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  2. 2. <ul><li>Performance-based education poses a challenge for teachers to design instruction that is task-oriented. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the premise that learning needs to be connected to the lives of the students through relevant tasks that focus on students’ ability to use their knowledge and skills in meaningful ways. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Product-Oriented Learning Competencies <ul><li>Products can include a wide range of student works that target specific skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Communication skills such as those demonstrated in reading, writing, speaking, and listening, or psychomotor skills requiring physical abilities to perform a given task </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Using rubrics can help evaluate student performance or proficiency in any given task as it relates to a final product or learning outcome. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The learning competencies associated with products or outputs are linked with an assessment of the level of “expertise” manifested by the product. </li></ul><ul><li>3 Levels </li></ul><ul><li>Novice or beginner level </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled level </li></ul><ul><li>Expert level </li></ul>
  6. 6. Other ways to state product-oriented learning competencies <ul><li>Level 1: Does the finished product or project illustrates the minimum expected parts or functions? </li></ul><ul><li>Level 2: Does the finished product or project contain additional parts and functions on top of the minimum requirements? </li></ul><ul><li>Level3: Does the finished product contain the basic minimum parts and functions, have additional features on top of the minimum, and is aesthetically pleasing? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Example <ul><li>The desired product is a representation of a cubic prism made out of cardboard in an elementary geometry class. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning competencies: The final product submitted by the students must: </li></ul><ul><li>Possess the correct dimensions (5”x5”x5”) </li></ul><ul><li>Be sturdy, made of durable cardboard and properly fastened together </li></ul><ul><li>Be pleasing to the observer, preferably properly colored for aesthetic purposes </li></ul>
  8. 8. Example <ul><li>The product desired is a scrapbook illustrating the historical event called EDSA I People Power </li></ul><ul><li>Learning competencies: The scrapbook presented by the students must: </li></ul><ul><li>Contain pictures, newspaper clippings, and other illustrations of the main characters of EDSA I </li></ul><ul><li>Contain remarks and captions for the illustrations made by the student himself for the roles played by the characters of EDSA I People Power </li></ul><ul><li>Be presentable, complete, informative and pleasing to he reader of the scrapbook </li></ul>
  9. 9. Example for assessing output of short-term tasks <ul><li>The desired output consists of the output in a typing class </li></ul><ul><li>Learning competencies: The final typing outputs of the students must: </li></ul><ul><li>Possess no more than five errors in spelling </li></ul><ul><li>Possess no more than 5 errors in spelling while observing proper format based on the document to be typewritten </li></ul><ul><li>Posses no more than 5 errors in spelling, has the proper format, and is readable and presentable </li></ul><ul><li>Product-oriented performance based learning are evidence-based </li></ul>
  10. 10. Task Designing <ul><li>The design of the task depends on what the teacher desires to observe as outputs of the students. </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity. It should be within the range of the ability of the students </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal. The project should be appealing to students and should lead to self-discovery of information by the students. </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity. It needs to encourage students to exercise creativity and divergent thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal-based. The project is produced to attain a learning objective. Thus, reinforcing learning. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Exercise <ul><li>Design a project or task for each of the following learning objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the events leading to Rizal’s martyrdom. </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrate the concept of “diffusion” </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrate the cultural diversity in the Philippines </li></ul>
  12. 12. Scoring Rubrics <ul><li>These are descriptive scoring schemes that are developed by teachers to guide the analysis of the products or processes of students’ efforts. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Criteria Setting <ul><li>Criteria are statements which identify “what really counts” in the final output. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Identify substatements that would make the major criteria more focused and objective. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Essay on “The Three Hundred Years of Spanish Rules in the Philippines” </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Interrelates the chronological events in an interesting manner </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies the key players in each period of the Spanish rule and the roles that they played </li></ul><ul><li>Succeeds in relating the history of Philippine Spanish rule </li></ul>
  15. 15. Analytic Rubric for Graphic Display of Data 1 2 3 Weight Title The title does not reflect what the data show or the title is missing. The graph contains the title that generally tells what the data show The graph contains a title that clearly tells what the data show 10% Labels Only some parts of the graph are correctly labeled or labels are missing Some parts of the graph are inaccurately labeled All parts of the graph are correctly labeled 20% Accuracy The data are inaccurately represented, contain major errors, or are missing Data representation contains minor errors All data are accurately represented on the graph 50% Neatness The graph is sloppy and difficult to read The graph is generally neat and readable The graph is very neat and easy to read 20%
  16. 16. <ul><li>Organization of document is difficult to follow due to a combination of the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate transitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rambling format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insufficient or irrelevant information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambiguous graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The document contains numerous distractions that appear in the combination of the following forms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow in thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphical presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grammar/mechanics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There appears to be no organization of the document’s contents </li></ul><ul><li>Sentences are difficult to read and understand </li></ul>
  17. 17. When are scoring rubrics an appropriate evaluation technique? <ul><li>Essay </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate group activities </li></ul><ul><li>Oral presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Where and when a scoring rubric is used does not depend on the grade level or subject, but rather on the purpose of the assessment </li></ul>
  18. 18. Other Methods <ul><li>Checklists are appropriate for evaluation when the information that is sought is limited to the determination of whether specific criteria have been met. </li></ul><ul><li>Scoring rubrics are based on descriptive scales and support the evaluation of the extent to which criteria have been met. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the purpose of assessment have been met </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits of scoring rubrics: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They support the examination of the extent to which the specified criteria have been reached. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They provide feedback to students concerning how to improve their performances </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Process of Developing Scoring Rubrics <ul><li>Steps </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the qualities and attributes that you wish to observe in the students’ outputs that would demonstrate their level of proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Decide whether a holistic or analytical rubric would be appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>In analytic scoring rubric, each criteria is considered one by one and the descriptions of the scoring levels are made separately while in holistic rubric, the collection of criteria is considered throughout the construction of each level of the scoring rubric and the result is a single descriptive scoring schemes. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Identify and define the criteria for the top level and lowest level of performance </li></ul><ul><li>Create additional categories such as average, etc. Each score category should be defined using descriptors of the work rather than value-judgment about the work </li></ul><ul><li>Example: “Student’s sentences contain no errors in subject-verb agreements”, is preferable than “student’s sentences are good” </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Test whether scoring rubric is reliable. Ask two or more teachers to score the same set of projects or outputs and correlate their individual assessments </li></ul>
  22. 22. Exercise <ul><li>For each of the following, develop a scoring rubrics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating performance in argumentation and debate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laboratory output in “Frog dissection” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral presentation on the piece “Land Bondage, Land of the Free” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essay on “Should the power industry be deregulated?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group activity on “Geometric shapes through paper folding </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Guidelines for Stating Performance Criteria <ul><li>Identify the steps or features of the performance or task to be assessed imagining yourself performing it, observing students performing it or inspecting finished products. </li></ul><ul><li>List the important criteria of the performance or product. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to keep the performance criteria few so that they can be reasonably observed and judged. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Have teachers think through the criteria as a group. </li></ul><ul><li>Express the criteria in terms of observable student behavior or product characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid vague and ambiguous words like correctly, appropriately, and good. </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange the performance assessment instruments to use or modify them before constructing them. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Scoring Rubric for Response Journal Questions <ul><li>3 – Excellent. </li></ul><ul><li>Answers are very complete and accurate. </li></ul><ul><li>Most answers are supported with specific information from the reading, including direct quotations </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence structure is varied and detailed </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanics are accurate, including spelling, use of capitals, and appropriate punctuation. </li></ul><ul><li>2 – Good. </li></ul><ul><li>Answers are usually complete and accurate. </li></ul><ul><li>These answers are supported with specific information from the reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence structure is varied. Mechanics are generally accurate including spelling, use of capitals, and appropriate punctuation. </li></ul><ul><li>1 – Needs Improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>Answers are inaccurate. </li></ul><ul><li>These answers need to be supported with specific information. </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence structure is incomplete. Mechanics need significant improvement. </li></ul>