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John A Chapman mining and space csca 20120328
 

John A Chapman mining and space csca 20120328

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importance of space development to humanity

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    John A Chapman mining and space csca 20120328 John A Chapman mining and space csca 20120328 Document Transcript

    • TALKER – JOHN A. CHAPMAN, B.SC., P.ENG., FCIM 1:30 VANCOUVER TIME DIAL INTO 416.769.7697 (CHUCK BLACK & ARNY SOKOLOFF) CANADIAN SPACE COMMERCE ASSOCIATION, MARCH 28, 2012SLIDE ONE: x MINING IS AND WILL CONTINUE TO BE ESSENTIAL TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF HUMANITY ON EARTH AND IN SPACE. x EVERYTHING WE USE IS DERIVED FROM MINING DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY THROUGH PROCESSING, MANUFACTURING AND DISTRIBUTION. x WITHOUT MINING HUMANS WOULD BE BACK TO THE STONE AGE!SLIDE TWO: x ASTRONAUTS JOHN YOUNG AND RICH CLIFFORD “PUSHED” ME TO JOIN IN THE SPACE INDUSTRY DISCUSSIONS RELATED TO MINING ON THE MOON AND MARS BECAUSE OF MY EXTENSIVE PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE ON EARTH. x HUMANS CANNOT SURVIVE AS A SINGLE PLANET SPECIES BECAUSE OF NATURAL DANGERS OF SUPER VOLCANOS AND NEO IMPACTORS. x NEOs THAT ARE POTENTIAL IMPACTORS ARE THE ONE MAJOR NATURAL DANGER WE CAN DO SOMETHING ABOUT BY DETECTING, TRACKING AND DEFLECTING. x THE DINOSAURS HAD NO SPACE PROGRAM THEY DID NOT SURVIVE.SLIDE THREE: x THE MOON IS AN IDEAL LOCATION TO ESTABLISH A BASE FOR FUELING (IN ORBIT) LARGE SPACE CRAFTS THAT WILL DEFLECT NEOs THAT ARE POTENTIAL EARTH OR MOON IMPACTORS. x MOVING ROCKET PROPELLANT FROM THE LUNAR SURFACE TO ORBITING SPACE CRAFTS TAKES ~1/24 THE AMOUNT OF WORK THAT IT DOES FROM EARTH TO EARTH ORBIT. x THE LUNAR BASE WOULD BE ABLE TO SERVICE SATELLITES ORBITING EARTH AT VERY HIGH ALTITUDES IN GEOSYNCHRONOUS AND GEOSTATIONARY ORBITS, AND ACT AS A BRIDGEHEAD TO MARS.SLIDE FOUR: x DEVELOPMENT OF A LUNAR BASE WILL REQUIRE A MASSIVE LIFT OF EQUIPMENT, SUPPLIES AND HUMANS FROM EARTH TO THE LUNAR SURFACE. x MASS PRODUCTION OF ROCKETS AND PROPELLANTS WILL FACILITATE EFFICIENT AND EFFECTIVE SPACE TRANSPORT LIKE THE EXISTING SHIPPING/PORT AND AIRLINE/AIRPORT INDUSTRIES.SLIDE FIVE: x THE WORLD RECORD BULOLO AIRLIFT IN 1931 DEMONSTRATES SOME OF THE VISION AND COURAGE – PHYSICAL AND FINANCIAL THAT IS REQUIRED NOW TO ESTABLISH A LUNAR BASE.
    • • THE IMPORTANCE OF MINERALS (INCLUDING HYDROCARBONS) AND METALS IS AMPLY DEMONSTRATED WHEN WE LOOK AROUND US – AT THE PRODUCTS WE USE AND DEPEND UPON IN OUR EVERYDAY LIVES.• IMPORTANT MINERALS AND METALS USES INCLUDE NOT ONLY THOSE SHOWN ON THE GRAPHICS BUT ALSO PAPER PRODUCTS AND PLASTICS THAT MOST OFTEN CONTAIN A LARGE PERCENTAGE OF FUNCTIONAL AND NONFUNCTIONAL FILLERS (TALC, CLAYS, MICAS, ETC.). IN ADDITION, ALL OF THE FOOD WE CONSUME IS PLANTED, HARVESTED, TRANSPORTED, PROCESSED, AND MARKETED (FROM STORES) THAT DEPEND UPON A VAST ARRAY OF MINED MATERIALS (FARM MACHINERY, PAVED ROADS, FORKLIFTS, TRUCKS, PROCESSING PLANT EQUIPMENT, BUILDING MATERIALS, ETC).• BELIEVE IT OR NOT, THERE ARE QUITE A FEW PEOPLE THAT BELIEVE MINING IS NOT IMPORTANT. THEY TYPICALLY SAY THIS AND THEN TURN AROUND AND CHECK THEIR EMAIL ON A COMPUTER, THAT USES SILICON CHIPS, WITH METAL HEAT SINKS, AND COPPER OR GOLD INTERCONNECTIONS, AND RUNS ON POWER, OF WHICH 40% OF COMES FROM COAL. THERE IS AN OLD SAYING "IF ITS NOT GROWN, ITS MINED." VIRTUALLY EVERYTHING WE USE IN OUR EVERYDAY LIVES REQUIRES MINING. EVEN MOST OF THE FOOD WE EAT WAS GROWN WITH FERTILIZERS WHICH ARE MADE UP OF MINERALS THAT ARE MINED. SO IT IS ODD TO THINK THAT JUST BECAUSE THE PICTURES MOST OF US SEE IN OUR HEADS WHEN WE FIRST THINK OF MINING ARE THOSE OLD, BLACK AND WHITE PHOTOS OF MINING 100 YEARS AGO Ͳ TODAY, MINING IS ONE OF THE MOST HIGHͲTECH INDUSTRIES IN THE WORLD USING GPS, REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEMS, AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS, COMPUTERS, SOPHISTICATED AND PRODUCTIVE MOBILE MINING MACHINES AND INTEGRATED HIGHͲTECHNOLOGY PROCESSING PLANTS.• FERTILIZERS TYPICALLY PROVIDE, IN VARYING PROPORTIONS: THE THREE PRIMARY MACRONUTRIENTS: NITROGEN (N), PHOSPHORUS (P), AND POTASSIUM (K). THE THREE SECONDARY MACRONUTRIENTS: CALCIUM (CA), SULFUR (S), MAGNESIUM (MG) AND THE MICRONUTRIENTS OR TRACE MINERALS: BORON (B), CHLORINE (CL), MANGANESE (MN), IRON (FE), ZINC (ZN), COPPER (CU), MOLYBDENUM (MO) AND SELENIUM (SE).• IF MINING WAS ELIMINATED WE HUMANS WOULD BE RIGHT BACK TO THE STONE AGE.
    • • THE ONE NATURAL DANGER THAT WE CAN DO SOMETHING ABOUT TO PROTECT AND SAVE HUMANITY IS THE NEAR EARTH OBJECT (NEO) POTENTIAL IMPACTORS THAT WE CAN DETECT, TRACK AND DEFLECT. THE DINOSAURS HAD NO SPACE PROGRAM AND DID NOT SURVIVE.
    • TECHNICAL CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES AprilͲ23Ͳ12 • MOST IMPORTANT RESOURCES REQUIRED FOR LUNAR DEVELOPMENT ARE WATER AND HYDROCARBONS FOLLOWED BY ALL THE OTHER ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS USED ON EARTH (METALS, SILICATES, ETC.). • REMEMBER THAT WE HUMANS, NO MATTER WHERE WE ARE LOCATED, DIE WITHIN MINUTES IF THERE IS NO OXYGEN, WITHIN DAYS IF THERE IS NO WATER AND WITHIN WEEKS IF THERE IS NO FOOD (CARBOHYDRATES) – ALL OTHER RESOURCES PALE IN COMPARISON TO THESE ESSENTIAL RESOURCES. • IMPORTANCE OF HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN: LIFE SUPPORT (“AIR” AND WATER), ROCKET PROPELLANTS, FUEL FOR FUEL CELLS, WATER FOR AGRICULTURE AND FOR AQUACULTURE. • IMPORTANCE OF HYDROCARBONS: FUEL FOR ENGINES AND HEAT, AND CARBON DIOXIDE FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS (CARBOHYDRATES).JOHN A. CHAPMAN 3
    • TECHNICAL CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES AprilͲ23Ͳ12 • TO BE SUCCESSFUL THE ROCKETS MUST BE MASS PRODUCED (ECONOMY OF SCALE) WITH MULTLIPLE DAILY LAUNCHES. • ASTROBOTIC TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND MOON EXPRESS, INC., LEADERS IN THE 26 GROUP COMPETITION TO WIN THE GOOGLE LUNAR X PRIZE, WILL BECOME SPACE EXPEDITORS SIMILAR TO UPS AND FEDEX ON EARTH. • IT IS MY OPINION THAT THERE IS ONE OVERARCHING REASON FOR DEVELOPMENT OF SPACE – THAT IS TO ENSURE THE SURVIVAL OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. HENCE, ONLY EARLY PRECURSOR MISSIONS SHOULD BE ROBOTIC. THEREAFTER IT MUST BE HUMAN WITH SOME SUPPORT FROM ROBOTICS (REMOTE CONTROL AND AUTONOMOUS). I ALSO, FROM EXPERIENCE BUILDING REMOTE MINE OPERATIONS ON EARTH, KNOW THAT THE FIRST HUMAN LANDING ON THE LUNAR SURFACE TO DEVELOP A PERMANENT HABITAT WILL REQUIRE LANDING ~2,000 METRIC TONS OF EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES TO ENSURE A HIGH DEGREE OF SUCCESS. THIS IS A MASSIVE PROGRAM THAT WILL NEED MULTIͲ GOVERNMENT AND INDUSTRY SUPPORT TO WORK PROPERLY. IN MY OPINION, SCIENCE PALLS IN COMPARISON TO LONGͲTERM HUMAN SURVIVAL WHEN FUNDING SPACE EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS. THE MOON WOULD BE THE LOW GRAVITY BASE FOR FUELING NUCLEAR SPACE TUGS IN LUNAR ORBIT USING PROPELLANTS SUCH AS HYDROGEN (HIGH EXHAUST VELOCITY LOW THRUST), OXYGEN (AUGMENTATION TO INCREASE THRUST) OR WATER (LOWER EXHAUST VELOCITY BUT HIGHER THRUST). THESE SPACE TUGS WOULD BE USED FOR DANGEROUS NEO DEFLECTION AND FOR MOVING BETWEEN ORBITS AT EARTH, MOON AND MARS. THE NUCLEAR FISSION REACTORS IN THE SPACE TUGS WOULD “BURN” HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (SIMILAR TO REACTORS IN USA SUBMARINES) SO THAT THE REFUELING INTERVAL WOULD BE GREATER THAN TEN YEARS (MAY BE ABLE TO INCLUDE A THORIUM “BLANKET” IN REACTOR FOR ADDITIONAL ENERGY). A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT SHOULD BE BUILT NEAR THE EARTH LAUNCH SITE TO PRODUCE HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN TO MINIMIZE FUEL TRANSPORT TO THE LAUNCH SITE. IT WOULD BE A COͲGENERATION FACILITY WITH HYDROGEN BEING REFORMED FROM NATURAL GAS (AND CARBON MONOXIDE BURNED FOR ELECTRIC POWER AND HEAT) WITH OXYGEN BEING PRODUCED BY FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF LIQUEFIED AIR. AN ALTERNATIVE, BUT MORE EXPENSIVE, METHOD OF PRODUCING HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN IS DIRECT ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER. • PLAN INITIALLY FOR LAUNCHING AT LEAST ONE ROCKET PER DAY SO THAT THE FIRST 2,000 TONS OF EQUIPMENT, SUPPLIES AND WORKFORCE IS ON THE MOON IN 60 DAYS. COST ~15 TO 20 BILLION US DOLLARS. • I STRONGLY RECOMMEND THAT YOU VISIT SOME EARTHLY MINING/PROCESSING OPERATIONS (MINING, MINERAL PROCESSING, SMELTING AND REFINING). YOU WILL FIND THAT MINING AND PROCESSING HETEROGENEOUS MATERIALS IS COMPLEX AND THE SYSTEMS ARE PHYSICALLY AND CHEMICALLY CHALLENGING. TRYING TO RECOVER MINERALS AND ELEMENTS FROM HETEROGENEOUS SOURCES ON ASTEROIDS OR COMETS ON A SUSTAINED BASIS WILL BE VERY DIFFICULT INDEED COMPARED TO OPERATING AT A LUNAR BASE. THE ASTEROIDS AND COMETS IN NEAR EARTH ORBIT OFFER A LOW GRAVITY WELL OPPORTUNITY (REWARD) AND A BIG MATERIALS CHALLENGE (RISK). THEY ARE EITHER CARBONACEOUS WITH WATER ICE, OR SILICATES (STONY), OR METALLIC (NOTE THE “OR” AND NO “AND”). IN OTHER WORDS YOU CANNOT LAND ON ANY ONE AND EXPECT TO GET WATER ICE, SILICATES AND METALS – THIS PRESENTS AN ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE CHALLENGE IN CREATING AN OPERATING BASE THAT IS SUSTAINABLE. I WAS THE ONE THAT STOOD UP AND RECOMMENDED JOHN LEWIS’S “MINING THE SKY” BOOK AT THE SPACE FRONTIER 2009 CONFERENCE. HOWEVER, WHAT I DID NOT SAY IS THAT I DISAGREE WITH JOHN AS TO THE IMPORTANCE OF ASTEROID OR COMET MATERIALS ON EARTH, AS THEY HAVE IN MY OPINION NO VALUE TO EARTH. WE HAVE A NEVER ENDING SUPPLY OF ELEMENTS ON EARTH, INCLUDING THOSE IN HYDROCARBONS (C AND H) THAT CAN BE EXTRACTED MUCH SAFER AND CHEAPER INͲSITU ON EARTH THAN EXPLOITING THEM ON ASTEROIDS OR COMETS. IN OTHER WORDS, ELEMENTS ON ASTEROIDS AND COMETS, AND THE MOON AND MARS WILL HAVE USE IN SPACE BUT NOT ON EARTH.JOHN A. CHAPMAN 4
    • TECHNICAL CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES AprilͲ23Ͳ12 • THE BULOLO GOLDFIELDS WERE TOTALLY DEVELOPED AND OPERATIONS SUSTAINED BY AIRLIFT OF MACHINERY, MOBILE EQUIPMENT, SUPPLIES FOR DAMS, POWERLINES, DREDGES, SAWMILL, AND TOWNSITE (HOSPITAL AND SCHOOL). • THE GͲ31 HAD 525 X 3 HORSEPOWER RADIAL ENGINES AND COULD CLIMB AT 200 FEET PER MINUTE FULLY LOADED ON TWO ENGINES (AT AVERAGE 3,000 FT ASL), 75 MINUTE FLYING TIME LEA (AT SEA LEVEL) TO BULOLO (2,250 FEET) WITH INTERVENING MOUNTAINS AT 6,000 FEET ELEVATION. • THE MANAGEMENT OF PLACER DEVELOPMENT LTD RECEIVED AWARDS FROM THE MINING INDUSTRY AND THE AVIATION INDUSTRY FOR THIS SUCCESSFUL MASSIVE BULOLO AIRLIFT. • MENTION MASS PRODUCTION OF LIBERTY SHIPS (42 DAYS PER LIBERTY SHIP, WITH A TOTAL ~2,700 BUILT DURING WWII), THE ALASKA HIGHWAY/NORMAN WELLS OIL OPERATIONS, THE DEW LINE, BERLIN AIRLIFT AND WWII AS THESE WERE ALL MASSIVE UNDERTAKINGS THAT WERE SUCCESSFULLY ACCOMPLISHED IN RECORD TIME. • IN 2011 THE BROAD GROUP IN HUNAN PROVINCE, CHINA BUILT A 30 STOREY LUXURY HOTEL IN 15 DAYS. IT IS BUILT TO WITHSTAND MAGNITUDE 9 RICHTER SCALE EARTHQUAKES AND IS ~4 TIMES MORE ENERGY EFFICIENT THAN CONVENTIONAL HIGHͲRISE BUILDINGS. ALL COMPONENTS ARE MANUFACTURED IN A LARGE FACTORY AND DELIVERED TO THE BUILDING SITE FOR ASSEMBLY. THERE WERE NO INJURIES DURING THE WORK. SEE: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HdpfͲMQM9vY.JOHN A. CHAPMAN 5
    • TECHNICAL CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FEBRUARY 8, 2012JOHN A. CHAPMAN 6