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  • 1. Black History
    By Chua Sing Earn, Joel
  • 2. Agenda
    The Civil War
    Jim Crow Laws
    Civil Rights Movement
    Montgomery Bus Boycott
    Scottsboro Trials
    Traits of a true Southern Belle and Southern Gentleman
    Harper Lee
  • 3. Slavery
    Slavery begin thousands of years ago, in 1760 BC, when the code of Hammurabi was created by the sixth Babylonian king
    It started in ancient Egypt, Rome, Japan, Greece and Ancient America
    Slavery in the southern states started around 1600, when Africans began to be shipped to North America as slaves, to work in mines or on plantations, or to become servants.
    The first slaves were brought from northern Mauritania to Portugal
    Southern whites traditionally bought and owned the slaves
    In the past, slaves had to obey the code of Hammurabi
  • 4. Slavery
    The notion of slavery was related to the novel since the novel also talked about slavery.
    By studying slavery, I have a further understanding of certain parts of the novel that involved slavery, such as why the people in the novel felt that it was wrong to defend Negroes.
  • 5. The Civil War
    The Southern states - Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, and Delaware
    Abraham Lincoln was the US president who proclaimed war against the south
    The Civil War was fought because of Southern anger at the attempts by Northern antislavery political forces to block the expansion of slavery into the western territories. States' rights and the tariff issue became entangled in the slavery issue, and were intensified by it.Other important factors were party politics, Abolitionism, Southern nationalism, Northern nationalism, expansionism, sectionalism, economics and modernization in the Antebellum Period.
  • 6. The Civil War
    The war was fought between 1861 - 1865
    It abolished slavery as a legal institution in the United States.
    The Civil War was related to the novel because in the novel, Jem and Scout’s father was fighting for the rights of Tom Robinson.
  • 7. Jim Crow Laws
    Jim Crow was the name of the racial caste system which operated primarily, but not exclusively in southern and border states, between 1877 and the mid-1960s.
    The Jim Crow laws was a set of laws that mandated racial segregation in all public facilities, with a supposedly "separate but equal" status for black Americans.
    The blacks felt that it went against everything they believed in as a race.
    The Jim Crow laws can be seen in the novel when Tom Robinson was wrongly accused of raping MayellaEwell.
  • 8. Civil Rights Movement
    It was a worldwide political movement for equality before the law that happened between approximately 1950 and 1980.
    Integrationism - Elected, appointed, or hired government authorities began to require or permit discrimination. There were four required or permitted acts of discrimination against African Americans, which included racial segregation, voter suppression or disfranchisement in the southern states, denial of economic opportunity or resources nationwide, and private acts of violence and mass racial violence aimed at African Americans.
    Black Power - Advocates of Black Power argued for black self-determination, and asserted that the assimilation inherent in integration robs Africans of their common heritage and dignity.
  • 9. Civil Rights Movement
    Chicano Movement - the part of the American Civil Rights Movement that sought political empowerment and social inclusion for Mexican-Americans around a generally nationalist argument. The movement had roots in the civil rights struggles that had preceded it, adding to it the cultural and generational politics of the era.
    John F. Kennedy was the American president who supported the civil rights movement
    As a result of the civil rights movement, African-Americans are now as equal as whites.
    Atticus did not discriminate Tom Robinson because he was black, instead, he helped him by defending for him as his lawyer.
  • 10. Montgomery Bus Boycott
    It was a political and social protest campaign that started in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, USA, intended to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. The boycott resulted in a crippling financial deficit for the Montgomery public transit system, because the city's black population who were the drivers of the boycott were also the bulk of the system's paying customers. The ensuing struggle lasted from December 1, 1955, when Rosa Parks, an African American woman, was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person, to December 20, 1956 when a federal ruling, Browder v. Gayle, took effect, and led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses to be unconstitutional.
  • 11. Scottsboro Trials
    It was about nine black teenaged boys accused of rape in Alabama in 1931. The landmark set of legal cases from this incident deal with racism and a basic American right: the Right to a fair trial. The case includes a frame-up, all-white jury, rushed trials, an attempted lynching, angry mob, and miscarriage of justice.
    The Scottsboro trials is related to the novel because in the novel, Tom Robinson was also wrongly accused of raping MayellaEwell.
    Both of the trials involves a white fighting for a black(s)
  • 12. Traits of a true Southern Belle and Southern Gentleman
    Southern Gentleman – Has good manners, is well groomed, has responsibility, duty, and the absolute drive to do what is right, that is valued in any society.
    Southern Belle - Have certain charm that is irreplaceable, and irrevocable. Is well mannered, sweet, respectful, family orientated, polite, and has Southern hospitality
  • 13. Traits of Southern Belles and Gentleman
    Atticus – Southern gentleman – polite, responsible, has good manners, wants to do what is right
    Bob Ewell – Not Southern Gentleman – very violent, discriminative and disrespectful against Southern Africans
  • 14. Harper Lee
    An American author best known for her 1960 Pulitzer Prize winning novel To Kill a Mockingbird, which deals with the issues of racism that were observed by the author as a child in her hometown of Monroeville, Alabama.
    She was born in Monroeville, Alabama, the youngest of four children of Amasa Coleman Lee and Frances Cunningham Finch Lee. Her mother's name was Finch. Her father, a former newspaper editor and proprietor, was a lawyer who served in the Alabama State Legislature from 1926 to 1938. As a child, Lee was a tomboy and a precocious reader, and was best friends with her schoolmate and neighbor, the young Truman Capote.
    To Kill a Mocking Bird was her only published book.
    She was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom of the United States for her contribution to literature in 2007
    It was like a bioautography to her, since she was a tomboy, just like Scout, and their fathers were both lawyers. Similarly, both Harper Lee and Scout lived in a small town in Alabama.