Strength Exercises for Sport Performance

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Lecture on strength training exercises that I gave as a lecture for Wilmington College students in HPE 345, Strength Programming for Sport. Taken from the text: Science and Practice of Strength …

Lecture on strength training exercises that I gave as a lecture for Wilmington College students in HPE 345, Strength Programming for Sport. Taken from the text: Science and Practice of Strength Training, 2nd edition.

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  • 2. A General OverviewWith so many exercises to choose from in designing a program,it is important to know the factors behind each exercise.
  • 3. The MOST IMPORTANT exercise In any sport, the most important exercise isthe actual sport movement. If my sport is sprinting, I need to practice sprintingthe most. If my sport is volleyball, I need to actually playvolleyball the most. If my sport is arm-curling, then I need to practicearm curls the most. If my sport is underwater basket weaving, well….
  • 4. Strength Exercise Classification Isometric (same length) Joint angle specific! Isokinetic (same speed) Research and Sports Medicine Isotonic? (same tone…not really) Tension in a muscle changes as the moment armchanges during the exercise Dynamic Concentric Eccentric Reversible
  • 5. The most popular Dynamic exercises with concentric muscleaction Typical up/down weightlifting
  • 6. Further Classification Non-specific Squats for a javelin thrower Bench press for a basketball player Specific Barbell pullover for a javelin thrower Push jerk for basketball player Primary Sporting Movement w/ resistance Throwing overweight javelins Rebounding drill with a weighted vest for b-ball
  • 7. Strength Topography Strength topography is the comparativestrength of different muscle groups in thebody. An athlete can be extremely strong in onemovement, say bench press, but extremely weakin another, such as a barbell row. Estimated ratios exist between the differentmuscle groups in the body. For example, thehamstrings should be 2/3 as strong as thequadricep muscle group.
  • 8. Strength TopographyAnkle: Plantar Flexion/Dorsiflexion 3:1Knee: Extension/Flexion 3:2
  • 9. Strength Topography Hip Extension/Flexion 1:1 Elbow Flexion/Extension 1:1
  • 10. Strength Topography Lumbar Spine Flexion/Extension 1:1
  • 11. Exercise Selection forBeginning Athletes Strengthen muscle groups, that, if weak cancause potential injuries. Neck in wrestling/football Rotator cuff in throwing sports Hamstrings in running sports
  • 12. Exercise Selection forBeginning Athletes Train the large muscles in the core/trunk ofthe athlete. Specifically, the abdominal walland spinal erectors should be trained. Lifts should be performed through the fullrange of motion. Use only submaximal efforts, do not “max-out” 3 year rule….
  • 13. Selecting Exercises forAdvanced Athletes Specificity becomes more important themore advanced an athlete is. Training drills that are not relevant are oftendiscarded for the regime of an elite athlete.
  • 14. How are exercises specific? The working muscles The type of resistance The rate of force development (RFD) The velocity of movement
  • 15. Working Muscles The same working muscles used in the givensport movement should be emphasized in thetraining regimen Examples: Rock Climbers do not want to spend a lot of timedoing barbell squats Basketball/Football players do want to spend a lotof time doing barbell squats
  • 16. Type of Resistance Barbell (MostTypical) Compound Bands/Chains+Barbell Lighter bands are usually better for sports Bands/Cords Bodyweight Pushups, Situps, Pistol Squats
  • 17. Rate of Force Development The goal of training can lean towards: Increasing Fmm (low velocity/high forcemovements) This strategy is only useful is ESD is less than 50% (no modern coach in the west actually calculatesESD) Decreasing ESD (high velocity/low forcemovements)
  • 18. A practical question: 2 athletes of similar dimensions have equalstanding vertical jumps. They have differentFmm abilities though. Athlete A squats 1xtheir bodyweight, while athlete B squats 1.5xbodyweight. For which of these athletes will improvingFmm in the barbell squat be more beneficial?Why?
  • 19. Velocity of Movement Performance will tend to improve relative tothe velocity of the performed movement The book recommends training movementvelocities in the same velocity range as thegiven sport This is very impractical, hard to emulate
  • 20. Velocity of Movement Strength exercises should not be performedwithTOO light weight and high velocity, ifthis is done, Fmm will not improve. Research shows that strength gains weremuch higher in bench press when the repswere done at 1 rep every 4 seconds or slower.Trying to move as fast as possible limitedstrength gains. (seems to contradictWaterbury)
  • 21. Velocity of Movement TrainingTempo Tempo is not really discussed in this chapter Lifting tempos are broken down intoeccentric phase, isometric phase, andconcentric phase of the lift. An example of tempo would be 3-0-1. Thiswould mean the “down” part of the lift wouldtake 3 seconds, the isometric part would bedisregarded, and the concentric part shouldtake one second
  • 22. Tempo Recommendations Athletes tend not to like tempo and will oftendisregard it if you don’t enforce it Tempo doesn’t make much sense when youthink about motor recruitment, but thepurpose of lifting is not always motorrecruitment; that can be left up to sportspecific exercises in some/many situations
  • 23. Tempo Recommendations It is OK to use tempo in static lifts if you arealso using explosive exercises in yourprogram. It can be a good idea to use tempo only forthe eccentric part of the lift, such as a 5-0-1tempo. This way you can still have theathlete perform the concentric partsomewhat explosively.
  • 24. Velocity of Movement During static lifts (bench, squat, presses,pulls, etc.) it can be a good idea to prescribe alifting tempo. The main reason for this is thatit is a variable that can be manipulatedthroughout the year to preventaccommodation
  • 25. Peak Contraction PrincipleThe peak contraction principle isbased on adding more resistance tothe parts of the lifts that are moredifficultThis is effective in increasing strengthbut might have a limited value intransfer to sport abilities
  • 26. Another Method of PeakContraction In this exercise, resistance is manually appliedin the most difficult part of the movement.
  • 27. Accommodating Resistance Cam Based Machines Chains/BandsAttempting to maximize tension throughthe whole range of motion rather than onepoint
  • 28. So What? I am in favor of the ‘general’ theory ofstrength. Basically, no matter how you lift weights, youwill not be able to emulate the muscle-tendon interaction present in most sportingmovements Therefore it is usually pointless to get carriedaway with strange weightlifting exercises,although it is good to switch things up for thesake of variety
  • 29. More General Theory Increase your muscle mass and power withpower lifts (squats/bench) and olympicvariants. Do your lifts slow and controlled toincrease strength. Don’t worry about theweight room to increase speed, worry aboutthe weight room to increase force. Use sport specific exercises and plyometricsto address rate of force development andvelocity, but remember straight velocitycannot be improved.