Introduction to CSSWhat You Should Already KnowBefore you continue you should have some basic understanding of the followi...
To solve this problem, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) - the non profit, standardsetting consortium, responsible for s...
CSS SyntaxSyntaxThe CSS syntax is made up of three parts: a selector, a property and a value:selector {property: value}The...
{color: green}The class SelectorWith the class selector you can define different styles for the same type of HTMLelement.S...
This heading will be center-aligned</h1><p class="center">This paragraph will also be center-aligned.</p>  Do NOT start a ...
Comments are used to explain your code, and may help you when you edit the sourcecode at a later date. A comment will be i...
p {margin-left: 20px}body {background-image: url("images/back40.gif")}   Do NOT leave spaces between the property value an...
If some properties have been set for the same selector in different style sheets, the values will beinherited from the mor...
How to repeat a background image only verticallyThis example demonstrates how to repeat a background image only vertically...
repeat-y                                                         no-repeatCSS FontThe CSS font properties define the font ...
font-family                                                     caption                                                   ...
The CSS border properties define the borders around an element.ExamplesSet the style of the four bordersThis example demon...
CSS Border PropertiesThe CSS border properties allow you to specify the style and color of an elements border. In HTMLwe u...
dashed                                                        solid                                                       ...
CSS Margin PropertiesThe CSS margin properties define the space around elements. It is possible to use negative valuesto o...
Set the top paddingThis example demonstrates how to set the top padding of a tablecell.Set the bottom paddingThis example ...
The different list-item markers in ordered listsThis example demonstrates the different list-item markers in CSS.Set an im...
CSS DimensionThe CSS dimension properties allow you to control the height and width of an element. Italso allows you to in...
The CSS classification properties allow you to specify how and where to display anelement.ExamplesHow to display an elemen...
Property              Description                    Values               IE   F   N   W3Cclear                 Sets the s...
ExamplesPosition:relativeThis example demonstrates how to position an element relative to its normal position.Position:abs...
position                 Places an element in a static, static                4       1   4   2                         re...
selector:pseudo-class {property: value}CSS classes can also be used with pseudo-classes:selector.class:pseudo-class {prope...
This paragraph will be indented.</p><p>Second paragraph in div.This paragraph will not be indented.</p></div>but it will n...
<html><head><style type="text/css">q:lang(no){quotes: "~" "~"}</style></head><body><p>Some text <q lang="no">A quote in a ...
SyntaxThe syntax of pseudo-elements:selector:pseudo-element {property: value}CSS classes can also be used with pseudo-elem...
p:first-letter {font-size: 200%; float: left}<p>The first words of an article.</p>The output could be something like this:...
article.In the example above the first letter of the paragraph will be red with a font size of 24pt. The rest ofthe first ...
Media Types allow you to specify how documents will be presented in different media.The document can be displayed differen...
Media Type          Descriptionall                 Used for all media type devicesaural               Used for speech and ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Introduction to css

434 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
434
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Introduction to css

  1. 1. Introduction to CSSWhat You Should Already KnowBefore you continue you should have some basic understanding of the following: • HTML / XHTMLIf you want to study this subject first, find the tutorials on our Home page.What is CSS? • CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets • Styles define how to display HTML elements • Styles are normally stored in Style Sheets • Styles were added to HTML 4.0 to solve a problem • External Style Sheets can save you a lot of work • External Style Sheets are stored in CSS files • Multiple style definitions will cascade into oneCSS DemoWith CSS, your HTML documents can be displayed using different output styles:See how it worksStyles Solve a Common ProblemHTML tags were originally designed to define the content of a document. They weresupposed to say "This is a header", "This is a paragraph", "This is a table", by using tagslike <h1>, <p>, <table>, and so on. The layout of the document was supposed to be takencare of by the browser, without using any formatting tags.As the two major browsers - Netscape and Internet Explorer - continued to add newHTML tags and attributes (like the <font> tag and the color attribute) to the originalHTML specification, it became more and more difficult to create Web sites where thecontent of HTML documents was clearly separated from the documents presentationlayout.
  2. 2. To solve this problem, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) - the non profit, standardsetting consortium, responsible for standardizing HTML - created STYLES in addition toHTML 4.0.All major browsers support Cascading Style Sheets.Style Sheets Can Save a Lot of WorkStyles sheets define HOW HTML elements are to be displayed, just like the font tag andthe color attribute in HTML 3.2. Styles are normally saved in external .css files. Externalstyle sheets enable you to change the appearance and layout of all the pages in your Web,just by editing one single CSS document!CSS is a breakthrough in Web design because it allows developers to control the styleand layout of multiple Web pages all at once. As a Web developer you can define a stylefor each HTML element and apply it to as many Web pages as you want. To make aglobal change, simply change the style, and all elements in the Web are updatedautomatically.Multiple Styles Will Cascade Into OneStyle sheets allow style information to be specified in many ways. Styles can be specifiedinside a single HTML element, inside the <head> element of an HTML page, or in anexternal CSS file. Even multiple external style sheets can be referenced inside a singleHTML document.Cascading OrderWhat style will be used when there is more than one style specified for an HTMLelement?Generally speaking we can say that all the styles will "cascade" into a new "virtual" stylesheet by the following rules, where number four has the highest priority: 1. Browser default 2. External style sheet 3. Internal style sheet (inside the <head> tag) 4. Inline style (inside an HTML element)So, an inline style (inside an HTML element) has the highest priority, which means that itwill override a style declared inside the <head> tag, in an external style sheet, or in abrowser (a default value).
  3. 3. CSS SyntaxSyntaxThe CSS syntax is made up of three parts: a selector, a property and a value:selector {property: value}The selector is normally the HTML element/tag you wish to define, the property is theattribute you wish to change, and each property can take a value. The property and valueare separated by a colon, and surrounded by curly braces:body {color: black}Note: If the value is multiple words, put quotes around the value:p {font-family: "sans serif"}Note: If you wish to specify more than one property, you must separate each propertywith a semicolon. The example below shows how to define a center aligned paragraph,with a red text color:p {text-align:center;color:red}To make the style definitions more readable, you can describe one property on each line,like this:p{text-align: center;color: black;font-family: arial}GroupingYou can group selectors. Separate each selector with a comma. In the example below wehave grouped all the header elements. All header elements will be displayed in green textcolor:h1,h2,h3,h4,h5,h6
  4. 4. {color: green}The class SelectorWith the class selector you can define different styles for the same type of HTMLelement.Say that you would like to have two types of paragraphs in your document: one right-aligned paragraph, and one center-aligned paragraph. Here is how you can do it withstyles:p.right {text-align: right}p.center {text-align: center}You have to use the class attribute in your HTML document:<p class="right">This paragraph will be right-aligned.</p><p class="center">This paragraph will be center-aligned.</p>Note: To apply more than one class per given element, the syntax is:<p class="center bold">This is a paragraph.</p>The paragraph above will be styled by the class "center" AND the class "bold".You can also omit the tag name in the selector to define a style that will be used by allHTML elements that have a certain class. In the example below, all HTML elements withclass="center" will be center-aligned:.center {text-align: center}In the code below both the h1 element and the p element have class="center". This meansthat both elements will follow the rules in the ".center" selector:<h1 class="center">
  5. 5. This heading will be center-aligned</h1><p class="center">This paragraph will also be center-aligned.</p> Do NOT start a class name with a number! It will not work in Mozilla/Firefox.Add Styles to Elements with Particular AttributesYou can also apply styles to HTML elements with particular attributes.The style rule below will match all input elements that has a type attribute with a value of"text":input[type="text"] {background-color: blue}The id SelectorYou can also define styles for HTML elements with the id selector. The id selector isdefined as a #.The style rule below will match the element that has an id attribute with a value of"green":#green {color: green}The style rule below will match the p element that has an id with a value of "para1":p#para1{text-align: center;color: red} Do NOT start an ID name with a number! It will not work in Mozilla/Firefox.CSS Comments
  6. 6. Comments are used to explain your code, and may help you when you edit the sourcecode at a later date. A comment will be ignored by browsers. A CSS comment beginswith "/*", and ends with "*/", like this:/* This is a comment */p{text-align: center;/* This is another comment */color: black;font-family: arial}CSS How To...Examples • Look at Example 1 • Look at Example 2How to Insert a Style SheetWhen a browser reads a style sheet, it will format the document according to it. There are threeways of inserting a style sheet:External Style SheetAn external style sheet is ideal when the style is applied to many pages. With an external stylesheet, you can change the look of an entire Web site by changing one file. Each page must link tothe style sheet using the <link> tag. The <link> tag goes inside the head section:<head><link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"href="mystyle.css" /></head>The browser will read the style definitions from the file mystyle.css, and format the documentaccording to it.An external style sheet can be written in any text editor. The file should not contain any html tags.Your style sheet should be saved with a .css extension. An example of a style sheet file is shownbelow:hr {color: sienna}
  7. 7. p {margin-left: 20px}body {background-image: url("images/back40.gif")} Do NOT leave spaces between the property value and the units! If you use "margin-left: 20 px"instead of "margin-left: 20px" it will only work properly in IE6 but it will not work in Mozilla/Firefoxor Netscape.Internal Style SheetAn internal style sheet should be used when a single document has a unique style. You defineinternal styles in the head section by using the <style> tag, like this:<head><style type="text/css">hr {color: sienna}p {margin-left: 20px}body {background-image: url("images/back40.gif")}</style></head>The browser will now read the style definitions, and format the document according to it.Note: A browser normally ignores unknown tags. This means that an old browser that does notsupport styles, will ignore the <style> tag, but the content of the <style> tag will be displayed onthe page. It is possible to prevent an old browser from displaying the content by hiding it in theHTML comment element:<head><style type="text/css"><!--hr {color: sienna}p {margin-left: 20px}body {background-image: url("images/back40.gif")}--></style></head>Inline StylesAn inline style loses many of the advantages of style sheets by mixing content with presentation.Use this method sparingly, such as when a style is to be applied to a single occurrence of anelement.To use inline styles you use the style attribute in the relevant tag. The style attribute can containany CSS property. The example shows how to change the color and the left margin of a paragraph:<p style="color: sienna; margin-left: 20px">This is a paragraph</p>Multiple Style Sheets
  8. 8. If some properties have been set for the same selector in different style sheets, the values will beinherited from the more specific style sheet.For example, an external style sheet has these properties for the h3 selector:h3{color: red;text-align: left;font-size: 8pt}And an internal style sheet has these properties for the h3 selector:h3{text-align: right;font-size: 20pt}If the page with the internal style sheet also links to the external style sheet the properties for h3will be:color: red;text-align: right;font-size: 20ptThe color is inherited from the external style sheet and the text-alignment and the font-size isreplaced by the internal style sheet.CSS BackgroundThe CSS background properties define the background effects of an element.ExamplesSet the background colorThis example demonstrates how to set the background color for an element.Set an image as the backgroundThis example demonstrates how to set an image as the background.How to repeat a background imageThis example demonstrates how to repeat a background image.
  9. 9. How to repeat a background image only verticallyThis example demonstrates how to repeat a background image only vertically.How to repeat a background image only horizontallyThis example demonstrates how to repeat a background image only horizontally.How to place the background imageThis example demonstrates how to place the image on the page.How to set a fixed background imageThis example demonstrates how to set a fixed background image. The image will not scroll with therest of the page.All the background properties in one declarationThis example demonstrates how to use the shorthand property for setting all of the backgroundproperties in one declaration.CSS Background PropertiesThe CSS background properties allow you to control the background color of an element, set animage as the background, repeat a background image vertically or horizontally, and position animage on a page.Browser support: IE: Internet Explorer, F: Firefox, N: Netscape.W3C: The number in the "W3C" column indicates in which CSS recommendation the property isdefined (CSS1 or CSS2).Property Description Values IE F N W3Cbackground A shorthand property for background-color 4 1 6 1 setting all background background-image properties in one declaration background-repeat background-attachment background-positionbackground-attachment Sets whether a background scroll 4 1 6 1 image is fixed or scrolls with fixed the rest of the pagebackground-color Sets the background color of color-rgb 4 1 4 1 an element color-hex color-name transparentbackground-image Sets an image as the url(URL) 4 1 4 1 background nonebackground-position Sets the starting position of a top left 4 1 6 1 background image top center top right center left center center center right bottom left bottom center bottom right x% y% xpos yposbackground-repeat Sets if/how a background repeat 4 1 4 1 image will be repeated repeat-x
  10. 10. repeat-y no-repeatCSS FontThe CSS font properties define the font in text.ExamplesSet the font of a textThis example demonstrates how to set a font of a text.Set the size of the fontThis example demonstrates how to set the size of a font.Set the style of the fontThis example demonstrates how to set the style of a font.Set the variant of the fontThis example demonstrates how to set the variant of a font.Set the boldness of the fontThis example demonstrates how to set the boldness of a font.All the font properties in one declarationThis example demonstrates how to use the shorthand property for setting all of the font propertiesin one declaration.CSS Font PropertiesThe CSS font properties allow you to change the font family, boldness, size, and the style of a text.Note: In CSS1 fonts are identified by a font name. If a browser does not support the specified font,it will use a default font.Browser support: IE: Internet Explorer, F: Firefox, N: Netscape.W3C: The number in the "W3C" column indicates in which CSS recommendation the property isdefined (CSS1 or CSS2).Property Description Values IE F N W3Cfont A shorthand property for font-style 4 1 4 1 setting all of the properties font-variant for a font in one declaration font-weight font-size/line-height
  11. 11. font-family caption icon menu message-box small-caption status-barfont-family A prioritized list of font family family-name 3 1 4 1 names and/or generic family generic-family names for an elementfont-size Sets the size of a font xx-small 3 1 4 1 x-small small medium large x-large xx-large smaller larger length %font-size-adjust Specifies an aspect value for none - - - 2 an element that will preserve number the x-height of the first- choice fontfont-stretch Condenses or expands the normal - - - 2 current font-family wider narrower ultra-condensed extra-condensed condensed semi-condensed semi-expanded expanded extra-expanded ultra-expandedfont-style Sets the style of the font normal 4 1 4 1 italic obliquefont-variant Displays text in a small-caps normal 4 1 6 1 font or a normal font small-capsfont-weight Sets the weight of a font normal 4 1 4 1 bold bolder lighter 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900CSS Border
  12. 12. The CSS border properties define the borders around an element.ExamplesSet the style of the four bordersThis example demonstrates how to set the style of the four borders.Set different borders on each sideThis example demonstrates how to set different borders on each side of the element.Set the color of the four bordersThis example demonstrates how to set the color of the four borders. It can have from one to fourcolors.Set the width of the bottom borderThis example demonstrates how to set the width of the bottom border.Set the width of the left borderThis example demonstrates how to set the width of the left border.Set the width of the right borderThis example demonstrates how to set the width of the right border.Set the width of the top borderThis example demonstrates how to set the width of the top border.All the bottom border properties in one declarationThis example demonstrates a shorthand property for setting all of the properties for the bottomborder in one declaration.All the left border properties in one declarationThis example demonstrates a shorthand property for setting all of the properties for the left borderin one declaration.All the right border properties in one declarationThis example demonstrates a shorthand property for setting all of the properties for the right borderin one declaration.All the top border properties in one declarationThis example demonstrates a shorthand property for setting all of the properties for the top borderin one declaration.All the width of the border properties in one declarationThis example demonstrates a shorthand property for setting the width of the four borders in onedeclaration, can have from one to four values.All the border properties in one declarationThis example demonstrates a shorthand property for setting all of the properties for the fourborders in one declaration, can have from one to three values.
  13. 13. CSS Border PropertiesThe CSS border properties allow you to specify the style and color of an elements border. In HTMLwe use tables to create borders around a text, but with the CSS border properties we can createborders with nice effects, and it can be applied to any element.Browser support: IE: Internet Explorer, F: Firefox, N: Netscape.W3C: The number in the "W3C" column indicates in which CSS recommendation the property isdefined (CSS1 or CSS2).Property Description Values IE F N W3Cborder A shorthand property for border-width 4 1 4 1 setting all of the properties border-style for the four borders in one border-color declarationborder-bottom A shorthand property for border-bottom-width 4 1 6 1 setting all of the properties border-style for the bottom border in one border-color declarationborder-bottom-color Sets the color of the bottom border-color 4 1 6 2 borderborder-bottom-style Sets the style of the bottom border-style 4 1 6 2 borderborder-bottom-width Sets the width of the bottom thin 4 1 4 1 border medium thick lengthborder-color Sets the color of the four color 4 1 6 1 borders, can have from one to four colorsborder-left A shorthand property for border-left-width 4 1 6 1 setting all of the properties border-style for the left border in one border-color declarationborder-left-color Sets the color of the left border-color 4 1 6 2 borderborder-left-style Sets the style of the left border-style 4 1 6 2 borderborder-left-width Sets the width of the left thin 4 1 4 1 border medium thick lengthborder-right A shorthand property for border-right-width 4 1 6 1 setting all of the properties border-style for the right border in one border-color declarationborder-right-color Sets the color of the right border-color 4 1 6 2 borderborder-right-style Sets the style of the right border-style 4 1 6 2 borderborder-right-width Sets the width of the right thin 4 1 4 1 border medium thick lengthborder-style Sets the style of the four none 4 1 6 1 borders, can have from one hidden to four styles dotted
  14. 14. dashed solid double groove ridge inset outsetborder-top A shorthand property for border-top-width 4 1 6 1 setting all of the properties border-style for the top border in one border-color declarationborder-top-color Sets the color of the top border-color 4 1 6 2 borderborder-top-style Sets the style of the top border-style 4 1 6 2 borderborder-top-width Sets the width of the top thin 4 1 4 1 border medium thick lengthborder-width A shorthand property for thin 4 1 4 1 setting the width of the four medium borders in one declaration, thick can have from one to four length valuesCSS MarginThe CSS margin properties define the space around elements.ExamplesSet the left margin of a textThis example demonstrates how to set the left margin of a text.Set the right margin of a textThis example demonstrates how to set the right margin of a text.Set the top margin of a textThis example demonstrates how to set the top margin of a text.Set the bottom margin of a textThis example demonstrates how to set the bottom margin of a text.All the margin properties in one declarationThis example demonstrates how to set a shorthand property for setting all of the margin propertiesin one declaration.
  15. 15. CSS Margin PropertiesThe CSS margin properties define the space around elements. It is possible to use negative valuesto overlap content. The top, right, bottom, and left margin can be changed independently usingseparate properties. A shorthand margin property can also be used to change all of the margins atonce.Note: Netscape and IE give the body tag a default margin of 8px. Opera does not! Instead, Operaapplies a default padding of 8px, so if one wants to adjust the margin for an entire page and have itdisplay correctly in Opera, the body padding must be set as well!Browser support: IE: Internet Explorer, F: Firefox, N: Netscape.W3C: The number in the "W3C" column indicates in which CSS recommendation the property isdefined (CSS1 or CSS2).Property Description Values IE F N W3Cmargin A shorthand property for margin-top 4 1 4 1 setting the margin properties margin-right in one declaration margin-bottom margin-leftmargin-bottom Sets the bottom margin of an auto 4 1 4 1 element length %margin-left Sets the left margin of an auto 3 1 4 1 element length %margin-right Sets the right margin of an auto 3 1 4 1 element length %margin-top Sets the top margin of an auto 3 1 4 1 element length %CSS PaddingThe CSS padding properties define the space between the element border and theelement content.ExamplesSet the left paddingThis example demonstrates how to set the left padding of a tablecell.Set the right paddingThis example demonstrates how to set the right padding of a tablecell.
  16. 16. Set the top paddingThis example demonstrates how to set the top padding of a tablecell.Set the bottom paddingThis example demonstrates how to set the bottom padding of a tablecell.All the padding properties in one declarationThis example demonstrates a shorthand property for setting all of the padding properties in onedeclaration, can have from one to four values.CSS Padding PropertiesThe CSS padding properties define the space between the element border and the element content.Negative values are not allowed. The top, right, bottom, and left padding can be changedindependently using separate properties. A shorthand padding property is also created to controlmultiple sides at once.Browser support: IE: Internet Explorer, F: Firefox, N: Netscape.W3C: The number in the "W3C" column indicates in which CSS recommendation the property isdefined (CSS1 or CSS2).Property Description Values IE F N W3Cpadding A shorthand property for padding-top 4 1 4 1 setting all of the padding padding-right properties in one declaration padding-bottom padding-leftpadding-bottom Sets the bottom padding of length 4 1 4 1 an element %padding-left Sets the left padding of an length 4 1 4 1 element %padding-right Sets the right padding of an length 4 1 4 1 element %padding-top Sets the top padding of an length 4 1 4 1 element %CSS ListThe CSS list properties allow you to place the list-item marker, change between differentlist-item markers, or set an image as the list-item marker.ExamplesThe different list-item markers in unordered listsThis example demonstrates the different list-item markers in CSS.
  17. 17. The different list-item markers in ordered listsThis example demonstrates the different list-item markers in CSS.Set an image as the list-item markerThis example demonstrates how to set an image as the list-item marker.Place the list-item markerThis example demonstrates where to place the list-item marker.All list properties in one declarationThis example demonstrates a shorthand property for setting all of the properties for a list in onedeclaration.CSS List PropertiesThe CSS list properties allow you to place the list-item marker, change between different list-itemmarkers, or set an image as the list-item marker.Browser support: IE: Internet Explorer, F: Firefox, N: Netscape.W3C: The number in the "W3C" column indicates in which CSS recommendation the property isdefined (CSS1 or CSS2).Property Description Values IE F N W3Clist-style A shorthand property for list-style-type 4 1 6 1 setting all of the properties list-style-position for a list in one declaration list-style-imagelist-style-image Sets an image as the list- none 4 1 6 1 item marker urllist-style-position Sets where the list-item inside 4 1 6 1 marker is placed in the list outsidelist-style-type Sets the type of the list-item none 4 1 4 1 marker disc circle square decimal decimal-leading-zero lower-roman upper-roman lower-alpha upper-alpha lower-greek lower-latin upper-latin hebrew armenian georgian cjk-ideographic hiragana katakana hiragana-iroha katakana-irohamarker-offset auto 1 7 2 length
  18. 18. CSS DimensionThe CSS dimension properties allow you to control the height and width of an element. Italso allows you to increase the space between two lines.ExamplesSpecify the space between linesThis example demonstrates how to specify the space between the lines in a paragraph.CSS Dimension PropertiesThe CSS dimension properties allow you to control the height and width of an element. It alsoallows you to increase the space between two lines.Browser support: IE: Internet Explorer, F: Firefox, N: Netscape.W3C: The number in the "W3C" column indicates in which CSS recommendation the property isdefined (CSS1 or CSS2).Property Description Values IE F N W3Cheight Sets the height of an element auto 4 1 6 1 length %line-height Sets the distance between normal 4 1 4 1 lines number length %max-height Sets the maximum height of none - 1 6 2 an element length %max-width Sets the maximum width of none - 1 6 2 an element length %min-height Sets the minimum height of length - 1 6 2 an element %min-width Sets the minimum width of length - 1 6 2 an element %width Sets the width of an element auto 4 1 4 1 % lengthCSS Classification
  19. 19. The CSS classification properties allow you to specify how and where to display anelement.ExamplesHow to display an elementThis example demonstrates how to display an element.A simple use of the float propertyLet an image float to the right in a paragraph.An image with border and margins that floats to the right in a paragraphLet an image float to the right in a paragraph. Add border and margins to the image.An image with a caption that floats to the rightLet an image with a caption float to the right.Let the first letter of a paragraph float to the leftLet the first letter of a paragraph float to the left and style the letter.Creating a horizontal menuUse float with a list of hyperlinks to create a horizontal menu.Creating a homepage without tablesUse float to create a homepage with a header, footer, left content and main content.Position:relativeThis example demonstrates how to position an element relative to its normal position.Position:absoluteThis example demonstrates how to position an element using an absolute value.How to make an element invisibleThis example demonstrates how to make an element invisible. Do you want the element to show ornot?Change the cursorThis example demonstrates how to change the cursor.CSS Classification PropertiesThe CSS classification properties allow you to control how to display an element, set where animage will appear in another element, position an element relative to its normal position, position anelement using an absolute value, and how to control the visibility of an element.Browser support: IE: Internet Explorer, F: Firefox, N: Netscape.W3C: The number in the "W3C" column indicates in which CSS recommendation the property isdefined (CSS1 or CSS2).
  20. 20. Property Description Values IE F N W3Cclear Sets the sides of an element left 4 1 4 1 where other floating right elements are not allowed both nonecursor Specifies the type of cursor url 4 1 6 2 to be displayed auto crosshair default pointer move e-resize ne-resize nw-resize n-resize se-resize sw-resize s-resize w-resize text wait helpdisplay Sets how/if an element is none 4 1 4 1 displayed inline block list-item run-in compact marker table inline-table table-row-group table-header-group table-footer-group table-row table-column-group table-column table-cell table-captionfloat Sets where an image or a left 4 1 4 1 text will appear in another right element noneposition Places an element in a static, static 4 1 4 2 relative, absolute or fixed relative position absolute fixedvisibility Sets if an element should be visible 4 1 6 2 visible or invisible hidden collapseCSS PositioningThe CSS positioning properties allows you to position an element.
  21. 21. ExamplesPosition:relativeThis example demonstrates how to position an element relative to its normal position.Position:absoluteThis example demonstrates how to position an element using an absolute value.Set the shape of an elementThis example demonstrates how to set the shape of an element. The element is clipped into thisshape, and displayed.OverflowThis example demonstrates how to set the overflow property to specify what should happen whenan elements content is too big to fit in a specified area.Vertical align an imageThis example demonstrates how to vertical align an image in a text.Z-indexZ-index can be used to place an element "behind" another element.Z-indexThe elements in the example above have now changed their Z-index.CSS Positioning PropertiesThe CSS positioning properties allow you to specify the left, right, top, and bottom position of anelement. It also allows you to set the shape of an element, place an element behind another, and tospecify what should happen when an elements content is too big to fit in a specified area.Browser support: IE: Internet Explorer, F: Firefox, N: Netscape.W3C: The number in the "W3C" column indicates in which CSS recommendation the property isdefined (CSS1 or CSS2).Property Description Values IE F N W3Cbottom Sets how far the bottom edge auto 5 1 6 2 of an element is above/below % the bottom edge of the length parent elementclip Sets the shape of an shape 4 1 6 2 element. The element is auto clipped into this shape, and displayedleft Sets how far the left edge of auto 4 1 4 2 an element is to the right/left % of the left edge of the parent length elementoverflow Sets what happens if the visible 4 1 6 2 content of an element hidden overflow its area scroll auto
  22. 22. position Places an element in a static, static 4 1 4 2 relative, absolute or fixed relative position absolute fixedright Sets how far the right edge of auto 5 1 6 2 an element is to the left/right % of the right edge of the length parent elementtop Sets how far the top edge of auto 4 1 4 2 an element is above/below % the top edge of the parent length elementvertical-align Sets the vertical alignment of baseline 4 1 4 1 an element sub super top text-top middle bottom text-bottom length %z-index Sets the stack order of an auto 4 1 6 2 element numberCSS Pseudo-classesCSS pseudo-classes are used to add special effects to some selectors.ExamplesHyperlinkThis example demonstrates how to add different colors to a hyperlink in a document.Hyperlink 2This example demonstrates how to add other styles to hyperlinks.:first-child (does not work in IE)This example demonstrates the use of the :first-child pseudo-class.:lang (does not work in IE)This example demonstrates the use of the :lang pseudo-class.SyntaxThe syntax of pseudo-classes:
  23. 23. selector:pseudo-class {property: value}CSS classes can also be used with pseudo-classes:selector.class:pseudo-class {property: value}Anchor Pseudo-classesA link that is active, visited, unvisited, or when you mouse over a link can all be displayed indifferent ways in a CSS-supporting browser:a:link {color: #FF0000} /* unvisited link */a:visited {color: #00FF00} /* visited link */a:hover {color: #FF00FF} /* mouse over link */a:active {color: #0000FF} /* selected link */Note: a:hover MUST come after a:link and a:visited in the CSS definition in order to be effective!!Note: a:active MUST come after a:hover in the CSS definition in order to be effective!!Note: Pseudo-class names are not case-sensitive.Pseudo-classes and CSS ClassesPseudo-classes can be combined with CSS classes:a.red:visited {color: #FF0000}<a class="red" href="css_syntax.asp">CSS Syntax</a>If the link in the example above has been visited, it will be displayed in red.CSS2 - The :first-child Pseudo-classThe :first-child pseudo-class matches a specified element that is the first child of another element.In this example, the selector matches any p element that is the first child of a div element,and indents the first paragraph inside a div element:div > p:first-child{text-indent:25px}This selector will match the first paragraph inside the div in the following HTML:<div><p>First paragraph in div.
  24. 24. This paragraph will be indented.</p><p>Second paragraph in div.This paragraph will not be indented.</p></div>but it will not match the paragraph in this HTML:<div><h1>Header</h1><p>The first paragraph inside the div.This paragraph will not be indented.</p></div>In this example, the selector matches any em element that is the first child of a p element,and sets the font-weight to bold for the first em inside a p element:p:first-child em{font-weight:bold}For example, the em in the HTML below is the first child of the paragraph:<p>I am a <em>strong</em> man.</p>In this example, the selector matches any a element that is the first child of any element, andsets the text-decoration to none:a:first-child{text-decoration:none}For example, the first a in the HTML below is the first child of the paragraph and will not beunderlined. But the second a in the paragraph is not the first child of the paragraph and will beunderlined:<p>Visit <a href="http://www.w3schools.com">W3Schools</a>and learn CSS!Visit <a href="http://www.w3schools.com">W3Schools</a>and learn HTML!</p>CSS2 - The :lang Pseudo-classThe :lang pseudo-class allows you to define special rules for different languages. In the examplebelow, the :lang class defines the type of quotation marks for q elements with a lang attribute witha value of "no":
  25. 25. <html><head><style type="text/css">q:lang(no){quotes: "~" "~"}</style></head><body><p>Some text <q lang="no">A quote in a paragraph</q>Some text.</p></body></html>Pseudo-classesBrowser support: IE: Internet Explorer, F: Firefox, N: Netscape.W3C: The number in the "W3C" column indicates in which CSS recommendation the property isdefined (CSS1 or CSS2).Pseudo-class Purpose IE F N W3C:active Adds special style to an activated element 4 1 8 1:focus Adds special style to an element while the element has - - - 2 focus:hover Adds special style to an element when you mouse 4 1 7 1 over it:link Adds special style to an unvisited link 3 1 4 1:visited Adds special style to a visited link 3 1 4 1:first-child Adds special style to an element that is the first child 1 7 2 of some other element:lang Allows the author to specify a language to use in a 1 8 2 specified elementCSS Pseudo-elementsCSS pseudo-elements are used to add special effects to some selectors.ExamplesMake the first letter specialThis example demonstrates how to add a special effect to the first letter of a text.Make the first line specialThis example demonstrates how to add a special effect to the first line of a text.
  26. 26. SyntaxThe syntax of pseudo-elements:selector:pseudo-element {property: value}CSS classes can also be used with pseudo-elements:selector.class:pseudo-element {property: value}The :first-line Pseudo-elementThe "first-line" pseudo-element is used to add special styles to the first line of the text in a selector:p {font-size: 12pt}p:first-line {color: #0000FF; font-variant: small-caps}<p>Some text that ends up on two or more lines</p>The output could be something like this:SOME TEXT THAT ENDSup on two or more linesIn the example above the browser displays the first line formatted according to the "first-line"pseudo element. Where the browser breaks the line depends on the size of the browser window.Note: The "first-line" pseudo-element can only be used with block-level elements.Note: The following properties apply to the "first-line" pseudo-element: • font properties • color properties • background properties • word-spacing • letter-spacing • text-decoration • vertical-align • text-transform • line-height • clearThe :first-letter Pseudo-elementThe "first-letter" pseudo-element is used to add special style to the first letter of the text in aselector:p {font-size: 12pt}
  27. 27. p:first-letter {font-size: 200%; float: left}<p>The first words of an article.</p>The output could be something like this:___ | he first | words of anarticle.Note: The "first-letter" pseudo-element can only be used with block-level elements.Note: The following properties apply to the "first-letter" pseudo- element: • font properties • color properties • background properties • margin properties • padding properties • border properties • text-decoration • vertical-align (only if float is none) • text-transform • line-height • float • clearPseudo-elements and CSS ClassesPseudo-elements can be combined with CSS classes:p.article:first-letter {color: #FF0000}<p class="article">A paragraph in an article</p>The example above will make the first letter of all paragraphs with class="article" red.Multiple Pseudo-elementsSeveral pseudo-elements can be combined:p {font-size: 12pt}p:first-letter {color: #FF0000; font-size: 200%}p:first-line {color: #0000FF}<p>The first words of an article</p>The output could be something like this:___ | he first | words of an
  28. 28. article.In the example above the first letter of the paragraph will be red with a font size of 24pt. The rest ofthe first line would be blue while the rest of the paragraph would be the default color.CSS2 - The :before Pseudo-elementThe ":before" pseudo-element can be used to insert some content before an element.The style below will play a sound before each occurrence of a header one element.h1:before{content: url(beep.wav)}CSS2 - The :after Pseudo-elementThe ":after" pseudo-element can be used to insert some content after an element.The style below will play a sound after each occurrence of a header one element.h1:after{content: url(beep.wav)}Pseudo-elementsBrowser support: IE: Internet Explorer, F: Firefox, N: Netscape.W3C: The number in the "W3C" column indicates in which CSS recommendation the property isdefined (CSS1 or CSS2).Pseudo-element Purpose IE F N W3C:first-letter Adds special style to the first letter of a text 5 1 8 1:first-line Adds special style to the first line of a text 5 1 8 1:before Inserts some content before an element 1.5 8 2:after Inserts some content after an element 1.5 8 2CSS2 Media Types
  29. 29. Media Types allow you to specify how documents will be presented in different media.The document can be displayed differently on the screen, on the paper, with an auralbrowser, etc.Media TypesSome CSS properties are only designed for a certain media. For example the "voice-family" propertyis designed for aural user agents. Some other properties can be used for different media types. Forexample, the "font-size" property can be used for both screen and print media, but perhaps withdifferent values. A document usually needs a larger font-size on a screen than on paper, and sans-serif fonts are easier to read on the screen, while serif fonts are easier to read on paper.The @media RuleThe @media rule allows different style rules for different media in the same style sheet.The style in the example below tells the browser to display a 14 pixels Verdana font on the screen.But if the page is printed, it will be in a 10 pixels Times font. Notice that the font-weight is set tobold, both on screen and on paper:<html><head><style>@media screen{p.test {font-family:verdana,sans-serif; font-size:14px}}@media print{p.test {font-family:times,serif; font-size:10px}}@media screen,print{p.test {font-weight:bold}}</style></head><body>....</body></html>See it yourself ! If you are using Mozilla/Firefox or IE 5+ and print this page, you will see that theparagraph under "Media Types" will be displayed in another font, and have a smaller font size thanthe rest of the text.Different Media TypesNote: The media type names are not case-sensitive.
  30. 30. Media Type Descriptionall Used for all media type devicesaural Used for speech and sound synthesizersbraille Used for braille tactile feedback devicesembossed Used for paged braille printershandheld Used for small or handheld devicesprint Used for printersprojection Used for projected presentations, like slidesscreen Used for computer screenstty Used for media using a fixed-pitch character grid, like teletypes and terminalstv Used for television-type devicesYou Have Learned CSS, Now What?CSS SummaryThis tutorial has taught you how to create style sheets to control the style and layout of multipleweb sites at once.You have learned how to use CSS to add backgrounds, format text, add and format borders, andspecify padding and margins of elements.You have also learned how to position an element, control the visibility and size of an element, setthe shape of an element, place an element behind another, and to add special effects to someselectors, like links.For more information on CSS, please take a look at our CSS examples and our CSS reference.

×