Measuring and modeling dermal exposure – developments in Europe

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Slides summarising a study of dermal exposure to heavy fuel oil and the DREAM model to estimate exposure. This work is preparatory for further developments of a dermal Advanced REACH Tool

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  • Why are average levels higher on forearms and exposure mode variable for first three situations?
  • 50% within +- 100% of average
  • Measuring and modeling dermal exposure – developments in Europe

    1. 1. Measuring and modeling dermal exposure – developments in Europe<br />John W Cherrie<br />
    2. 2. Outline of the talk…<br />Schneider et al conceptual model<br />The DREAM tool<br />Validation of DREAM<br />By the authors<br />In situations where heavy fuel oil is used<br />The way forward<br />REACH and the Advanced REACH Tool (ART) and Bayesian statistical techniques<br />
    3. 3. Schneider and colleagues…<br />Surface contamination layer<br />Air compartment<br />Source<br />Clothing outer layer<br />Clothing inner layer<br />Skin contamination layer<br />Schneider et al. Conceptual model for assessment of dermal exposure. Occup Environ Med (1999) vol. 56 (11) pp. 765-73<br />
    4. 4. DeRmalExposure Assessment Method - DREAM<br />A dermal exposure prediction tool based on the Schneider et al conceptual model<br />van Wendel de Joode et al. DREAM: A method for semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment. Annals of Occupational Hygiene (2003) vol. 47 (1) pp. 71-87<br />
    5. 5. DREAM validations…<br />van Wendel de Joode et al. Accuracy of a semiquantitative method for Dermal Exposure Assessment (DREAM). Occup Environ Med (2005) vol. 62 (9) pp. 623-32<br />
    6. 6. Heavy fuel oil (HFO)…<br />Industrial fuel for power stations<br />Heating large industrial sites<br />Heating fuel in hospitals and distilleries in remote area (e.g. Scottish Highlands)<br />Marine oil<br />HFO contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons<br />
    7. 7. Aims of our study…<br />To develop a validated method for measuring dermal HFO exposure<br />To collect exposure data using the validated method<br />To collect contextual exposure information and use these data to apply the DREAM model<br />
    8. 8. Methods…<br />Removal method using clinical wipes saturated with 70% isopropyl alcohol – three sequential wipes<br />25 cm2 forearm and neck<br />Palms of each hand<br />Collected following the completion of task and before rest breaks<br />Some pre-task samples also collected<br />Filed blanks<br />GG-MS analysis for marker PAHs<br />
    9. 9. Sites investigated…<br />Production<br />2 oil refineries<br />Distribution<br />2 fuel distribution terminals<br />including 1 associated with distribution by shipping<br />Use<br />2 Energy providers<br />1 Power plant engine building and repair<br />
    10. 10. Dermal exposure by type of site…<br />Hand exposure (µg/cm2)<br />Forearm (µg/cm2)<br />
    11. 11. DREAM vs measurements… <br />
    12. 12. Task average data…<br />van Wendel de Joode et al. Accuracy of a semiquantitative method for Dermal Exposure Assessment (DREAM). Occup Environ Med (2005) vol. 62 (9) pp. 623-32<br />
    13. 13. The way forward…<br />The Advanced REACH Tool <br />www.AdvancedREACHtool.com<br />Currently for inhalation exposure only<br />Uses Bayesian algorithm to combine model prediction with measurements<br />Plans to use DREAM to develop a dermal tool<br />Expect to start preparatory work this year <br />
    14. 14. The slides are available at OH-world.org<br />You can download this and other presentations from my website www.OH-world.org<br />Follow my blog on Twitter at www.Twitter.com/JohnCherrie<br />

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