Introduction

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Introduction

  1. 1. By: John Christian Villanueva INTRODUCTION
  2. 2. MEANING OF CURRICULUM
  3. 3. TRADITIONAL SCHOOLS • Traditional schools defined curriculum as a group of subjects arranged in a certain sequence peculiar to the subject field itself for the purpose of instruction. • Unique needs and interests have been placed second to “the common needs of all.”
  4. 4. MODERN DIMENSIONS OF CURRICULUM • The modern dimension of curriculum consists of all experiences for learning which are planned and organized by the school. • It is composed of the actual experiences and activities of learners inside or outside the classroom under the guidance of the teacher and for which the school accepts responsibility.
  5. 5. DEFINITIONS OF CURRICULUM • Some authors define curriculum as “the total effort of the school to bring about desired outcomes, to fulfil the rising needs of the dynamic society, in school and outof-school situations” or “a sequence of potential experiences set up in school for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting”.
  6. 6. KINDS OF CURRICULUM (according to the four families of learning theories)
  7. 7. SOCIAL
  8. 8. INFORMATION PROCESSING
  9. 9. PERSONALITY
  10. 10. BEHAVIORAL
  11. 11. ORIENTATIONS TO CURRICULUM • • • • child-centered, society-centered, knowledge-centered eclectic
  12. 12. TYPES OF CURRICULUM • 1.Overt, explicit, or written curriculum • 2.Societal curriculum • 3. The hidden or covert curriculum • 4.The null curriculum • 5.Phantom curriculum • 6.Concomitant curriculum • 7.Rhetorical curriculum
  13. 13. TYPES OF CURRICULUM • 8.Curriculum-in-use • 9.Received curriculum • 10. The internal curriculum • 11.The electronic curriculum • 12.Competency Curriculum
  14. 14. OVERT, EXPLICIT, OR WRITTEN CURRICULUM • that which is written as part of formal instruction of schooling experiences. • refers to a curriculum document, texts, films, and supportive teaching materials that are overtly chosen to support the intentional instructional agenda of a school. • usually confined to those written understandings and directions formally designated and reviewed by administrators, curriculum directors and teachers, often collectively.
  15. 15. SOCIETAL CURRICULUM • The massive, ongoing, informal curriculum of family, peer groups, neighborhoods, churches organizations, occupations, mass, media and other socializing forces that "educate" all of us throughout our lives
  16. 16. HIDDEN OR COVERT CURRICULUM • That which is implied by the very structure and nature of schools, much of what revolves around daily or established routines. • • the "hidden curriculum," which refers to the kind of learning children derive from the very nature and organizational design of the public school, as well as from the behaviors and attitudes of teachers and administrators
  17. 17. NULL CURRICULUM • That which we do not teach, thus giving students the message that these elements are not important in their educational experiences or in our society • Unfortunately, without some level of awareness that there is also a well-defined implicit agenda in schools, school personnel send this same type of message via the hidden curriculum.
  18. 18. PHANTOM CURRICULUM • the enculturation of students into the predominant meta-culture • acculturating students into narrower or generational subcultures.
  19. 19. CONCOMITANT CURRICULUM • What is taught, or emphasized at home, or those experiences that are part of a family's experiences, or related experiences sanctioned by the family.
  20. 20. RHETORICAL CURRICULUM • comprised from ideas offered by policymakers, school officials, administrators, or politicians. • come from those professionals involved in concept formation and content changes • from those educational initiatives resulting from decisions based on national and state reports, public speeches, • from texts critiquing outdated educational practices. • also from the publicized works offering updates in pedagogical knowledge.
  21. 21. CURRICULUM-IN-USE • The formal curriculum (written or overt) comprises those things in textbooks, and content and concepts in the district curriculum guides. However, those "formal" elements are frequently not taught. • The curriculum-in-use is the actual curriculum that is delivered and presented by each teacher.
  22. 22. RECEIVED CURRICULUM • Those things that students actually take out of classroom; • those concepts and content that are truly learned and remembered
  23. 23. INTERNAL CURRICULUM • Processes, content, knowledge combined with the experiences and realities of the learner to create new knowledge. While educators should be aware of this curriculum, they have little control over the internal curriculum since it is unique to each student.
  24. 24. ELECTRONIC CURRICULUM • through searching the Internet for information, or through using e-forms of communication. • either formal or informal, and inherent lessons may be overt or covert, good or bad, correct or incorrect depending on ones' views. • both for recreational purposes (as in blogs, chatrooms, listserves, through instant messenger on-line conversations, or through personal e-mails) and for research and information,
  25. 25. COMPETENCY CURRICULUM • Consists of competencies. • Assessment and certification of achievement of the competencies is sequentially integrated into each year of the curriculum culminating with a competency transcript upon graduation
  26. 26. MEANING OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT • Curriculum development is the process of deciding what to teach and learn, along with the considerations needed to make such decisions. It includes aspects such as tasks, roles, expectations, resources, time and space, and the ordering of all these elements to create a curriculum plan or document
  27. 27. MEANING OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT • Curriculum development is institutionalized change, which means that it is sanctioned by the formal structures in the educational institution. It is usually aimed at improving the situation, and therefore includes some form of evaluation and is carefully documented or described
  28. 28. CURRICLUM PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT • Curriculum planning is a complex activity involving the interplay of ideas from the curriculum field and other related disciplines. • However, the ultimate purpose of curriculum planning is to describe the learning opportunities available to students. • Thus, curriculum planning is ultimately concerned with the experiences of learners.
  29. 29. FOUNDATIONS OF CURRICULUM PLANNING
  30. 30. SOCIAL FORCES
  31. 31. TREATMENT OF KNOWLEDGE
  32. 32. HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
  33. 33. LEARNING AS A PROCESS
  34. 34. ISSUES IN CURRICULUM PLANNING • Subject-centred vs. Learner-centred curriculum • Who plans the curriculum? • The basics that constitute learning
  35. 35. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD CURRICULUM & CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
  36. 36. 1. The Curriculum is continuously evolving.
  37. 37. 2. The Curriculum is based on the needs of the people.
  38. 38. 3. The Curriculum is democratically conceived.
  39. 39. 4. The Curriculum is the result of a long- term effort.
  40. 40. 5. The Curriculum is a complex of details.
  41. 41. 6. The Curriculum provides for the logical sequence of subject matter.
  42. 42. 7. The Curriculum complements and cooperates with other programs of the community.
  43. 43. 8. The Curriculum has educational quality.
  44. 44. 9. The Curriculum has administrative flexibility.
  45. 45. Thank you for LISTENING GUYS!

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