The role of metacognitive knowledge in the processing

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The role of metacognitive knowledge in the processing

  1. 1. Thank you for coming The presentation starts in a few seconds
  2. 3. by Johansyah The Role of Metacognition in Processing of CALL Tasks
  3. 4. OVERVIEW <ul><li>WHAT - Definitions of metacognition </li></ul><ul><li>HOW - Components involved </li></ul><ul><li>WHY- Importance of knowing it </li></ul><ul><li>Relations to CALL </li></ul><ul><li>Research findings in the CALL area </li></ul><ul><li>Implications and Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Questions and Discussions </li></ul>
  4. 5. WHAT – Definitions of Metacognition <ul><li>John Flavell (1979): Metacognition consists of both metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognitive knowledge: Acquired knowledge as cognitive process that can be used to control cognitive processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognitive experiences: Sequential processes to control cognitive activities, to ensure that a cognitive goal has been met. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Livingston (1997): Metacognition refers to higher order of thinking which involves active control over the cognitive processes engaged in learning. </li></ul>“ THINKING ABOUT THINKING” <ul><li>Sternberg (Triarchic Theory of Intelligence, 1984): Metacognition refers to metacomponents; executive processes that control other cognitive components as well as receive feedback from them. Responsible for figuring out how to do a particular task and then making sure that the task is done correctly. </li></ul>
  6. 7. HOW – Components involved Metacognition usually precedes or follows a cognitive activity. Person variables Task variables Strategy variables Planning Monitoring Evaluating Metacognitive Experiences Metacognitive Knowledge
  7. 8. I’m hungry! Kweitau Fried noodles Fried rice Bakso Hot? No!! Warung Riau!!! Walk to go there? By phone. Save energy, save time!! Use another person’s name. GPL: Gak Pake Lama!!! Wait…. and count the time… How the food is. Person variables Task Variables Strategy variables monitoring Evaluation
  8. 9. WHY – Importance of knowing it <ul><li>Metacognition plays a critical role in successful learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Those with greater metacognitive abilities tend to be more successful in their cognitive efforts because they: </li></ul>1. Are confident that they can learn. 8. View themselves as continual learners and thinkers. 7. Take time to think about their own thinking. 6. Ask for guidance from peers or the teacher. 5. Match strategies to the learning task, making judgements when necessary. 4. Actively seek to expand their repertoire of strategies for learning. 3. Think clearly about inaccuracies when failure occurs during tasks. 2. Make accurate assessments of why they succeed in learning.
  9. 10. Relations to CALL Experiential Learning Greater Interaction Enhance Student Achievement Wide Range of Activities Individualization Global Understanding Motivation Authentic Materials Advantages of CALL Advantages of CALL
  10. 11. Making the most of CALL <ul><li>CALL – Computer Assisted Language Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers and students have to make the most of them </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain skills needed to optimize computer’s potentials </li></ul><ul><li>Research for CALL processes to determine how CALL tasks mediate and influence learning </li></ul><ul><li>Only few studies – Metacognition in CALL </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognition is vital for control and direction of learning </li></ul>
  11. 12. Research Findings in The Area of CALL Chan (2000): <ul><li>Adequate and appropriate metacognitive knowledge is decisive for effective control and use of interactive aids. </li></ul><ul><li>Over time, control and strategy use improve with more effective use of interactive aids. </li></ul><ul><li>Many students turn to interactive aids when they encounter problems in task processing. </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous and frequent processing of CALL tasks and use of interactive aids have formative and positive effects on metacognitive skills. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Johansyah (2008): <ul><li>Introduction and explanation prior to the actual CALL activity significantly reduce problems students encounter during doing the task. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher’s close and active monitoring is vital to make sure students achieve the goal of the task. </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidation at the end of the session should be done to ensure that students actually learn what they have done in the task. </li></ul>
  13. 14. IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>Find content and skill appropriate CALL tasks with the availability of interactive aids preferable. </li></ul><ul><li>Students are less aware of their learning strategy (using their metacognitive skills), thus teachers should reinforce this. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage students to practice CALL in their own time to improve their metacognitive skills. </li></ul><ul><li>It is advisable that the teacher provides introduction and explanation before the actual CALL activities occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Close and active monitoring for task in progress is essential. </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidation at the end of the session to make sure that students really learn things they have done in the task is highly advisable. </li></ul>
  14. 15. THANK YOU [email_address] December 2008
  15. 16. QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSIONS

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