Galaxy forum lunar development 2013 in vancouver canada
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Lunar development to benefit humanity

Lunar development to benefit humanity

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    Galaxy forum lunar development 2013 in vancouver canada Galaxy forum lunar development 2013 in vancouver canada Document Transcript

    • MINING THE MOON: CANADIAN EXPERTISE FOR THE NEW FRONTIER OF SPACE RESOURCE UTILIZATION CANADIAN GALAXY FORUM 2013 SPONSORED BY ILOA BCIT AEROSPACE CAMPUS, RICHMOND, B.C., CANADA MAY 25, 2013 JOHN A. CHAPMAN, BSC, FCIM, PENG (MINING ENGINEER) J.A. CHAPMAN MINING SERVICES, WHITE ROCK, B.C., CANADA AFTER: CHAPMAN & SCHULTE, 8TH ILEWG CONFERENCE, PAPER NO. 102 BEIJING, CHINA, JULY 26, 2006 “Without the products of mining, humans would be back in the Stone Age” • • • • • • • • • GOOD AFTERNOON LADIES AND GENTLEMEN. I AM MAKING THIS PRESENTATION BASED UPON MY EXPERIENCE AS A MECHANIC, WELDER AND MINING ENGINEER, HAVING WORKED INTERNATIONALLY IN LARGE AND SMALL MINES, MANY IN REMOTE LOCATIONS IN TROPICAL JUNGLES AND THE CANADIAN FAR NORTH. WELDED ON DEW LINE NORTH OF ARCTIC CIRCLE AND ON PIPELINES IN SOUTHERN ALBERTA AND LOGGING EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA. FROM THE TIME I WAS IN GRADE 6 I WORKED FOR MY FATHER AT HIS GAS STATION, LIGHT VEHICLE SERVICE/REPAIR SHOP AND MOTEL. MY FATHER WAS ALSO PART OF A SMALL MINERAL EXPLORATION SYNDICATE THAT PROSPECTED AND DRILLED MINERAL SHOWINGS (OWNED THEIR OWN SMALL CORE DRILL). HENCE, I LEARNED A LOT ABOUT WORKING ON AND AROUND MACHINERY FROM A VERY EARLY AGE. WORKED AS A MECHANIC AND WELDER BEFORE ENTERING UNIVERSITY AS A MATURE STUDENT. CAN PROFICIENTLY OPERATE SCRAPERS, DOZERS, TRUCKS, GRADERS (MAINLY CATERPILLAR EQUIPMENT). AS VICE-PRESIDENT AND GENERAL MANAGER OF CANADA’S LARGEST COAL MINING COMPANY WAS CANADA’S LARGEST PURCHASER OF CATERPILLAR EQUIPMENT AND LARGEST CANADIAN PURCHASER OF ONE OF THE WORLD’S BIGGEST LAND MACHINES – DRAGLINES. AS A PRIVATE BUSINESS OWNER, I AM PRESENTLY ONE OF THE LARGEST MINERAL LAND OWNERS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA. I AM ALSO MAKING THIS PRESENTATION BECAUSE OF MY LONG TIME INTEREST IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, AND IN THE LAST TWELVE YEARS, SPACE DEVELOPMENT. TODAY, WE ARE PART OF THE “SPACE GENERATION”, CRAWLING OFF THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH INTO THE “OCEANS OF SPACE” – MINING WILL CONTINUE TO PROVIDE THE CAPABILITY FOR HUMANKIND TO ADVANCE TO THE MOON, MARS AND ON TO THE STARS. 1
    • INTRODUCTION HUMANS CANNOT SURVIVE AS A SINGLE PLANET SPECIES AS EVIDENCED IN THE EARTH’S FOSSIL RECORD OF MASS EXTINCTIONS OF LIFE CAUSED MAINLY BY COMET/ASTEROID IMPACTS AND SUPER-VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS THE DINOSAURS HAD NO SPACE PROGRAM – THEY DID NOT SURVIVE After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 “If you do it when you need it, it’s too late, you missed the boat.” Wernher von Braun • • JUPITER’S DIAMETER IS 143,000 KM, EARTH’S IS 12,800 KM, THE MOON IS 3,480 KM. THERE WERE AT LEAST 20 SEPARATE FRAGMENTS OF THE COMET SHOEMAKER-LEVY THAT HIT JUPITER – ONE OF THE LARGEST “G” (JULY 18, 1994) CREATED A DARK SPOT MEASURING 12,000 KM ACROSS AND WAS ESTIMATED TO HAVE RELEASED AN ENERGY EQUIVALENT TO 6 TRILLION TONS OF TNT (~750 TIMES THE WORLDS NUCLEAR ARSENAL). TWO IMPACTS 12 HOURS APART ON JULY 19TH CREATED IMPACT MARKS OF SIMILAR SIZE TO THAT CAUSED BY FRAGMENT G. SEVERAL OF THESE IMPACTORS, IF THEY WERE HITTING EARTH, WOULD HAVE EXTINQUISHED ALL OR MOST LIFE ON THE PLANET. • IMPACTORS: ASTERIODS (PROGRADE ~19KM/SEC), COMETS (RETROGRADE ~55KM/SEC) – IF SAME SIZE OBJECTS THEN COMET HAS ~8 TIMES MORE ENERGY (KINETIC) THAN THE ASTERIOD (KINETIC ENERGY = ½ M x V*2). OBJECTS TRAVELING AT ~3 KM/SEC HAVE KINETIC ENERGY EQUIVALENT TO THEIR MASS IN TNT. EARLY MORNING ON EARTH IS LIKE FACING FORWARD IN AN AUTOMOBILE TRAVELING AT 30KM PER SECOND – A RETROGRADE IMPACTOR WOULD HIT AT ~55KM/SEC. IMPACTORS NORMALLY CREATE CRATORS 10 TO 20 TIMES THE DIAMETER OF THE IMPACTOR. • • • • • • • EARTH ROTATION VELOCITY AT EQUATOR SEA LEVEL = 1,650 KM/HR, MEAN EARTH ORBITAL VELOCITY = 30KM/SEC, THE SOLAR SYSTEM IS ORBITING WITHIN THE MILKY WAY AT A VELOCITY OF ~220 KM/SEC AND IN RELATION TO THE COSMOS BACKGROUND AT ~600 KM/SEC. THE TRICK IN TRACKING NEO ORBITS LIES IN A STRANGE NATURAL PHENOMENON: SOLAR-POWERED ORBITAL MECHANICS. THE IDEA GOES BACK TO A SCIENTIFIC PAPER WRITTEN BY RUSSIAN ENGINEER I.O. YARKOVSKY A CENTURY AGO AND SINCE LOST. YARKOVSKY IS SAID TO HAVE PROPOSED THAT THE SUN WARMS AN ASTEROID MORE ON THE "DAY" SIDE THAN ON THE "NIGHT" SIDE. THE WARMER SIDE OF THE ROCK EMITS MORE THERMAL RADIATION, CREATING A SLIGHT DIFFERENCE IN MOMENTUM THAT GENTLY NUDGES THE OBJECT IN A MANNER SIMILAR TO HOW A ROCKET IS PROPELLED. OVER HUNDREDS OF YEARS, THE MOVEMENT CAN BE SIGNIFICANT, SCIENTISTS SAY. NOTE THAT THE EXTINCTIONS ARE SHOWN AT THE END OF GEOLOGICAL “PERIODS” – THAT IS BECAUSE EXTINCTIONS ARE ONE OF THE MARKERS GEOLOGISTS USED IN PREPARING THE SCALE. SUPERVOLCANOS ARE DEFINED BY AMOUNT OF EJECTA: MORE THAN 1,000 CUBIC KILOMETERS. THE CHICXULUB CRATER (PRON.: / TƩIːKƩƏLUːB/ CHEEK-SHƏ-LOOB; MAYAN PRONUNCIATION: [TƩ IKƩULUƁ]) IS A PREHISTORIC IMPACT CRATER BURIED UNDERNEATH THE YUCATÁN PENINSULA IN MEXICO.[2] ITS CENTER IS LOCATED NEAR THE TOWN OF CHICXULUB, AFTER WHICH THE CRATER IS NAMED.[3] THE AGE OF CHICXULUB ASTEROID IMPACT AND THE CRETACEOUS–PALEOGENE BOUNDARY (K– PG BOUNDARY) COINCIDE PRECISELY, LEADING TO THE CONCLUSION THAT THE CAUSE OF THE CRATER WAS THE SAME CAUSE RESULTING IN THE DEMISE OF NON-AVIAN DINOSAURS ON EARTH.[4] THE CRATER IS MORE THAN 180 KM (110 MI) IN DIAMETER, MAKING THE FEATURE ONE OF THE LARGEST CONFIRMED IMPACT STRUCTURES ON EARTH; THE IMPACTING BOLIDE THAT FORMED THE CRATER WAS AT LEAST 10 KM (6 MI) IN DIAMETER. 2
    • INTRODUCTION CANADA IS WORLD LEADER IN MINERAL EXPLORATION • CANADA HAS 7% OF LAND AREA ON EARTH AND 0.5% OF POPULATION • 20% OF WORLD MINERAL EXPLORATION CONDUCTED IN CANADA • CANADIAN COMPANIES CONDUCT 43% OF THE WORLD’S MINERAL EXPLORATION • 45% OF THE WORLD’S $12.7 BILLION RAISED FOR MINERAL EXPLORATION IS VIA COMPANIES LISTED ON CANADIAN STOCK EXCHANGES • VANCOUVER AND TORONTO HAVE MORE GEOSCIENTISTS PER CAPITA THAN ANY OTHER CITIES IN THE WORLD After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • • • THIS REMARKABLE RECORD HAS BEEN ACHIEVED TO A LARGE DEGREE BY TAX INCENTIVES TO THE RESOURCE INDUSTRY OPERATING IN CANADA. THIS HAS CREATED A STRONG “LOCAL” GROUP OF CANADIAN MINING EXPERTS (GEOLOGY, MINING, LAW, ACCOUNTING, FINANCE, ETC.) THAT HAVE STEPPED ONTO THE WORLD STAGE AND BEEN VERY SUCCESSFUL – TO THE BENEFIT OF ALL CANADIANS. THE NUMBERS SHOWN ON THIS SLIDE ARE FROM STATS CANADA 2004. IT IS IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND THAT THE COLLECTION AND REPORTING OF VAST AMOUNTS OF GEOPHYSICAL, GEOCHEMICAL AND GEOLOGICAL DATA INTO A GIS DATABASE, ACCESSIBLE BY MANY, IS AN ESSENTIAL PART OF SUCCESSFUL MINERAL EXPLORATION AND DEPOSIT VALUATION. THE BRITISH COLUMBIA GSB, WITH THEIR www.mapplace.ca IS A RECOGNIZED, AWARD WINNING, LEADER. ON THE MOON AND MARS GOOGLE IS ASSEMBLING AND DELIVERING SIMILAR GEOSCIENCE DATABASES THAT ARE OPEN TO THE PUBLIC. 3
    • • • • • • • • • • • Challenge Objective Strategy Space Investment Moon/Mars Program Lunar Environment South Polar Region Lunar Surface Mine Development Equipment Selection Remote Control & Monitoring Recommendations After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 4
    • The Challenge DUNCAN STEEL – TARGET EARTH • Humans cannot survive as a single planet species as evidenced in the Earth’s fossil record of mass extinctions of life caused mainly by comet/asteroid impacts and supervolcanic eruptions • Humans have a genetic “wiring” that drives exploration (risk) for discovery of new places and things (reward) – the earth no longer holds the exploration potential nor the rewards needed by society – it is time to move onto the rest of the Solar System After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • NASA AS OF MAY 2008 REPORTS 5,474 NEOs (IN THE VICINITY OF EARTH’S ORBIT) HAVE BEEN DISCOVERED: (65 COMETS AND 5,409 ASTERIODS), OF THESE 881 ARE ESTIMATED TO BE AT LEAST 1.0KM IN DIAMETER. THE RATE OF IMPACTS OF OBJECTS OF AT LEAST THIS 1.0KM SIZE IS ESTIMATED AT 2 PER 1.0 MILLION YEARS (2,000 PER BILLION YEARS). MANY MORE NEOs WILL ARRIVE OVER TIME DUE TO GRAVITATIONAL EFFECTS ON ASTERIODS (MAINLY JUPITER) IN THE ASTERIOD BELT AND COMETS (MAINLY NEPTUNE) IN THE KUIPER BELT. • THE LARGEST NEO AT THIS TIME IS GANYMED, AN ASTERIOD, WHICH IS ~32KM IN DIAMETER. • IN 2008 THE ASSOCIATION OF SPACE EXPLORERS INTERNATIONAL PANEL OF ASTERIOD THREAT MITIGATION PRESENTED “ASTERIOD THREATS: A CALL FOR GLOBAL RESPONSE” TO THE UNITED NATIONS. IT IS A 54 PAGE DOCUMENT OUTLINING THE THREAT AND THE PROPOSED MITIGATION PROGRAM FOR DETECTION, TRACKING AND DEFLECTION. 99924 APOPHIS IS A 279 METER DIAMETER NEAR EARTH ASTERIOD THAT COULD HAVE A VERY CLOSE ENCOUNTER WITH EARTH IN 2029, 2036 AND 2068 – WE NEED TO KEEP TRACKING THIS HAZARD AS AT SOME POINT IN TIME IT MAY NEED TO BE “DEFLECTED”. • • DOTCOM BILLIONAIRES ARE TURNING TO SPACE INVESTMENTS (SETI AND ROCKETS) AS “TROPHY” INVESTMENTS – PAUL ALLEN: SETI, ELON MUSK: SPACEX. 5
    • Objective TO CONTRIBUTE TO ACTIVITIES RELATED TO SAVING AND EXPANDING THE HUMAN SPECIES AND CREATING GREAT WEALTH FOR SOCIETY After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • • • AT THE 2003 LUNAR CONFERENCE ASTRONAUT JOHN YOUNG IN HIS OPENING ADDRESS SAID WE HUMANS WILL NOT SURVIVE AS A SINGLE PLANET SPECIES BECAUSE OF COMETS, ASTERIODS AND SUPER VOLCANOES. AT THE END OF THE CONFERENCE THE MEMBERS WERE ASKED IF THEY FELT IT WAS WORTH THE EFFORT FOR HUMANS TO TRY TO CONTROL THEIR DESTINY BY POPULATING OTHER PLANETS – MORE THAN HALF SAID THEY DID NOT CARE AS WE WERE DOOMED NO MATTER WHAT WE DO. I WAS IN THE MINORITY AND I DO BELIEVE THAT WE SHOULD GET ON WITH DOING THE VERY BEST WE CAN TO POPULATE OTHER PLANETS. IT IS IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND THAT EXPENDITURES ON SPACECRAFTS AND THEIR SUPPORT SYSTEMS ACTUALLY OCCUR HERE ON EARTH – NOT IN SPACE. FOR MORE THAN 50 YEARS, THE NASA INNOVATIVE PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM HAS CONNECTED NASA RESOURCES TO PRIVATE INDUSTRY, REFERRING TO THE COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS AS SPIN-OFFS. WELLKNOWN PRODUCTS THAT NASA CLAIMS AS SPIN-OFFS INCLUDE MEMORY FOAM (ORIGINALLY NAMED TEMPER FOAM), FREEZE-DRIED FOOD, FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT, EMERGENCY "SPACE BLANKETS", DUSTBUSTERS, COCHLEAR IMPLANTS, AND NOW SPEEDO'S LZR RACER SWIMSUITS. NASA CLAIMS THAT THERE ARE OVER 1650 OTHER SPIN-OFFS IN THE FIELDS OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY, ENVIRONMENT AND AGRICULTURE, HEALTH AND MEDICINE, PUBLIC SAFETY, TRANSPORTATION, RECREATION, AND INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTIVITY. 6
    • Strategy • Create an investment environment that rewards space development by private enterprise • Support the lunar/mars program • Develop lunar base systems and procedures that as much as possible use technologies and equipment applications from Earth (lowcost, versatile, redundant and reliable) • Support enabling “foundation” technologies for space transportation, power/heat, communications and life support After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 7
    • Space Financing The Space industry should lobby national and state governments to offer a tax incentive to its citizens for investment in space science and technology related to the exploration and human settlement of space. That is, allow individuals and/or corporations an immediate 100% tax write-off for investment in space related activities similar to the Canadian flow-through and taxcredit incentive to investors in Canadian mineral exploration activities. This will bring large numbers of private investors into the space program. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • • • • • • • • THE CANADIAN FLOW-THROUGH TAX-CREDIT PROGRAM IN CANADA HAS FACILITATED THE RAISING OF BILLIONS OF DOLLARS YEARLY BY THE EXPLORING COMPANIES – AND THIS HAS KEPT CANADA IN THE FOREFRONT OF WORLD MINERAL EXPLORATION AND MINE DEVELOPMENT. IN ADDITION, CANADA HAS “GROWN” A LARGE BASE OF EXPERTS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, LEGAL, ACCOUNTING, FINANCE, ETC. FOR MINERAL EXPLORATION AND MINE DEVELOPMENT WORLD WIDE. STATISTICS FROM THE 2005 CANADIAN INTERGOVERNMENTAL WORKING GROUP ON THE MINERAL INDUSTRY REPORTED: (1) GLOBALLY, CANADA CONTINUES TO BE THE FOREMOST DESTINATION FOR EXPLORATION CAPITAL. IN 2004 SOME 20% OF THE MINERAL EXPLORATION PROGRAMS PLANNED BY THE WORLD’S MINING COMPANIES WERE EXPECTED TO BE CONDUCTED IN CANADA. AS FOR CANADIAN COMPANIES THEY WERE EXPECTED TO UNDERTAKE 43% OF ALL THE EXPLORATION PROGRAMS IN THE WORLD IN 2004, A SHARE THAT IS BY FAR THE LARGEST OF THE GLOBAL MINERAL EXPLORATION MARKET, AND (2) IN 2003 C$12.7 BILLION IN EQUITY FINANCING WAS RAISED FOR MINERAL EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS AROUND THE WORLD DURING THAT YEAR. MORE THAN 45% OF THE NEW FUNDS RAISED WAS FOR COMPANIES LISTED ON THE CANADIAN STOCK EXCHANGES. MENTION THAT THE FLOW-THROUGH TAX INCENTIVE NEEDS TO OPERATE IN A SECURITIES REGULATORY REGIME THAT IS NOT OVERBEARING AND IS UNDERSTANDING OF RISK/REWARD INVESTING, ESPECIALLY WITH START-UP VENTURES. VANCOUVER AND TORONTO HAVE THE LARGEST POPULATION OF GEOSCIENTISTS IN THE WORLD. ALL THIS FROM A COUNTRY THAT ONLY REPRESENTS (1) 7% OF THE LAND AREA ON EARTH AND, (2) ONLY 0.5% OF THE WORLD’S POPULATION. IT IS TIME THE SPACE INDUSTRY BEGAN TO EMBRACE FLOW-THROUGH SHARE FINANCING. REMEMBER THE BASIC RULE FOR SOPHISTICATED INVESTORS: THE TEAM, THE PROJECT, THE FINANCING. IMMEDIATE 100% WRITE-OFF AND ZERO COST BASE ON SHARES, IN ADDITION SOME PROVINCES OFFER AN INVESTMENT TAX CREDIT TO THE COMPANY (BC = 20%). HENCE AN INVESTOR IN THE 50% TAX BRACKET HAS AN AFTER-TAX COST OF 50 CENTS ON THE DOLLAR INVESTED AND THE COMPANY GETS $1.25 TO SPEND ON MINERAL EXPLORATION FOR EACH DOLLAR INVESTED. 8
    • Moon/Mars Program • Develop a permanent lunar base for NEO deflection, deeper space exploration and development (mars), as well as exploiting resources on the lunar surface that could be used for those missions and in high earth orbit (satellite repairs). • High resolution robotic and/or remote sensing missions to the moon beginning 2008 • Lunar manned missions beginning 2020 (China may be first) After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • ALL SPACE AGENCIES APPEAR TO BE TRACKING THIS, OR VERY SIMILAR, LUNAR SCHEDULES. 9
    • Saturn V Launch (7.5M lb thrust) Kennedy Space Center USA Launch Complex 39 with the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) and Saturn V being transported to the launch pad. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 10
    • CONSTELLATION PROGRAM Ares V: Heavy-Lift Launch Vehicle Ares I: Crew Launch Vehicle SATURN V: 111 m long, 2.9M kg launch mass, 33.6M N launch thrust, 129K kg to LEO, 49K kg to Moon ARES: 109 m long (V), 3.7M kg launch mass (V+I) 53.3M N launch thrust (V+I) 148k kg to LEO, 64.8k kg to Moon Specific Impulse: solid boosters ~265 s (vac) liquid hydrogen/oxygen ~450 s (vac) After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • SPECIFIC IMPULSE (USUALLY ABBREVIATED ISP) IS A WAY TO DESCRIBE THE EFFICIENCY OF ROCKET AND JET ENGINES. IT REPRESENTS THE FORCE WITH RESPECT TO THE AMOUNT OF PROPELLANT USED PER UNIT TIME.[1] IF THE "AMOUNT" OF PROPELLANT IS GIVEN IN TERMS OF MASS (SUCH AS IN KILOGRAMS), THEN SPECIFIC IMPULSE HAS UNITS OF VELOCITY. IF IT IS GIVEN IN TERMS OF WEIGHT (SUCH AS IN KILOPOUNDS), THEN SPECIFIC IMPULSE HAS UNITS OF TIME. THE CONVERSION CONSTANT BETWEEN THE TWO VERSIONS OF SPECIFIC IMPULSE IS G. THE HIGHER THE SPECIFIC IMPULSE, THE LOWER THE PROPELLANT FLOW RATE REQUIRED FOR A GIVEN THRUST, AND IN THE CASE OF A ROCKET THE LESS PROPELLANT IS NEEDED FOR A GIVEN DELTA-V PER THE TSIOLKOVSKY ROCKET EQUATION. • THE ACTUAL EXHAUST VELOCITY IS THE AVERAGE SPEED THAT THE EXHAUST JET ACTUALLY LEAVES THE VEHICLE WITH. THE EFFECTIVE EXHAUST VELOCITY IS THE EXHAUST VELOCITY THAT WOULD BE REQUIRED TO PRODUCE THE SAME THRUST IN A VACUUM. THE TWO ARE IDENTICAL FOR AN IDEAL ROCKET WORKING IN A VACUUM, BUT ARE RADICALLY DIFFERENT FOR AN AIR-BREATHING JET ENGINE THAT OBTAINS EXTRA THRUST BY ACCELERATING AIR. SPECIFIC IMPULSE AND EFFECTIVE EXHAUST VELOCITY ARE PROPORTIONAL. 11
    • HEAVY LIFT TO THE MOON OF EQUIPMENT SUPPLIES AND HUMANS (>2,000 TONNES) ONCE LUNAR BASE SITE LOCATION DETERMINED BY ROBOTIC MISSIONS MASS ASSEMBLY-LINE PRODUCTION OF SPACEX HEAVY-LIFT ROCKETS TO FACILITATE RELIABLE AND LOW COST LAUNCHES TO THE MOON AND MARS SPACE EXPLORATION TECHNOLOGIES CORP (SPACEX) BECOMES WORLD’S LARGEST MARKET CAP PUBLIC LISTED COMPANY NUCLEAR SPACE TUG DEVELOPED FOR DEFLECTION OF LARGE NEOs AND FOR TRANSPORT BETWEEN EARTH-MOON-MARS After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • • • • • TO BE SUCCESSFUL THE ROCKETS MUST BE MASS PRODUCED (ECONOMY OF SCALE) WITH MULTLIPLE DAILY LAUNCHES. ASTROBOTIC TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND MOON EXPRESS, INC., LEADERS IN THE 26 GROUP COMPETITION TO WIN THE GOOGLE LUNAR X PRIZE, WILL BECOME SPACE EXPEDITORS SIMILAR TO UPS AND FEDEX ON EARTH. IT IS MY OPINION THAT THERE IS ONE OVERARCHING REASON FOR DEVELOPMENT OF SPACE – THAT IS TO ENSURE THE SURVIVAL OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. HENCE, ONLY EARLY PRECURSOR MISSIONS SHOULD BE ROBOTIC. THERE AFTER IT MUST BE HUMAN WITH SOME SUPPORT FROM ROBOTICS (REMOTE CONTROL AND AUTONOMOUS). I ALSO, FROM EXPERIENCE BUILDING REMOTE MINE OPERATIONS ON EARTH, KNOW THAT THE FIRST HUMAN LANDING ON THE LUNAR SURFACE TO DEVELOP A PERMANENT HABITAT WILL REQUIRE LANDING ~2,000 METRIC TONS OF EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES TO ENSURE A HIGH DEGREE OF SUCCESS. THIS IS A MASSIVE PROGRAM THAT WILL NEED MULTIGOVERNMENT AND INDUSTRY SUPPORT TO WORK PROPERLY. IN MY OPINION, SCIENCE PALLS IN COMPARISON TO LONGTERM HUMAN SURVIVAL WHEN FUNDING SPACE EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS. THE MOON WOULD BE THE LOW GRAVITY BASE FOR FUELING NUCLEAR SPACE TUGS IN LUNAR ORBIT USING PROPELLANTS SUCH AS HYDROGEN (HIGH EXHAUST VELOCITY LOW THRUST), OXYGEN (AUGMENTATION TO INCREASE THRUST) OR WATER (LOWER EXHAUST VELOCITY BUT HIGHER THRUST). THESE SPACE TUGS WOULD BE USED FOR DANGEROUS NEO DEFLECTION AND FOR MOVING BETWEEN ORBITS AT EARTH, MOON AND MARS. THE NUCLEAR FISSION REACTORS IN THE SPACE TUGS WOULD “BURN” HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (SIMILAR TO REACTORS IN USA SUBMARINES) SO THAT THE REFUELING INTERVAL WOULD BE GREATER THAN TEN YEARS (MAY BE ABLE TO INCLUDE A THORIUM “BLANKET” IN REACTOR FOR ADDITIONAL ENERGY). A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT SHOULD BE BUILT NEAR THE EARTH LAUNCH SITE TO PRODUCE HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN TO MINIMIZE FUEL TRANSPORT TO THE LAUNCH SITE. IT WOULD BE A CO-GENERATION FACILITY WITH HYDROGEN BEING REFORMED FROM NATURAL GAS (AND CARBON MONOXIDE BURNED FOR ELECTRIC POWER AND HEAT) WITH OXYGEN BEING PRODUCED BY FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF LIQUEFIED AIR. AN ALTERNATIVE, BUT MORE EXPENSIVE, METHOD OF PRODUCING HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN IS DIRECT ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER. PLAN INITIALLY FOR LAUNCHING AT LEAST ONE ROCKET PER DAY SO THAT THE FIRST 2,000 TONS OF EQUIPMENT, SUPPLIES AND WORKFORCE IS ON THE MOON IN 60 DAYS. COST ~15 TO 20 BILLION US DOLLARS. I STRONGLY RECOMMEND THAT YOU VISIT SOME EARTHLY MINING/PROCESSING OPERATIONS (MINING, MINERAL PROCESSING, SMELTING AND REFINING). YOU WILL FIND THAT MINING AND PROCESSING HETEROGENEOUS MATERIALS IS COMPLEX AND THE SYSTEMS ARE PHYSICALLY AND CHEMICALLY CHALLENGING. TRYING TO RECOVER MINERALS AND ELEMENTS FROM HETEROGENEOUS SOURCES ON ASTEROIDS OR COMETS ON A SUSTAINED BASIS WILL BE VERY DIFFICULT INDEED COMPARED TO OPERATING AT A LUNAR BASE. THE ASTEROIDS AND COMETS IN NEAR EARTH ORBIT OFFER A LOW GRAVITY WELL OPPORTUNITY (REWARD) AND A BIG MATERIALS CHALLENGE (RISK). THEY ARE EITHER CARBONACEOUS WITH WATER ICE, OR SILICATES (STONY), OR METALLIC (NOTE THE “OR” AND NO “AND”). IN OTHER WORDS YOU CANNOT LAND ON ANY ONE AND EXPECT TO GET WATER ICE, SILICATES AND METALS – THIS PRESENTS AN ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE CHALLENGE IN CREATING AN OPERATING BASE THAT IS SUSTAINABLE. I WAS THE ONE THAT STOOD UP AND RECOMMENDED JOHN LEWIS’S “MINING THE SKY” BOOK AT THE SPACE FRONTIER 2009 CONFERENCE. HOWEVER, WHAT I DID NOT SAY IS THAT I DISAGREE WITH JOHN AS TO THE IMPORTANCE OF ASTEROID OR COMET MATERIALS ON EARTH, AS THEY HAVE IN MY OPINION NO VALUE TO EARTH. WE HAVE A NEVER ENDING SUPPLY OF ELEMENTS ON EARTH, INCLUDING THOSE IN HYDROCARBONS (C AND H) THAT CAN BE EXTRACTED MUCH SAFER AND CHEAPER IN-SITU ON EARTH THAN EXPLOITING THEM ON ASTEROIDS OR COMETS. IN OTHER WORDS, ELEMENTS ON ASTEROIDS AND COMETS, AND THE MOON AND MARS WILL HAVE USE IN SPACE BUT NOT ON EARTH. 12
    • ASSEMBLY OF SPACECRAFT IN LOW EARTH ORBIT "Far better it is to dare mighty things, to win glorious triumphs, even though checkered by failure, than to take rank with those poor spirits who neither enjoy nor suffer much, because they live in that gray twilight that knows no victory nor defeat." Theodore Roosevelt After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • • • • NASA ESSENTIAL TRAINING AT THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION (ISS) FOR FUTURE ASSEMBLY OF LARGE SPACESHIPS FOR TRANSFER TO THE MOON, ASTERIODS, MARS AND THE MOONS OF JUPITER AND SATURN (GOLDILOCKS ZONE). CURRENT AND NEAR TERM ROBOTIC TECHNOLOGY WILL ALLOW ALL OF THIS ASSEMBLY, IN FUTURE, TO BE DONE UNDER REMOTE CONTROL WITH INCREASING AUTONOMOUS FUNCTION - “NO TOUCH LABOUR”. THE ISS IS IN A NEAR CIRCULAR ORBIT AT A MEAN ALTITUDE (FROM THE EARTH’S SURFACE) ~350 KM, TRAVELING AT ~27,700 KM/HR OR 8 KM/S (~15.7 ORBITS PER DAY). NOTE THE BEAUTIFUL VIEW TO THE EARTH’S SURFACE BELOW THE ASTRONAUTS THAT ARE PERFORMING THEIR ASSEMBLY EVA’S. 13
    • AD ASTRA PLASMA ROCKET NERVA SOLID‐CORE DESIGN After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • • • A NUCLEAR REACTOR HAS A VERY LARGE AMOUNT OF ENERGY PER UNIT MASS, IN FACT A REACTOR CORE HAS THE HIGHEST ENERGY DENSITY OF ANY USEFUL ENERGY SOURCE ON EARTH. THIS HIGH ENERGY DENSITY AND SCALABILITY MAKE NUCLEAR REACTORS AN IDEAL POWER SOURCE ON EARTH AND IN SPACE. A NUCLEAR ELECTRIC POWERED SPACECRAFT COULD DRAMATICALLY SHORTEN HUMAN TRANSIT TIMES BETWEEN PLANETS (LESS THAN 3 MONTHS TO MARS). IN THE 1960S THE USA AND RUSSIA WORKED ON NUCLEAR THERMAL ROCKETS. NASA DESIGNED BUILT AND TESTED 20 ROCKET REACTORS IN THEIR ROVER AND NERVA PROGRAMS. THEY DEMONSTRATED THE FEASIBILITY OF SPACE NUCLEAR POWER, TESTING A WIDE RANGE OF ENGINE SIZES, USING LIQUID HYDROGEN AS BOTH THE COOLANT FOR THE REACTOR, AND THE PROPELLANT, EXPELLED TO CREATE THE THRUST. THE RUSSIAN NUCLEAR ROCKET WORK WAS CONDUCTED AT THE SEMIPALATINSK FACILITY IN KAZAKHSTAN. THE RUSSIAN SYSTEMS PRODUCED HYDROGEN EXHAUST TEMPERATURES HIGHER THAN 3,000 K OR ABOUT 500 K DEGREES HIGHER THAN THE BEST USA NERVA FUEL ELEMENTS. FOR A GOOD READ ON NUCLEAR ROCKETS SEE “BACK TO THE MOON WITH NUCLEAR ROCKETS”, MARSHA FREEMAN, 21ST CENTURY SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, SUMMER 1999, VOL. 12, NO. 2 (www.21stcenturysciencetech.com). 14
    • Lunar Surface “Orebody” Location & Mine Development • Remote sensing is now determining the best broad location to robotically sample the Lunar surface for hydrogen, oxygen and hydrocarbons • Robotic sampling will determine the best specific location for humans to directly test (drill) for concentrations of these elements and molecules • Humans will need to use the same methods as used on earth in determining the feasible/optimum combination of mining location(s) as well as excavation and extraction methods (on Earth – maximize DCF-NPV of deposit) After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • • • • • IMPORTANCE OF HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN: LIFE SUPPORT (AIR AND WATER), ROCKET PROPELLANTS, FUEL FOR FUEL CELLS. IMPORTANCE OF HYDROCARBONS: FUEL AND SOURCE OF CARBON TO PRODUCE CARBOHYDRATES (FOOD). PHOTOSYNTHESIS NEEDS H2O, CO2 AND PHOTONS (SUNLIGHT). THE POTENTIAL DOES EXIST TO MAKE AN EXCITING NEW MINERAL OR METAL DISCOVERY ONCE HUMANS ARE ON THE LUNAR SURFACE – DEPENDING UPON CRUSTAL DIFFERENTIATION AND/OR METALLIC ASTERIOD RESIDUE. EARTH’S IMPORTANT ORE FORMING PROCESSES SUCH AS WEATHERING (WIND AND RAIN) AND PLATE TECTONICS ARE NOT AVAILABLE ON THE MOON. NUCLEAR ROCKETS WITH HYDROGEN PROPELLENT HAVE ACHIEVED A SPECIFIC IMPULSE OF 1,000 SECONDS, AND WERE PREVENTED FROM CREATING HIGHER SPECIFIC IMPULSE ONLY BECAUSE OF LIMITATIONS ON HEAT RESISTANT ALLOYS THAT ARE CAPABLE OF CONTAINING THE HIGH TEMPERATURE AND HIGH VELOCITY EXHAUST. 15
    • Terra Spacecraft: NASA & Japan Ministry of Economy Trade & Industry Aster Images (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission & Reflection Radiometer) Aster Multi-Spectral Remote Sensing Image of Taseko Lakes Area of British Columbia - Kaolinite After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • • SPECTROSCOPY IS THE STUDY OF MATTER AND ITS PROPERTIES BY INVESTIGATING LIGHT, SOUND, OR PARTICLES THAT ARE EMITTED, ABSORBED OR SCATTERED BY THE MATTER UNDER INVESTIGATION. THE PORTABLE INFRARED MINERAL ANALYSER (PIMA) IS A HAND-HELD, FIELD-PORTABLE SPECTROMETER THAT MEASURES ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION IN THE SHORTWAVE INFRA-RED (1.3 TO 2.5 µM). AS A RESULT IT IS A USEFUL TOOL IN EXPLORATION WHERE IT CAN BE USED TO IDENTIFY A WIDE RANGE OF MINERALS, INCLUDING SULPHATES, CARBONATES AND HYDROSILICATES, MANY OF WHICH ARE DIAGNOSTIC OF HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION ASSEMBLAGES ASSOCIATED WITH METALLIFEROUS MINERALISATION. THE PIMA IS QUICK AND SIMPLE TO USE WITH SAMPLES REQUIRING NO PREPARATION PRIOR TO ANALYSIS. DATA EVALUATION USING AUTOMATED SPECTRAL ANALYSIS SOFTWARE ASSISTS IN THE DEFINITION OF VECTORS TO MINERALISATION. THESE ARE BASED ON THE MAPPING OF MINERAL ASSEMBLAGES AND THE IDENTIFICATION OF CHANGES IN COMPOSITION AND CRYSTALLINITY OF CERTAIN MINERAL SPECIES SUCH AS MICA, CHLORITE AND CLAY MINERALS. THE BGS HAS EXTENSIVE EXPERIENCE OF USING THE PIMA FOR EXPLORATION PURPOSES IN A WIDE VARIETY OF SETTINGS, INCLUDING EPITHERMAL, PORPHYRY AND VHMS DEPOSITS, BOTH IN THE UK AND OVERSEAS. 16
    • NASA’S LUNAR RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER (LRO) - 2008 The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission emphasizes the overall objective of obtaining data that will facilitate returning humans safely to the Moon and enable extended stays. The 500 kg spacecraft is scheduled to be launched in October 2008. It will be a 3-axis stabilized platform with both stored data and real-time downlink capabilities at 100Mbps with delivery of up to 900Gb/day of observation to Earth. It will achieve a ~40 km “circular”, polar orbit in order to measure: + + + + + + + + Characterization of deep space radiation in Lunar orbit Geodetic global topography High spatial resolution hydrogen mapping Temperature mapping in polar shadowed regions Imaging of surface in permanently shadowed regions Identification of near-surface water ice in polar cold traps Assessment of features for landing sites Characterization of polar region lighting environment After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • THE “LUMPY” GRAVITY ON THE MOON REQUIRES THAT A VERY GOOD “FIX” BE ACHIEVED ON THE LRO IN ORDER FOR THE DATA TO BE GEOREFERENCED TO HIGH PRECISION. MENTION NEIL ARMSTRONG LANDING CHALLENGE WITH APOLLO 11 LUNAR LANDER. • THE LRO CONTINUES TODAY (MAY 24, 2013) TO COLLECT REMOTE HIGH RESOLUTION DATA ON THE LUNAR SURFACE – PROVIDING DATA TO FACILITATE EFFICIENT FUTURE SURFACE MISSIONS BY ROBOTICS AND BY HUMANS. 17
    • Exploration & Development Strategy (Highland Regolith to Crater Water Ice) • Commence mining at the highland lunar base utilizing regolith (non-water) for processing to hydrogen and oxygen (low risk low reward) • Once systems and procedures are established bring in larger equipment & use the original small equipment for crater bottom exploration (water ice) – close to or at lunar base • Enter old crater (water ice and other “volatiles” from comet debris) with partly shaded bottom with gentle sloping walls for ease of ingress and egress to the shaded “cold sink” • Develop and operate a hydrogen, oxygen, and hydrocarbon mining and processing facility in or near the crater bottom (high risk high reward) After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • • • PROCESSING HIGHLAND REGOLITH WILL BE EXPENSIVE (OXYGEN IN MINERALS) AND YIELD LITTLE HYDROGEN (PPM) BUT THE OPERATING RISK IS LESS (AT -53 DEGREES C +/-10 DEGREES C) THAN MINING AND PROCESSING OLD CRATER REGOLITH (HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN IN WATER ICE) AT -233 DEGREES C. THE DELIVERY RATE OF WATER INTO THE COLD LUNAR POLAR CRATERS IS DUE TO DEGASSING FROM THE LUNAR INTERIORS, MICROMETEORITE BOMBARDMENT, SOLAR WIND, AND COMET IMPACTS. IT WOULD BE IDEAL TO BE ABLE TO ESTABLISH THE FIRST LUNAR BASE IN A LARGE CRATER THAT IS ONLY PARTLY PERMANENTLY SHADOWED. THE BASE WOULD BE DEVELOPED ON THE “SUNNY” SIDE AND THEREBY ALLOW REGOLITH PROCESSING IN A LESS COLD ENVIRONMENT – THEN TAKE SHORT EXPLORATORY ADVANCES INTO THE SHADOWED COLD SINK LOOKING FOR WATER ICE. MORE REMOTE SENSING TO SELECT THE “RIGHT” SPOT FOR LUNAR BASE ALPHA IS CRITICAL TO MISSION SUCCESS. RECENT REMOTE SENSING (LRO) HAS DETECTED WATER ICE ON THE LUNAR SURFACE BEYOND THE POLAR CRATER COLD-TRAPS. 18
    • 0 SOUTH POLAR REGION OF THE MOON NEAR SIDE MALAPERT MTN. ~8,000 m above mtn. base 270 0 SHOEMAKER CRATER 51 km diameter 2.5 km deep LONG 90 0 85 S LAT FAR SIDE 180 After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • MOST STUDIES FOR LANDING AND EXPLORING HAVE BEEN FOCUSED ON THE SOUTH POLAR REGION. 19
    • Lunar Environment South Polar Region • Temperature: Highlands -53oC +/-10, Craters -233oC +/-0 (equatorial: -18oC +/-140) • Atmosphere: thin, essentially non-existent (“hard” vacuum) • Radiation: high ionizing radiation as very thin to no lunar atmosphere (significant danger to humans) • Meteoroids: direct high velocity impact as no atmosphere to “burn” them up • Gravity: 1.62m/s2 (~1/6g on Earth) • Length of Day: 29.53 Earth days • Dust: very dusty and a photoelectric change in conductivity at sunrise/sunset causes particles to levitate and adhere to surfaces (hard on equipment) • Seismic Activity: few and of low magnitude (<4 on Richter scale) After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • • • • • RADIATION: COSMIC AND SOLAR – COSMIC RAYS ARE PRINCIPALLY IONS – MOSTLY PROTONS AND A FEW HEAVY NUCLEI TRAVELING AT NEAR THE SPEED OF LIGHT. PROTECTION FROM SOLAR RADIATION ~20 CENTIMETERS OF REGOLITH, FROM COSMIC RADIATION ~1.5 METERS OF REGOLITH. LUNAR EQUITORIAL SURFACE GRAVITY: 1.6 METERS/SEC2 (EARTH: 9.8 METERS/SEC2). TILT OF LUNAR AXIS IS 1.53 DEGREES RELATIVE TO THE MOON’S ORBITAL PLANE AROUND THE SUN. THIS NEAR PERPENDICULAR ANGLE ALLOWS POLAR REGION HIGH TOPOGRAPHIC AREAS TO BE IN ALMOST CONSTANT SUNLIGHT WHILE TOPOGRAPHIC LOWS, SUCH AS MANY CRATER BOTTOMS, ARE IN PERPETUAL SHADE. 50% OF DUST PARTICLES BETWEEN 20 AND 100 MICRONS. DUST LEVITATES AT THE TERMINATOR BECAUSE OF CHARGE CHANGE (DAY + AND NIGHT -). NOT SURE WHAT HAPPENS AT POLES. MORE REMOTE SENSING NEEDED ON THIS PHENOMENON. THE LARGE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY CHANGE WITH VISIBLE AND UV IRRADIATION, COMBINED WITH THE VERY LOW ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY AND DIELECTRIC LOSSES OF LUNAR MATERIALS, CAN PRODUCE AN EXTREMELY EFFICIENT ELECTROSTATIC CHARGING MECHANISM BETWEEN OPPOSITE SIDES OF THE LUNAR TERMINATOR. 20
    • Lunar Base Infrastructure • Nuclear power/heat – probably gas turbine modular helium reactor (~1MW electric and ~1.5MW heat) with associated agriculture and aquaculture modules • Human habitat facilities and repair and maintenance facility mainly for mining and processing equipment • Wireless WiMAX mesh network for positioning, monitoring, guidance and communicating with optical link with Earth Internet • Spaceport near lunar mining base After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • • • • • • NUCLEAR: PBMR, TOSHIBA 4S (super safe, small and simple), SANDIA. USE FUEL CELL ~100KW AS EMERGENCY POWER SO MUST ALWAYS HAVE ENOUGH OXYGEN AND HYDROGEN ON HAND FOR RUNNING THE EMERGENCY POWER SOURCE FOR SAY 60 DAYS. FACILITIES WOULD BE OPERATED AT REDUCED OXYGEN PRESSURE (~3.5psi) AS USED IN MERCURY, GEMINI AND APOLLO SPACESUITS. NOTE THAT NORMAL AIR AT ~80% NITROGEN ACTS AS A FIRE RETARDER IEEE 802.16 (2-11 GHz LOCAL & 10-66GHz TOWER TO TOWER) WIRELESS WIMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) MESH NETWORKS: SOUTHEAST ALBERTA INSTALLATION WITH MULTI-SPECTRUM WIFI /WIMAX MESH NETWORK SERVICES WITH DATA, VOICE AND VIDEO CAPABILITY. DEPLOYMENT OF OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS IN SPACE WILL GREATLY INCREASE BAUD RATE, REDUCE POWER NEEDS AND GREATLY REDUCE (DUE TO FOCUSED BEAM) THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM NOISE CAUSED BY PRESENT LONGER WAVE LENGTH “RADIO” COMMUNICATIONS. IN 2001 EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY ANNOUNCED AN OPTICAL DATA LINK “SILEX” BETWEEN TWO SATELITES AND AN EARTH STATION AT A RATE OF 50 MILLION BAUD (50Mbps). THE ESA OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS CONTINUE WITH A RECENT SUCCESSFUL TEST (DECEMBER 2005) BETWEEN JAXA’S KIRARI (OICETS – OPTICAL INTER-ORBIT COMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING TEST SATELLITE) AND ESA’S ARTEMIS SATELLITE (ADVANCED RELAY AND TECHNOLOGY MISSION). COMMUNICATIONS CONTACT: HUGH HARIF, SPACE INITIATIVES MANAGER - U.S. CIVIL PROGRAMS, CISCO SYSTEMS, INC. PRIVATE SATELLITE EARTH STATION OPERATORS: GLOBECOMM SYSTEMS, INC. (GSI), ORBCOMM, INC. 21
    • Arctic Experience Mining Equipment Selection • Many years of experience in open-pit mining in Northern Canada has shown that mobile mining equipment can operate with high availability and high productivity in a very cold (-50oC) and dusty environment • Equipment design has continued to improve to prevent “brittle” fracture and lubricants and fluids have been developed that function very well in the harsh Arctic environment • Heat tracing of structural components and fluid reservoir heating has all served to improve equipment operations After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 22
    • Remote Mining Location Systems & Procedures • Carefully select crew members to be experienced and mentally stable (capable) • Maintain good crew quarters and medical facilities to ensure high moral • Reliable source of electric power, heat and life support systems is essential • Cross train crew members to enhance multi-tasking capabilities • Standardize equipment as much as possible including mechanical, electrical and hydraulic - functions and fittings • Maintain sufficient inventory of spare parts and materials to operate efficiently • Maintain a modern machine shop with maintenance and repair facilities to optimize equipment availability and productivity • Maintain an efficient communications network on, to/from the operations site, with Internet access to the crew After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • IT IS IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND THAT THE CREWS MUST INCLUDE A COMBINATION OF SKILLS INCLUDING INTELLIGENT, EDUCATED AND PRACTICAL INDIVIDUALS WITH EXPERIENCE AND COMMON SENSE AND GOOD JUDGEMENT. MY EXPERIENCE AT REMOTE MINES SHOWS THAT ALL INDIVIDUALS, IN A SMALL EXPERIENCED GROUP, CAN CONTRIBUTE TO THE SUCCESSFUL ACCOMPLISHMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES. 23
    • Standardize Systems to Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon • Rocket propulsion: chemical (H2 & O2), nuclear thermal (H2 or H2O), nuclear thermal with O2 augmentation (H2 & O2) • Humans: O2 & H2O • Agriculture and Aquaculture: H2O & CO2 • Internal combustion engines: H2 & O2 and hydrocarbons (CH4 & O2) • Mobile equipment fuel cells: H2 & O2 After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • • • • • • • • REFERENCE: “MINING THE SKY” BY JOHN L. LEWIS – EVEN THOUGH THIS BOOK IS TEN YEARS OLD I STILL CONSIDER THIS THE BEST REFERENCE FOR DETAILS ON LUNAR DEVELOPMENT. HUMAN EXHAUST (CO2) IDEALY CYCLED TO A GREENHOUSE TO PRODUCE FOOD AND OXYGEN. THE WATER PRODUCED FROM HUMAN METABOLISM CAN BE RECYCLED TO THE GREENHOUSE OR ELECTOLYZED TO PRODUCE 0XYGEN AND HYDROGEN. EXCESS C02 CAN BE CONVERTED TO OXYGEN AND CARBON USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE GAS-PHASE ELECTOLYSIS (WITH RECYCLING OF CARBON MONOXIDE TO CARBON AND CO2 BY HEATING WITH A SOLID CATALYST) – END PRODUCTS OXYGEN AND SOLID CARBON. THE SAME PROCESS ON WATER MAKES HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN GAS. HUMAN WASTE CAN BE BURNED TO PRODUCE CARBON DIOXIDE, WATER AND NITROGEN. THE NITROGEN CAN BE ADDED TO THE “AIR” AS A FIRE RETARDENT. APOLLO PROGRAM RAN WITH 3.5 PSI PURE OXYGEN IN SPACE SUITES – CLAIM THAT HUMANS CAN BREATH PURE OXYGEN AT THIS PRESSURE CONTINUOUSLY (BUT NOT AT HIGHER OR LOWER PRESSURES). COMBUSTION OF HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN TO FORM WATER (2 HYDROGEN AND 16 OXYGEN = 18 WATER (ATOMIC WEIGHT)). INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN SPACE (WORK BEING DONE BY LOCKHEED MARTIN) RUN WITH ABOUT 3 TIMES THE AMOUNT OF HYDROGEN NEEDED FOR STOICHIOMETRIC COMBUSTION WITH OXYGEN (TO SLOW AND COOL REACTION SIMILAR TO NITROGEN IN AIR ON EARTH). 24
    • Mining - Drilling the “Orebody” • The target area located by robotic sampling will need to be auger drilled to ~2 meters depth on a grid pattern to define a large enough hydrogen and oxygen resource to satisfy the human (air and water) and equipment (rocket fuel, and fuel cell fuel) needs for at least ten years • Neutron activation probe would analyze for hydrogen at the borehole and report results in real time • The use of hammer seismic may assist in defining the lunar bedrock profile and any regolith subsurface variations within the development area prior to drilling • If water ice and hydrocarbons happen to be present in the highland regolith that will create excitement (highgrade ore) but it could create significant mining challenges if it is massive and cements the regolith particles – hard and abrasive material difficult to drill and to excavate (like Alberta Oil Sands) After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • • • • NEUTRON ACTIVATION FOR HYDROGEN DETERMINATION, XRF (NITON) FOR METALS. NEUTRON ACTIVATION PROBE AVAILABLE FROM TROXLER ELECTRONIC LABORATORIES, INC., NORTH CAROLINA. MODEL 4300 REPLACES 3220. A GOOD REFERENCE ON LUNAR RESOURCE UTILIZATION IS THE JUNE 2005 PAPER BY GERALD SANDERS AND ROBERT WEGENG OF NASA. LUNAR MARE REGOLITH: <1mm IN DIAMETER, SPGR=3.1, POROSITY=50%, BULK DENSITY=1.55 g/cc, EXCAVATED SLOPE (TO 10 METERS) STABLE TO 60 DEGREES, ~40% OXYGEN, ~50 to 150PPM HYDROGEN. PROCESSING OF WATER ICE TO WATER THEN HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN IS EASY, PROCESSING LUNAR REGOLITH TO PRODUCE HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN IS ANOTHER MATTER AS HYDROGEN IS “BOUND” TO ILLMENITE MINERAL GRAIN SURFACES AND OXYGEN IS IN THE FORM OF SILICATES. THEREFORE HIGH TEMPERATURE PROCESS METHODS ARE REQUIRED, SUCH AS: (1) HYDROGEN REDUCTION OF ILMENITE/GLASS, (2) METHANE REDUCTION (CARBOTHERMAL), (3) MOLTEN ELECTROLYSIS AND (4) VAPOUR PYROLYSIS. A LOWER TEMPERATURE METHOD, BUT ALSO DIFFICULT, IS SULFURIC ACID REDUCTION. THE HIGH TEMPERATURE PROCESSES HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO FUSE THE GANGUE THAT COULD THEN BE SHAPED FOR BUILDING MATERIAL. 25
    • Mining - Equipment Selection • Equipment must be versatile so that it can perform both development and operations tasks • First equipment should be small, and then as development progresses and operations mature, larger (but similar) equipment should be deployed • The first small equipment could then be adapted (nuclear power, extra heat tracing, insulating, etc.) for exploration of deep cold craters in the vicinity of the lunar mining base exploring for water ice deposits (high risk, high reward venture) • The swing function on equipment will need to be modified to slow acceleration and deceleration so that F=ma does not over-balance the normal force on the machine in the low lunar gravity (~1/6 Earth’s) After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • • • • • • • FOR DEEP COLD CRATER EXPLORATION THE LUNAR EXCAVATORS SHOULD BE EQUIPPED WITH A NUCLEAR POWER SOURCE, EXTENSIVE HEAT TRACING, FLUID RESERVOIR HEATERS, ETC. THE EXCAVATOR SHOULD BE EQUIPPED WITH THE EXTRA WIDE CRAWLER FRAME OPTION FOR STABILITY. THE EXCAVATOR BUCKET SIZE AND UPPER FRAME SHOULD REMAIN THE SAME AS ON EARTH DUE TO F=MA. 1 NEUTON = 1KG-M/SEC2. PREPARING EQUIPMENT FOR COLD SINK ENTRY COULD INCLUDE A RADIOISOTOPE THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR USING PU-238 WITH A HALF-LIFE OF 87.7 YEARS. THE EXCAVATOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN SHOULD REMAIN THE SAME AS ON EARTH. BECAUSE OF LOW LUNAR GRAVITY THE CARRYING CAPACITY (MASS) OF THE CRAWLER “TRAILER” MAY BE SUBSTANTIALLY INCREASED (~6 TIMES). THIS IS COMMON ON EARTH WHERE A STANDARD CARBODY AND DRIVE TRAIN WILL (1) CARRY A SMALL VOLUME BOX WHEN MINING HIGH SPECIFIC GRAVITY SULFIDES, OR (2) CARRY A LARGE VOLUME BOX WHEN MINING LOW SPECIFIC GRAVITY COAL. EXCAVATOR WILL NEED TO BE POWERED BY A INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE (LOCKHEED MARTIN DEVELOPMENT) OR FUEL CELL. UTC POWER (UNITED TECHNOLOGIES CORP), BALLARD POWER SYSTEMS, INC., GENERAL HYDROGEN (CANADA) CORPORATION. MUST BE ABLE TO “BURN” PURE OXYGEN (RATHER THAN AIR) AND HYDROGEN. A RADIOISOTOPE THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR (RTG, RITEG) IS AN ELECTRICAL GENERATOR THAT OBTAINS ITS POWER FROM RADIOACTIVE DECAY. IN SUCH A DEVICE, THE HEAT RELEASED BY THE DECAY OF A SUITABLE RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL IS CONVERTED INTO ELECTRICITY BY THE SEEBECK EFFECT USING AN ARRAY OF THERMOCOUPLES.. 26
    • THE HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR IS THE MOST VERSATILE PIECE OF CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE TODAY Komatsu PC18M-2 (Earth 1g Environment) Komatsu PC35MR-2 (Earth 1g Environment) Power Operating Weight Ground Pressure Travel Speed Power Operating Weight 21.7 kW 3840 kg Ground Pressure Travel Speed 0.35 kg/cm2 2.8 km/hr (low) 4.6 km/hr (high) 30 degrees 3600 kg 5010 mm 4550 mm 2650 mm Gradeability Drawbar Pull Digging Height Bucket Reach Digging Depth 11.2 kW 1933 kg 0.33 kg/cm2 2.3 km/hr (low) 4.3 km/hr (high) 30 degrees 1700 kg 3615 mm 3935 mm 1785 mm Gradeability Drawbar Pull Digging Height Bucket Reach Digging Depth After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • • MANUFACTURING LEADERS IN SMALL MINE EQUIPMENT INCLUDE: CATERPILLAR, HITACHI, JOHN DEERE, VOLVO AND KOMATSU. MY MOST SUCCESSFUL EXPERIENCE HAS BEEN WITH CATERPILLAR – PRODUCTIVITY AND AVAILABILITY. STEVE MARTIN, MANAGER CTM REENTRY SEIT, LOCKHEED MARTIN SPACE SYSTEMS COMPANY SENT ME AN EMAIL WITH AN ARTICLE FROM THE WASHINGTON POST (MARCH 26, 2006) THAT QUOTED DARRYL CALKINS, TECHNICAL DIRECTOR, ARMY CORP OF ENGINEERS COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LABORATORY – YOU CAN’T PUT A 20,000 POUND BULLDOZER ON THE MOON AND NONE OF OUR OILS OR HYDRAULIC FLUIDS ARE GOING TO SURVIVE. I CALLED MR. CALKINS AND HAD A GREAT “CHAT”. 27
    • QUICK COUPLING ATTACHMENTS WILL FACILITATE SIGNIFICANT VERSATILITY, INCLUDING: (A) ROCK BUCKET (B) ROCK BREAKING (C) AUGER DRILLING (D) VIBRATING COMPACTOR & SEISMIC HAMMER (E) MATERIAL HANDLING ARM C A D B E After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • USING MULTIPLE QUICK COUPLE ATTACHMENTS ON ONE PIECE OF EQUIPMENT REDUCES THE NEED FOR MULTIPLE PIECES OF MOBILE EQUIPMENT (LOWER CAPITAL COST AND INVENTORY COST, AND IMPROVES MACHINE MAINTENANCE AND OPERATING TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS). 28
    • Lunar mining would be done during the daytime and processing would be done at night. Operation crews would include, at least: mine engineer, extractive metallurgical engineer, electronics technician, electrician, mechanic/welder, millwright and equipment specialist – they would be cross trained to both mine and process and they would need to have Industrial first aid training After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • DISSIPATING HEAT FROM OPERATING EQUIPMENT WILL BE A CHALLENGE IN THE MOON’S VACUUM AS THERE IS NO CONVECTIVE COOLING (OR HEATING) AS WE HAVE ON EARTH (ATMOSPHERE). 29
    • Lunar Excavator & Powered Side Dump Trailer TRAILER CARBODY SAME AS EXCAVATOR & HYDRAULIC POWERED EARTH EXAMPLE TRACTOR TRAILER EARTH EXAMPLE SIDE DUMP TRAILERS After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 30
    • USE PARALLEL CUT MINING METHOD (90 DEGREE SWING) After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • • THE TRAILER LOWER CARBODY IS FROM THE EXCAVATOR (IDENTICAL) AND IT INCLUDES THE HYDRAULIC DRIVE MOTOR. THE EXCAVATOR HYDRAULIC PUMP HAS THE CAPACITY TO POWER BOTH CRAWLERS (EXCAVATOR AND TRAILER) AS LONG AS THE EXCAVATOR DIGGING FUNCTION IS OFF. IF REQUIRED THIS TRACKED CONFIGURATION CAN NEGOTIATE A 30 DEGREE SLOPE. THE SWING FUNCTION SHOULD HAVE REDUCED FLUID FLOW TO ENSURE SWING SPEED IS SLOWED TO PREVENT OVERBALANCING F=MA VS NORMAL FORCE ON MACHINE. 31
    • TRANSPORTING HYDROGEN & OXYGEN TO SPACEPORT After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • THESE ARE THE SAME POWERED LOWER CARBODIES AS USED FOR MINING AND TRANSPORT. 32
    • MOBILE HUMAN HABITAT (REFUGE) FOR EXPLORATION VENTURES & FOR REMOTE CONTROL CENTER After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • • • • • • • • • • • MINERAL EXPLORATION METHODS ON EARTH WILL, WHERE POSSIBLE, BE APPLIED ON THE MOON AND MARS. NOTE THAT USA AND RUSSIAN NAVIES USE A VLF-EM SIGNAL FROM LAND OF ~30,000 HERTZ (WAVES PER SECOND) THAT CAN BE PICKED UP BY SUBMARINES TO DEPTHS OF 20 METERS. THESE VLF-EM SIGNALS ARE USED EXTENSIVELY BY THE MINING INDUSTRY FOR EM SURVEYS. NOTE THAT AT THIS FREQUENCY THE WAVELENGTH IS ~10 KM. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM: RADIO = 10*6 Hz, INFRARED = 10*13Hz, VISIBLE LIGHT = 10*15 Hz, ULTRA VIOLET = 10*16Hz, GAMMA RAYS = 10*18 Hz. ONLY RADIO WAVES AND VISIBLE LIGHT MAKE IT THROUGH EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE – ALL OTHER WAVELENGTHS ARE BLOCKED AT VARYING DISTANCES BEFORE REACHING THE GROUND. IT IS INTERESTING TO NOTE THAT RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DETECTION AND BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF NEUTRINOS HAS RESULTED IN GEOPHYSICISTS STARTING TO USE NUETRINO OBSERVATIONS TO DETERMINE THE DISTRIBUTION OF RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES ON EARTH. REFER TO SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, MAY 2010, FOR A STATUS OF THE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY RELATED TO NEUTRINOS. RECENT ADVANCES IN ELECTRONICS AND COMPUTATIONAL POWER HAVE FACILITATED 3D INDUCED POLARIZATION, 3D SEISMIC AND ZTEM (SEE: www.geotech.ca). THE ZTEM OR Z AXIS TIPPER ELECTROMAGNETIC SYSTEM IS AN INNOVATIVE AIRBORNE EM SYSTEM WHICH USES THE NATURAL OR PASSIVE FIELDS OF THE EARTH AS THE SOURCE OF TRANSMITTED ENERGY. THE EARTH AND IONOSPHERE, BOTH CONDUCTIVE, ACT AS A WAVEGUIDE TO “TRANSMIT” THE SOURCE ENERGY GREAT DISTANCES. DUE TO THE MANNER IN WHICH THEY PROPAGATE, THESE NATURAL FIELDS ARE PLANAR AND HORIZONTAL. ANY VERTICAL FIELD IS CAUSED BY CONDUCTIVITY CONTRASTS IN THE EARTH. THE VERTICAL EM FIELD IS REFERENCED TO THE HORIZONTAL EM FIELD AS MEASURED BY A SET OF HORIZONTAL BASE STATION COILS. THE PROPRIETARY RECEIVER DESIGN USING THE ADVANTAGES OF MODERN DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND SIGNAL PROCESSING DELIVERS EXCEPTIONALLY LOW-NOISE LEVELS. ZTEM IS ABLE TO DETECT LARGE MINERAL BODIES (PORPHYRY COPPER) THROUGH THIN COVER SUCH AS GLACIAL OVERBURDEN OR YOUNG VOLCANIC CAPPING. MDA GEOSPATIAL SERVICES, BASED IN RICHMOND BC, PROVIDES RADARSAT (1 AND 2) REMOTE SYNTHETIC APERATURE IMAGE DATA TO THE MINING INDUSTRY (SEE: www.gs.mdacorporation.com). 3D GRAVITY GRADIENT EQUIPMENT (ROTATING ACCELEROMETER GRAVITY-GRADIOMETER) DESIGNED AND BUILT BY BELL AEROSPACE (NOW LOCKHEED MARTIN) HAS REVOLUTIONIZED THE USE OF GRAVITY AS A REMOTE SENSING TOOL FOR MINERAL EXPLORATION. SEE: HTTP://WWW.JMEECH.MINING.UBC.CA/MINE290/MINERALS%20-%20SPACE%20DEVELOPMENT.PDF 33
    • REMOTE CONTROL & MONITORING OF EQUIPMENT • Establish local metric grid coordinate system (if there is still no lunar UTM high resolution datum available) • Deploy antenna array (at least 6) around perimeter of lunar base for communication (~10m baud) and positioning (+/-10cm) • Use WiMAX/IEEE 802.16 broadband wireless mesh network on and around the lunar base for positioning, equipment and operations health/safety monitoring, remote control, autonomous functions as well as performance monitoring and reporting • There are several companies on Earth now successfully providing the positioning, control and monitoring systems, mentioned above, to surface and underground mines • Communicate with Earth using optical transmission via relay satellite parked at Earth-Lunar L1 point and the Universal Space Network • The end-to-end system connectivity would be TCP/IP compliant and be routered into the Earth’s Internet for mission control and public access After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • • • • • COMPANIES WORKING ON MINE REMOTE CONTROL, AUTOMATION, MONITORING AND REPORTING INCLUDE: MODULAR INTERNATIONAL MINING SYSTEMS INC. (TUCSON, ARIZONA), WENCO INTERNATIONAL MINING SYSTEMS LTD. (RICHMOND, BC) AND NOVARIANT, INC., MENLO PARK, CALIFORNIA. MONITORING SYSTEMS BY CATERPILLAR (VIMS) HAS SENSORS ON ~300 LOCATIONS ON LARGE MINING EQUIPMENT THAT CAN BE MONITORED REMOTELY BY THE MINE CONTROL ROOM AND BY CATERPILLAR IN PEORIA ILLINOIS VIA THE INTERNET. OTHER EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS HAVE SIMILAR SYSTEMS. Caterpillar's Vital Information Management System (VIMS) is a powerful tool for machine management that provides operators, service personnel and managers information on a wide range of vital machine functions. Numerous sensors are integrated into the vehicle design. If VIMS detects an impeding or abnormal condition in any of the machine's systems, it will alert the operator and instruct them to take appropriate action, whether it's modifying machine operation, notifying the shop of needed maintenance, or performing a safe shutdown of the machine. This improves availability, component life and production while reducing both repair cost and the risk of a catastrophic failure. On Caterpillar Mining Trucks and large Wheel Loaders, VIMS also includes production and performance information. It records the various elements of the truck cycle: load time, travel loaded, dump time, and travel empty, along with delay times. All of this information is used to create useful reports and charts. These reports lead to intelligent analysis and better decision making for a more efficient operation, lowering the cost per ton. POTENTIAL EXISTS TO USE THE PROPOSED INTERNATIONAL LUNAR OBSERVATORY TO BE PLACED ON MALAPART MOUNTAIN AS A COMMUNICATION RELAY. THE OBSERVATORY PROPOSAL IS BEING CHAMPIONED BY SPACEDEV, INC. AND LUNAR ENTERPRISE CORPORATION. THERE IS A PRESENT CHALLENGE WITH LUNAR EARTH INTERNET INTERCONNECTION BECAUSE OF ROUND TRIP TIME DELAY (SMALL) AFFECTING THE PACKET SWITCHING RECEIPT. DR. VINTON CERF, ONE OF THE INTERNET FOUNDERS, IS NOW ACTIVELY INVOLVED WITH NASA DEVELOPING A LONG-TERM SPACE COMMUNICATIONS ARCHITECTURE THAT IS TCP/IP CAPABLE – ESSENTIALLY AN INTER-PLANETARY INTERNET (IPN). 34
    • Kirari-Artemis-Ground Bi-Directional Optical Communications, December 2005 After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • • • Vinton G. Cerf, PhD VP & Chief Internet Evangelist Google Key developer of the Internet now developing the InterPlanetary Internet (IPN) One Meter Diameter Optical Ground Receiver HUGH ARIF, SPACE INITIATIVES MANAGER – US CIVIL PROGRAMS, GLOBAL DEFENCE, SPACE & SECURITY, CISCO SYSTEMS INC. ENCOURAGED ME TO PUSH THE OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS IN OUR 2006 LUNAR MINING PAPER AS HE FELT ESA WAS LEAVING NASA “BEHIND”. THE IPN WILL BE BASED UPON INTERPLANETARY “PARCELS” IN DELAY TIME AND WILL BE DESIGNED TO INTEGRATE WITH “PACKETS” IN REAL TIME (EARTH INTERNET). THE INTERPLANETARY INTERNET (BASED ON IPN, ALSO CALLED INTERPLANET) IS A CONCEIVED COMPUTER NETWORK IN SPACE, CONSISTING OF A SET OF NETWORK NODES WHICH CAN COMMUNICATE WITH EACH OTHER. COMMUNICATION WOULD BE GREATLY DELAYED BY THE GREAT INTERPLANETARY DISTANCES, SO THE IPN NEEDS A NEW SET OF PROTOCOLS AND TECHNOLOGY THAT ARE TOLERANT TO LARGE DELAYS AND ERRORS. WHILE THE INTERNET AS IT IS KNOWN TODAY TENDS TO BE A BUSY NETWORK OF NETWORKS WITH HIGH TRAFFIC, NEGLIGIBLE DELAY AND ERRORS, AND A WIRED BACKBONE, THE INTERPLANETARY INTERNET IS A STORE AND FORWARD NETWORK OF INTERNETS THAT IS OFTEN DISCONNECTED, HAS A WIRELESS BACKBONE FRAUGHT WITH ERROR-PRONE LINKS AND DELAYS RANGING FROM TENS OF MINUTES TO EVEN HOURS, EVEN WHEN THERE IS A CONNECTION. 35
    • RECOMMENDATIONS Education-Financing-Transportation-Power/HeatCommunication • The most important factors that will provide the foundation for commercial space development are: – Education of students and the public about space – Private sector funding (tax-incentive driven) – Commissioning of reusable Nuclear Thermal Rockets with LOX augmentation – Commissioning of small Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactors – Deployment of optical (laser) communications systems compatible with the Internet • Nuclear technology is an essential component to lunar and general space development and must be embraced by governments and developers After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • • • • • • ALL OF THE OTHER SPACE EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES WILL FALL INTO PLACE IF THE RECOMMENDED FOUNDATION CAN BE ESTABLISHED (EDUCATION AND TRAINING IS ASSUMED). FINANCING: FOLLOW EXAMPLE OF CANADIAN FLOW-THROUGH. THE REUSABLE NUCLEAR THERMAL ROCKET WITH LOX AUGMENTATION WILL PROVIDE THE LEAST COSTLY AND MOST EFFICIENT PROPULSION FOR LEO TO MOON AND MOON TO MARS MISSIONS (SPECIFIC IMPULSE: HYDROGEN (HIGH VELOCITY) AND THRUST: OXYGEN (MASS)). “SUPERSONIC OXYGEN AFTERBURNER NOZZLE”. NUCLEAR THERMAL SPECIFIC IMPULSE ~1,000 TO 2,000 SECONDS COMPARED TO CHEMICAL HYDROGEN/OXYGEN AT SPECIFIC IMPULSE OF 444 SECONDS. THE SATURN 5 ROCKET HAD 7.5 MILLION POUNDS (33.6 MILLION NEWTONS) OF THRUST AND COULD LIFT 129 METRIC TONS TO LOW EARTH ORBIT AND LAND 49 METRIC TONS ON THE MOON. THE PROPOSED NASA ARES V (CaLV) UN-MANNED LARGE PAYLOAD LAUNCH VEHICLE WILL HAVE: 2 X 15.5 MILLION NEWTONS OF THRUST IN STRAP-ON SOLID BOOSTERS PLUS 8.3 MILLION NEWTONS OF THRUST (STAGE 1). IT WILL LIFT 130 METRIC TONS TO LEO AND 65 METRIC TONS TO THE MOON. THE NASA MANNED SISTER LAUNCH VEHICLE ARES I (CLV) CAN LIFT 23 METRIC TONS TO LEO. NUCLEAR REACTORS PROVIDE RELIABLE (STEADY) POWER/HEAT AT HIGH POWER DENSITIES WITH LOW MAINTENANCE. 36
    • APPLYING EARTH MINERAL EXPLORATION & MINING EXPERTISE ON OUR MOON – LUNAR SPACE PORT WITH ADJACENT CANADIAN MINING OPERATIONS: DEFLECTING DANGEROUS NEAR EARTH OBJECTS, SERVICING GSO AND GEO EARTH SATELLITES AND PREPARING TO START COLONIZING MARS THE MOON HAS ~1/6 THE SURFACE GRAVITY AND ~1/4 THE RADIUS OF EARTH – SO THE WORK REQUIRED TO ESCAPE THE MOON’S GRAVITY FIELD BY ROCKET IS ~1/24 THAT OF EARTH After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • • • • VISIONARY VIEW OF LUNAR ALPHA MINING AND ROCKET PROPELLANT REFUELING BASE AT HIGHLANDS OF SOUTH (OR NORTH) POLAR REGION OF THE MOON. MOST IMPORTANT SUPPORT FOR THIS BASE IS: 1) A RELIABLE AND ABUNDANT SOURCE OF WATER, 2) RELIABLE NUCLEAR FISSION SOURCE OF POWER (ELECTRIC AND HEAT), AND HABITAT STRUCTURES AND SPACE SUITS THAT PROTECT AGAINST SOLAR AND COSMIC RADIATION. IT IS IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND THAT MOST NUCLEAR FISSION REACTORS PRODUCE BOTH ELECTRICITY AND HEAT IN ABOUT EQUAL AMOUNTS. THIS BASE WILL BE LOCATED AT (OR VERY NEAR) A LARGE SOURCE OF WATER THAT CAN BE “MINED” AS WATER-ICE. THIS BASE WILL BE THE MISSION CENTER FOR DEFLECTION OF NEAR EARTH OBJECTS THAT ARE DANGEROUS POTENTIAL IMPACTORS. 37
    • After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006 • MAKE YOUR LIFE COUNT – AIM HIGH AND LONG. 38