT in Action: Creative Lesson Plans for Teaching to Learning Styles with Right/Left Mode Techniques. This cycle of learning is based on a number of premises. First, different individuals perceive and process experience in different preferred ways. These preferences comprise our unique learning styles. Essential to quality learning is an awareness in the learner of his/her own preferred mode, becoming comfortable with his/her own best ways of learning, and being helped to develop a learning repertoire, through experience with alternative modes. The fact that a student may have a preferred, most-comfortable mode does not mean she/he cannot function effectively in others. In fact, the student who has the flexibility to move easily from one mode to another to fit the requirements of the situation is at a definite advantage over those who limit themselves to only one style of thinking and learning. The four learning styles identified by McCarthy are:
  27. 27. Type 1: Innovative Learners are primarily interested in personal meaning. They need to have reasons for learning--ideally, reasons that connect new information with personal experience and establish that information's usefulness in daily life. Some of the many instructional modes effective with this learner type are cooperative learning, brainstorming, and integration of content areas (e.g., science with social studies, writing with the arts, etc.). Type 2: Analytic Learners are primarily interested in acquiring facts in order to deepen their understanding of concepts and processes. They are capable of learning effectively from lectures, and enjoy independent research, analysis of data, and hearing what "the experts" have to say. Type 3: Common Sense Learners are primarily interested in how things work; they want to "get in and try it." Concrete, experiential learning activities work best for them--using manipulatives, hands-on tasks, kinesthetic experience, etc. Type 4: Dynamic Learners are primarily interested in self-directed discovery. They rely heavily on their own intuition, and seek to teach both themselves and others. Any type of independent study is effective for these learners. They also enjoy simulations, role play, and games.
  28. 28. This curriculum is designed so that all styles are addressed, in order that more than one type of student may be permitted to both "shine" and "stretch." That is, each lesson contains "something for everybody," so each student not only finds the mode of greatest comfort for him/her, but is challenged to adapt to other, less comfortable but equally valuable modes. The instructional sequence suggested by Bernice McCarthy and used in this curriculum teaches to the four styles using both right- and left-brain processing techniques. This integration of styles and processing modes ensures that we are educating the "whole brain."
  29. 29. 7. Theory of multiple intelligences Proposed by Howard Gardner in his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences as a model of intelligence that differentiates it into specific (primarily sensory) "modalities", rather than seeing it as dominated by a single general ability. Gardner argues that there is a wide range of cognitive abilities, but that there are only very weak correlations among them. For example, the theory postulates that a child who learns to multiply easily is not necessarily more intelligent than a child who has more difficulty on this task. The child who takes more time to master multiplication may best learn to multiply through a different approach, may excel in a field outside mathematics, or may be looking at and understanding the multiplication process at a fundamentally deeper level. Such a fundamental understanding can result in slowness and can hide a mathematical intelligence potentially higher than that of a child who quickly memorizes the multiplication table despite possessing a shallower understanding of the process of multiplication.
  30. 30. Gardner chose eight abilities that he held to meet these criteria:spatial, linguistic, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic. He later suggested that existential and moral intelligence may also be worthy of inclusion.
  31. 31. Logical-mathematical This area has to do with logic, abstractions, reasoning, numbers and critical thinking. This also has to do with having the capacity to understand the underlying principles of some kind of causal system. Logical reasoning is closely linked to fluid intelligence and to general intelligence
  32. 32. Spatial intelligence This area deals with spatial judgment and the ability to visualize with the mind's eye. Spatial ability is one of the three factors beneath g in the hierarchical model of intelligence.
  33. 33. Linguistic People with high verbal-linguistic intelligence display a facility with words and languages. They are typically good at reading, writing, telling stories and memorizing words along with dates. Verbal ability is one of the most g-loaded abilities.
  34. 34. Bodily-kinesthetic The core elements of the bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are control of one's bodily motions and the capacity to handle objects skillfully. Gardner elaborates to say that this also includes a sense of timing, a clear sense of the goal of a physical action, along with the ability to train responses. People who have bodily-kinesthetic intelligence should learn better by involving muscular movement (e.g. getting up and moving around into the learning experience), and be generally good at physical activities such as sports, dance, acting, and making things. Gardner believes that careers that suit those with this intelligence include: athletes, pilots, dancers, musicians, actors, surgeons, builders, police officers, and soldiers. Although these careers can be duplicated through virtual simulation, they will not produce the actual physical learning that is needed in this intelligence.
  35. 35. Musical This area has to do with sensitivity to sounds, rhythms, tones, and music. People with a high musical intelligence normally have good pitch and may even have absolute pitch, and are able to sing, play musical instruments, and compose music. Since there is a strong auditory component to this intelligence, those who are strongest in it may learn best via lecture. They will sometimes use songs or rhythms to learn. They have sensitivity to rhythm, pitch, meter, tone, melody or timbre.
  36. 36. Interpersonal This area has to do with interaction with others. In theory, individuals who have high interpersonal intelligence are characterized by their sensitivity to others' moods, feelings, temperaments and motivations, and their ability to cooperate in order to work as part of a group. According to Gardner in How Are Kids Smart: Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom, "Inter- and Intra- personal intelligence is often misunderstood with being extroverted or liking other people..." Those with this intelligence communicate effectively and empathize easily with others, and may be either leaders or followers. They typically learn best by working with others and often enjoy discussion and debate. Gardner believes that careers that suit those with this intelligence include sales persons , politicians, managers, teachers, counselors and social workers
  37. 37. Intrapersonal This area has to do with introspective and selfreflective capacities. This refers to having a deep understanding of the self; what your strengths/ weaknesses are, what makes you unique, being able to predict your own reactions/emotions.
  38. 38. Naturalistic This area has to do with nurturing and relating information to one’s natural surroundings. Examples include classifying natural forms such as animal and plant species and rocks and mountain types. This ability was clearly of value in our evolutionary past as hunters, gatherers, and farmers; it continues to be central in such roles as botanist or chef.
  39. 39. Existential Some proponents of multiple intelligence theory proposed spiritual or religious intelligence as a possible additional type. Gardner did not want to commit to a spiritual intelligence, but suggested that an "existential" intelligence may be a useful construct. The hypothesis of an existential intelligence has been further explored by educational researchers.
  40. 40. 8. VARK Learning Styles Visual, Aural, Reading, and Kinesthetic Learning The popularity of this concept grew dramatically during the 1970s and 1980s, despite the evidence suggesting that personal learning preferences have no actual influence on learning results. While the existing research has found that matching teaching methods to learning styles had no influence on educational outcomes, the concept of learning styles remains extremely popular. There are many different ways of categorizing learning styles including Kolb's model and the Jungian learning styles. Neil Fleming's VARK model is one of the most popular representations. In 1987, Fleming developed an inventory designed to help students and others learn more about their individual learning preferences. In Fleming's model, sometimes referred to VARK learning styles, learners are identified by whether they have a preference for visual learning (pictures, movies, diagrams), auditory learning (music, discussion, lectures), reading and writing (making lists, reading textbooks, taking notes), or kinaesthetic learning (movement, experiments, hands-on activities).
  41. 41. Visual Learners Visual learners learn best by seeing. Graphic displays such as charts, diagrams, illustrations, hand-outs, and videos are all helpful learning tools for visual learners. People who prefer this type of learning would rather see information presented in a visual rather than in written form. If you think you might be a visual learner, answer the following questions: •Do you have to see information in order to remember it? •Do you pay close attention to body language? •Is art, beauty, and aesthetics important to you? •Does visualizing information in your mind help you remember it better? If you can answer yes to most of these questions, chances are good that you have a visual learning style.
  42. 42. Aural Learners Aural (or auditory) learners learn best by hearing information. They tend to get a great deal out of lectures and are good at remembering things they are told. Are you an auditory learner? Consider the following questions: •Do you prefer to listen to class lectures rather than reading from the textbook? •Does reading out loud help you remember information better? •Would you prefer to listen to a recording of your class lectures or a podcast rather than going over your class notes? •Do you create songs to help remember information? If you answered yes to most of these questions, then you are probably an auditory learner.
  43. 43. Reading and Writing Learners Reading and writing learners prefer to take in information displayed as words. Learning materials that are primarily text-based are strongly preferred by these learners. Could you be a reading and writing learner? Read through the following questions and think about whether they might apply to you. • Do you find reading your textbook to be a great way to learn new information? • Do you take a lot of notes during class and while reading your books? • Do you enjoy making lists, reading definitions, and creating PowerPoint presentations? • Do you prefer it when teachers make use of overheads and hand-outs? If you answered yes to these questions, it is likely that you have a strong preference for the reading and writing style of learning.
  44. 44. Kinesthetic Learners Kinesthetic (or tactile) learners learn best by touching and doing. Hands-on experience is important to kinesthetic learners. Not sure if you're a kinesthetic learner? Answer these questions to find out: •Do you enjoy performing tasks that involve directly manipulating objects and materials? •Is it difficult for you to sit still for long periods of time? •Are you good at applied activities such as painting, cooking, mechanics, sports, and woodworking. •Do you have to actually practice doing something in order to learn it? If you responded yes to these questions, then you are most likely a kinesthetic learner.
  46. 46. The Characteristics of Effective Learning and the Prime and Specific Areas of Learning and Development are all interconnected. The ways in which the individual engages with other people and their environment – playing and exploring, active learning, and creating and thinking critically – underpin learning and development across all areas and support the person to remain an effective and motivated learner.
  47. 47. 3 Characteristics of Effective Learning 1. Playing and exploring – engagement Finding out and exploring Playing with what they know Being willing to ‘have a go’
  48. 48. 2. Active learning – motivation Being involved and concentrating Keeping trying Enjoying achieving what they set out to do
  49. 49. 3. Creating and thinking critically – thinking Having their own ideas Making links Choosing ways to do things
  51. 51. Learning – relatively permanent change in behavior Learning 83 % - See 11% - Hear 3% - Smell 2% - Touch 1% - Taste Retention 10% - Read 20% - Hear 30% - See 50% - See/Hear 70% - Discuss 80% - See/Hear/Do
  52. 52. Teaching/Instructing: Success depends upon: Objectives for the Course Resources Available Characteristics of Participants Learning Environment Instructor(s) Who’s Responsible ? The Instructor
  53. 53. Elements of Instructional Situation 1. Learning Objective 2. Learner 3. Teacher
  54. 54. 1. Objectives Written in behavioral terms Outlined to participants clearly and specifically
  55. 55. 2. Learner Motivation  Intrinsic  Extrinsic Past learning experience  Knowledge and understanding  Positive or Negative Needs
  56. 56. 3. Instructor/Facilitator Provides guidance, support, and structure to the learning experience
  57. 57. Characteristics of a good Instructor/Facilitator: Knowledge of the subject matter Facilitator of learner participation Ability to serve as a model Ability to provide effective feedback Ability to perform effective evaluation Ability to administer & manage the course
  58. 58. THANK YOU!!!
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