Risk assessment and management in britain

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Risk assessment and management in britain

  1. 1. Occupational health risk assessment and management in Britain John Cherrie INSTITUTE OF OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE . Edinburgh . UK www.iom-world.org
  2. 2. Summary of presentation… • • • • • • • • Introduction Risk, hazard and risk assessment Legislation and practice in Britain Responsibilities: government, industry and workers Control banding: COSHH Essentials Modelling exposure Exposure measurement Control of exposure
  3. 3. Measurement “When you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory kind…” Lord Kelvin
  4. 4. More than 200 years… • • There has been concern in the UK about the problems caused by poor working conditions for more than 200 years Around the 1850s: • • • Ventilation in cotton mills Local ventilation for grinding In 1898 the first Medical Inspector of Factories was appointed CARTER T. British Occupational Hygiene Practice 1720-1920. Ann OccupHyg. 2004 Mar. 2;48(4):299–307.
  5. 5. Early experience in counting… For more than 100 years we have counted the number of lead poisoning cases in Britain
  6. 6. Not every risk decreases Mesothelioma risk in Britain has increased over recent years
  7. 7. The beginning of the science of occupational hygiene… • The invention of the personal sampling pump Cherrie JW. (2003) The beginning of the science underpinning occupational hygiene. Ann OccupHyg; 47: 179–85.
  8. 8. Mostly exposure is decreasing Aerosols Creely KS et al. (2007) Trends in inhalation exposure--a review of the data in the published scientific literature. Ann OccupHyg.; 51(8): 665-678.
  9. 9. Mostly exposure is decreasing Gases and vapours Creely KS et al. (2007) Trends in inhalation exposure--a review of the data in the published scientific literature. Ann OccupHyg.; 51(8): 665-678.
  10. 10. Hazard and risk • • • Hazard = type of harm, e.g. asthma Risk = the chance that harm may occur in a specific situation Risk is managed in practice by the occupational exposure limit (OEL) paradigm
  11. 11. Hazard and risk • • • Hazard = type of harm, e.g. asthma Risk = the chance that harm may occur in a specific situation Risk is managed in practice by the occupational exposure limit (OEL) paradigm
  12. 12. The law in Britain… • • Health and Safety at Work Act Regulations • • • • • • Control of substances hazardous to health Noise at work Ionising radiation Approved Codes of Practice Guidance EU law • • Directives Regulations, e.g. REACH
  13. 13. Responsibilities • • • • In law the employer has the main duty to protect the workers Workers have a duty to cooperate with employers Government has responsibility for promoting health and safety Government has responsibility for enforcing the law
  14. 14. Five steps for risk assessment • • • • • Identify the hazards Decide who might be harmed, and how Evaluate the risks and whether the existing precautions are adequate Record your findings Review your assessment
  15. 15. Simple risk evaluation • Can I get rid of the hazard? • • • • Switch to a less hazardous material Prevent access to the hazard using guards or enclosures Organise the work to reduce exposure Improve ventilation • Use personal protective equipment
  16. 16. Options for estimating risk • Measurement of exposure level • • • • Can be expensive Need to have access to the work situation Requires several measurements to an accurate assessment Modeling of exposure level • • • Low cost Can be done before work starts May not be accurate
  17. 17. Control banding • A qualitative or semi-quantitative risk assessment and management approach • • • • • Grouping hazard, exposure and control options In Britain for chemicals we use COSHH Essentials Question based online software tool Output comprises a recommended approach to control Backed up with process and sector guidance
  18. 18. www.coshh-essentials.org.uk
  19. 19. Advice on… Agriculture – farmer, Beauty treatments, Baking and milling - flour dust, Car park and bus depot, Brick and tile making – silica, Cleaning services, Ceramics and pottery – silica, Florist and greengrocer, Construction – silica, Funeral services, Engineering – abrasive blasting, surface coating, Hospitality - pub, club and restaurant, Engineering – metalworking fluids, Leisure and sports, Foundries fume, silica, Maintenance and repair – retail, Manufactured goods – silica, Motor vehicles – spray painting, Microelectronics, Motor vehicles - maintenance and repair, Printing - ink, laminating adhesive, Pest control, Printing – laminating, Warehouse, Quarries – silica, Rubber making - dust, fume, Slate making – silica, Stonemasonry – silica, Welding and cutting - fume, dust from abrasive blasting, Woodwork - wood dust
  20. 20. Other exposure models… • Advanced REACH Tool (ART) • • • • • • • • www.AdvancedREACHtool.com An advanced modeling tool that provides an estimate of the level of exposure for chemicals Incorporates a means of combining measurements with the model Provides accurate exposure assessments ECETOC TRA Stoffenmanager MEASE EMKG-Expo-Tool
  21. 21. Exposure measurement • Active samplers • Passive samplers
  22. 22. Which is best? • Active sampling ... • • • • gives the greatest sensitivity greater versatility more likely to be validated Passive sampling ... • • • more comfortable (acceptable) less capital intensive less attention need to get a valid sample
  23. 23. Direct reading instruments… • • • Range of sensors available for dusts, gases and vapours Cost ranges from €100 to €3,000 Always require calibration against a more basic measurement
  24. 24. Personal sampling… • • It’s very important to sample in the breathing zone Fixed location vs Personal sampling Cherrie J (2003) The beginning of the science underpinning occupational hygiene. Ann OccupHyg 47: 179–185.
  25. 25. Sampling duration… • Variability in exposure results is a function of the duration of the measurement • • Short term samples are more variable than long term samples. Aim to measure for at least 6 hours, ideally for the whole work shift
  26. 26. Group sampling… • Select workers representative of groups that are judged to have similar exposure • • • similarly exposed groups (SEGs) Monitor as many workers as possible, with some repeated over more than one day Assess within and between worker variability
  27. 27. A new approach to compliance… 1. Divide the workforce into SEGs 2. Take 3 representative exposure measurements from random workers in the SEG. If all <0.1xOEL then compliance. If any result is >OEL then non-compliance 3. Take at least 6 more samples from the SEG, at least 2 per worker from workers picked at random. Use all samples to apply a test (70% confidence, that there is <5% probability of any random exposure being >OEL) 4. Do an analysis of variance on all the results to establish whether the between-worker variance is >0.2 x total variance. If it is, then step 5 must be added. 5. Analyse the results to do an individual compliance test. There should be <20% probability that any individual in the SEG has >5% of exposures > OEL. Available from… www.bohs.org/library/technical-publications/
  28. 28. Control… • Traditionally, a hierarchy of control… • • • • • • • • • High Elimination Substitution Total enclosure Segregation Partial enclosure Engineering controls, e.g. local ventilation Local ventilation Management initiatives Low Personal protective equipment
  29. 29. Exposure Control Efficacy Library Fransman et al. Development and Evaluation of an Exposure Control Efficacy Library (ECEL). Annals of Occupational Hygiene (2008) vol. 52 (7) pp. 567-575
  30. 30. ECEL Risk Management Measure n LEV in general LEV + enclosure Integrated Mobile General ventilation RPE Estimated efficacy (%) 95% confidence interval 280 82 78 to 84 9 86 69 to 94 133 87 84 to 90 4 61 -28 to 88 42 43 17 to 61 94 – 99.9
  31. 31. Major issues for the future? • • • • • • • • • Education and training Dermal exposure to chemicals Combined exposure to different agents Carcinogens COPD Asbestos Nanomaterials Behaviour and exposure Small low-cost monitoring devices
  32. 32. Information… • HSE website: www.hse.gov.uk • • HSE Books: books.hse.gov.uk • • • • • Contains many links to free information Most books are free to download, priced for paper copies COSHH Essentials: coshh-essentials.org.uk BOHS:BOHS.org Annals of OccupHyg:annhyg.oxfordjournals.org OHTA:www.ohlearning.com
  33. 33. Textbooks… • Key British occupational hygiene textbooks
  34. 34. Questions?

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