Prepared for: Vittal S. Anantatmula DSc MS MBA PMP CCE
Prepared by: Joseph Lynn
November 9, 2010
Western Carolina University Cullowhee, NC 28723
Table of Contents
Executive Summary 1
Intended Use 1
How to Use 2
Stakeholder Management 3
Communications Plan & Information Distribution 4
Change Management 4
Performance Reporting 4
Project Charter 5
Requirement Management Plan 5
WBS & WBS Dictionary 5
Define Scope & Outside of Scope 6
Mile Stones 6
Schedule Development 7
Find Dependencies & Sequence Activities 7
Duration Estimates 7
Project Schedule & Baseline 8
Cost Management 9
Cost Estimating 9
Control Cost 10
Quality Control 11
Quality Management Plan 11
Quality Audits 12
Project Performance 12
Lessons Learned 13
Western Carolina University Cullowhee, NC 28723
Risk Management 14
Risk Identification 14
Risk Management Plan 14
Risk Register 14
Risk Data & Audit 15
Contracts & Procurement 16
Select Sellers 16
Procurement Plan 16
Project Acceptance 16
Project Closure 16
Team Development 17
Empowerment & Delegation 18
PM Office Integration 20
Develop Standards 20
Training & Mentoring 20
Charter Example 21
AON & AOA 23
Forward & Backwards Pass 23
Selection Criteria Example 24
Western Carolina University Cullowhee, NC 28723
To create a project manual that incorporates best practices for either organizations or individuals
who are not entirely familiar with the tools necessary to complete a successful project. A
successful project is defined as a non-reoccurring activity that produces results under budget, on
time, and within the decided framework. The manual will be as simple as possible and must be
able to be used by novice to project management.
The goal of this manual is to take complex ideas and make them simple enough that anyone can
manage a relatively small project with little experience.
This manual is intended for organizations or individuals who do not have a permanent project
management office or process. It is for entities that for any reason do not currently have a project
management process or method and may not have the desire to create one. The manual will focus
on what it takes to complete a project and will provide the basic tools for such a use. It is not a
complete document of all the tools and methodologies for project management. If the entity
using this manual were to decide to create a permanent project office it would be advised to only
use this manual as a base and to incorporate more detailed tools & methods to fit the various
needs of different projects.
The idea is that an entrepreneur or the like will need to manage a project, yet will not have the
resources to hire a professional project manager or may not need one. This can work as a ‘do-it-
yourself’ guide for such a person.
How to Use
The manual is, more or less, in the order of importance. While at some points of the project the
project manager will need to either skip ahead or move back within the manual, the order in
which activities need to be done are as chronological as possible given the complex nature of
managing the unknown nature of many projects.
Using this manual, a project manager would want to read through it first. Then, begin at the start
and work on completing the steps necessary to work through the project. Project management
has two extremely important aspects on which this manual will focus: Planning and
Communication. While communication has it’s own section planning, it is equally important.
Much of the documentation is about planning for the project. The goal of project management is
to limit risk of the unknown through planning and communication.
Project Manual 1
As mentioned above, the goal of this manual is to make project management accessible to
anyone who may need it for a given project. It will not be a comprehensive document. It will also
not necessarily help with the PMP certification. The document will include communication and
planning methods for project. Initiating, Executing, Monitoring & Controlling, and Closing
processes are to be covered although not in as great of detail as planning and communications.
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A project manager (PM) must be good at stakeholder management & preparing for the unknown.
Planning is a process that can be taught and perfected through repetition. Communication is a
continuously improving process that one must practice daily; yet must be discussed in any PM
Stakeholder management and communication are two of the most important aspects of managing
any project. The project manager’s job is to facilitate communication, manage the risk of
uncertainty, and manage stakeholder’s expectations. While there is a good deal of technical
information surrounding managing uncertainty, and there is even some technical consideration
for communication most of communication and stakeholder management are abstract principles
that must be practiced daily. Any person’s communication skills and stakeholder understanding
will be done in small increments on a daily basis.
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Communication Plan & Information Distribution
Use the Stakeholder Identification & Strategy Template to determine who needs to be
communicated with. The Communication plan will determine how, and how often. While the
template below can be used it is mostly to give the user a general idea of what is needed.
Separating the forms into different list might be a better method. It is up to the user. Like with all
of the templates and suggested documentation methods in this manual remember to use what is
needed and to adjust it based on your own projects needs. For some projects it might be better to
add a communication log to track who is getting what and when, while other projects may only
need to know who is responsible for what.
Stakeholder Identification, Strategy Template & Communication
Name: Contact Info Position or Role Influence
Strategy: Com. Method How Often Message
Any changes to the cost, schedule, quality, or scope of the project must be reported and
managed. A change management plan must consist of a definition of change, a reporting method,
which is responsible for accepting change, and a method for accepting or denying said change.
The important part of change management is to ensure that all change is submitted and approved
in writing. This prevents more than just future communication issues it also protects against legal
issues. A policy of documentation provides leadership with the necessary authority expected in
the legal world.
Performance needs to be followed and understood. Measuring performance not only to ensure
the project is on target, it also allows for recognition of excellence among team members. There
must be team assessments, contractor assessments, and project assessments. These reports can be
combined into a single document, be separated into more detailed individual documents, or be
very informal. It is suggested that there be some sort of standardized process for evaluating
performance especially when it comes to the people involved in the process. This ensures that
biased is limited to work results and not personal feelings. It is not uncommon for one of the
better team members to not have the best relationship with the leadership while a less productive
member to have a great relationship with leadership. Both of their evaluations must be as
performance related as possible.
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The project charter gives the authority to the project manager and allows for resources to be used
on the project. It outlines high-level requirements, budgets and describes the projects. (See
Appendix 1 for an example of a Project Charter.) The Project Charter is one of the most
important documents in the project management process because it authorizes the project and
lays out the framework for the basic plan. Simply put the Project Charter is the foundation that
the rest of the project is built.
Requirement Management Plan
At this point it is time to decide what is required of the project. The actual deliverables should be
decided upon at this point. A deliverable is anything that is to be created, or completed as the
result of the work being done. Prioritization is possible during this part of the planning, but it can
also be done later during the scheduling process of the project.
Work Breakdown Structure & WBS Dictionary
The Work Breakdown Structure or WBS is a hierarchical decomposition of deliverables. The
WBS should begin with the deliverable followed by the work necessary to complete the
deliverable. The people who will be completing the work best decide upon work packages.
1.1 Build Widget
1.2 Widget Design
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The WBS Dictionary gives greater detail into the work packages. It allows for further description
on work, cost, and schedule requirements for given work packages.
WBS Name & ID: Due Date:
Description of Work:
ID Activity Labor & Materials Total Cost
Acceptance Criteria Relevant Information
Scope is what the project is intended to complete. It is easier to define the scope after the
completion of the WBS because it will give an clearer idea of what is not going to be done by the
project as well as what is to be done. By deciding that certain things will not be considered part
of the project initially it will help to keep the project from growing beyond the desired results of
the project. This is typically called ‘scope creep.’
The scope is the sum total of the project. It is similar to the goal of the project. If the project were
intended to ‘work on landscaping,’ then the scope would be ‘any outside landscaping on our
property.’ Anything outside of be ‘any outside landscaping on our property’ would be considered
outside of scope. IE: Panting the deck. Details outside of scope should be mentioned so that it
does not become part of the project later. This often leads to ‘scope creep.’
Mile Stones are major events that give important stakeholders a reference point as to the projects
progress. Going back to our yard example mile stones could be:
Mow the lawn
Trim the bushes
Water the Flowers
After each objective is met then a milestone is complete and the project is closer to completion.
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Find Dependencies & Sequence Activities
The first part of developing the schedule is to find dependencies. Simply put this means putting
work that must be done before another task first. There are three kinds of dependencies:
1. Mandatory Dependencies: Dependencies that must occur before a task can be begun. An
example would be the foundation must be in place before the walls can go up in a house.
2. Discretionary Dependencies: Dependencies that the project team would like to see for
whatever reason. An example would be painting a room before the carpet was laid.
3. External Dependencies: Outside factors that must occur before the task can begin. An
example would be delivery of drywall has to happen before the drywall can be put in
After all the dependencies are realized it becomes much easier to sequence the activities.
Activities can be sequenced using the following document:
Activity WBS Activity Name Predecessor(s)
Typically there are three ways to estimate task duration. These include Parametric, Analogous,
and Three Point Estimates. For our purposes we will focus on the last two: Analogous and Three
WBS ID Previous Ac- Previous Du- Current Ac- CA/PA=M Duration Es-
tivity (PA) ration (PD) tivity (CA) PD*M timate
1.1 160 Sq ft 10 days 200 Sq ft 200/160=1.25 12.5 days
Three Point Estimate
WBS ID Optimistic Most Likely Pessimistic (0+4M+P)/6 Duration Es-
Duration (O) (M) Duration (P) timate
1.1 10 days 12.5 days 17days (10+4*12.5+17)/6 12.83 Days
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Project Schedule & Baseline
Now the schedule will be developed. Often times what is known, as a Gantt chart will be used to
show the project schedule. Typically this is done using various project management software. If
no software is available using the network diagram will work just as well. Bellow is an example
of both Activity-on-node and Activity-on-arrow diagrams (See Appendix 2). The darker arrows
represent the critical path, or the path of task within a given project that cannot go part their
scheduled duration or it will affect the entire projects duration. ES is the early start or the earliest
the task can begin. D is duration while S is slack or amount of time that is ‘free’ for the task and
will not affect the entire project. EF is early finish or the earliest the task will be finished while
LS and LF represent the latest times that the task can go before they begin to delay the project.
(Appendix 3 for formulas)
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The total amount that is available for the project. A budget should be made after the cost
estimates are complete to ensure that the project can and will be adequately funded.
Like duration estimates cost estimates uses Parametric, Analogous, and Three Point Estimates
but cost estimates also has a fourth-Bottom-up Estimates.
WBS ID Cost Variable Per Unit Number Of Estimate
1.1 Sq ft $12.50 16 $200
WBS ID Previous Ac- Previous Current Ac- CA/PA=M Estimate
tivity (PA) Cost (PC) tivity (CA) PC*M
1.1 220 Sq ft $3,500 300 300/220=1.36 $4,773
Three Point Estimate
WBS ID Optimistic(O) Likely(M) Pessimistic(P) (0+4M+P)/6 Estimate
1.1 $3,500 $4,773 $5,680 (3500+4*4773+5680)/6 $4,712
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Bottom-up Cost Estimates attempts build the cost up from all relevant information. It takes all
the resources that are going to be used in the task or project and adding them together to arrive at
WBS Labor Material Supplies Equipment Direct Indirect Reserve Total
ID Cost Cost Cost
In order to ensure that the project is running under budget cost must be measured and controlled.
It is ideal to develop a cost baseline that tells the project manager and anyone who needs to know
exactly where the project is in terms of budget. Project management borrows some ideas from
accounting and finance to measure and control cost. Earned value is a system that is able to show
cost variance and allow for a project manager to know when and how to correct any variance.
Earned value also shows any schedule variance. Used in combination the PM can see if the
project is ahead of or behind schedule and cost. Below is a list of formulas used in earned value.
They are not too terribly difficult so long as one understands the projects budget, planned
schedule, and planned cost.
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Quality Management Plan
In project management there are what is called the ‘Iron Triangle’ or the “Triple Constraints.’
Both names are a name for the relationship of cost, time, and scope. One cannot be changed
without affecting another. Now it is widely understood that there is a fourth part to the ‘triangle’
While the quality of the good or service can be adjusted to reduce any of the other three
constraints it is strongly not advised. Quality should be planned for. It is quicker, cheaper, and
easier to do something right the first time than it is to redo the work to get it right.
A quality management plan must include a section that states who is responsible for what, a way
to ensure quality, to control quality, and to improve quality. The quality plan is a forward-
looking method to understand the needs of the project from a perspective that eliminates rework
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A quality audit is a way to independently review any part of the project or project elements. The
audit should give the reader an idea of what is working and what needs improvement. It should
also give descriptions of defects and deficiencies.
Measuring project performance has many different methods. The easiest is the Earned Value
method that was discussed on page 10 under the Cost section. In order to measure a projects
performance a baseline is necessary. A baseline is essentially what is expected at this point in the
Other performance measurements should include team assessments, and contractor assessments
as well as project assessments. Below is a quick form that can be expanded upon as needed to
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Project Title: Date: Contractor & Team In- Earn Value Report
Mile Stones Complet- Mile Stones Missed: Interpersonal Perfor- Schedule EV:
Upcoming Mile Stones: Impact Of Misses: Technical Performance: Cost EV:
Planned Preventions: Causes: Disputes/ Issues: Corrective Action:
Lessons learned are a way of documenting issues & successes for future reference. One of the
important aspects of Project Management is the continued growth of the PM and Project
Management Office. If this ends up being the only project that is completed a lessons learned
may not be as important, but it should be noted that there is always the possibility of future
projects. A key to lessons learned is the ability to review the results when needed. This is why it
should be documented.
Positive Results Needs Work
Vendor Issue Resolution Comments
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The first part of risk management is to identify risk. This is done trough brainstorming and
putting the information into a spreadsheet.
Risk ID: Risk: Impact On: Comments:
Risk Management Plan
The Risk Management Plan is were the methods of dealing with potential risk is decided upon.
Remember risk can be positive or negative. Risk can either be accepted, transferred, avoided, or
mitigated if it is negative. Positive risk can be shared, exploited, or enhanced. Whatever risk
strategy is chosen the type of risk must be understood first. Since project management is the
management of risk due to uncertainty it is best to learn to understand risk identification.
A risk management plan should identify approaches to dealing with risk the probability of the
risk occurring, who is responsible for the risk, impact, risk tolerance, contingency plans & funds,
and any other relevant information regarding the managing of risk.
Risk ID Statement Probability Impact Score Response
1, 3, or 5 1, 3, or 5 P*I=
For the scores it is best to only use three numbers to give a risk assessment of low, medium, or
high. It is more accurate this way and does not force the person or persons identifying the risk to
over think the results. So, a 1, 3, or 5 would be great identifiers.
After Risk Strategy
Risk ID Probability Impact Score Actions Status Comments
1, 3, or 5 1, 3, or 5 P*I=
The results are then placed into the Probability Impact Matrix. A Probability Impact Matrix is a
great way to give visual aid to the likelihood that an event will occur and the impact of such an
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Risk Probability Impact Matrix
Low Probability ----------------Medium Probability---------------High Probability
High Medium Low
Risk Data & Audit
Risk assessment must be revisited periodically to ensure that the event is being managed
properly. A complete data sheet can give the PM a base to begin the risk audit. Periodically
reviewing the data and assessing the probability of the event occurring plus finding any new risk
factors is key to the projects success.
Risk Data Sheet
Risk ID: Description:
Probability Score: Responses:
Person Responsible: Actions Taken:
Residual Risk Contingency:
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Contracts & Procurement
Selecting contractors is one of the most important aspects of procurement. It consists of deciding
upon parameters for what is needed from the contractor to what is the weighted value for
selecting a contractor. Price is arguable the most import part of the selection process, but it
MUST NOT be the end all reason for the decision. Just because one entity is the cheapest does
not mean that said entity is the best or even a good fit for what is needed. (See Appendix 4 for
The Procurement Plan outlines who is responsible for what part of the procurement process. IE:
Who can authorize work, contracts, or any other legal requirements. It can include selection
criteria, and standard documentation. Assumptions and constraints should be mentioned here
along with any specific requirements.
Contract Type Risk
Fixed Price Seller
Fixed Price W/ Price Adjustments Seller
Fixed Price W/ Incentive Shared
Cost Plus Fixed Fee Buyer
Cost Plus Incentive Shared
Time & Materials Buyer
Project Acceptance Criteria
At this point it must de decided what would make the project a success. Once this is decided and
completed a formal close out must be completed where people and resources are released.
Project Manual 16
Effective team building comes from continuous effort and practice. Teams are not built
overnight and neither are effective leaders. It must be practiced and developed much like
Total Quality Management.
It is typically accepted that teams go through a four-phase process.
Project Manual 17
Leadership is all about what a project manager’s job is. PM’s typically have little formal power
in comparison to functional managers. Being a strong leader includes a combination of skills
including influence. Credibility and establishing goals are two other important aspects of being a
Credibility comes from developing integrity, clarity, staying positive, and finding commonality
(Whetten & Cameron). Integrity simply means holding true to one’s own values- practicing
consistency. If this is done with a clear and positive message, people will want to listen making it
easier to develop common grounds with team members. If the team helps to develop the goals,
this common ground should be based on maintaining focus on the goals.
Goals must be established to give the team direction. Goals must be developed with the team and
be difficult yet obtainable. Goals need to be measurable, have completion dates, and be realistic.
Managing agreements as well as disagreements is also important. Too often PM’s want to avoid
disagreements, yet this often will undermine their image of a strong leader. Leaders are not
afraid of comflict and know how to manage it.
Empowerment & Delegation
There is nothing more important to working in a team environment than empowerment. When
given the trust and freedom to work independently, informed, and in control of their given
environment, people will produce amazing things. Kazien quality control has proved this in even
the most mundane task. The key to empowerment is trust. This trust must be mutual. Besides
trust, there are five total dimensions of empowerment (Whetten & Cameron):
• Self-efficacy: The team must feel qualified for the task. If the task seems too difficult, it
will become dishartening.
• Self-determination: The team must be involved in the decision making process
• Personal Consequence: The team members must be obligated to each other. People are
much more faithful to concrete co-workers than abstract corporations.
• Meaning: The work needs to be perceved as having value to the overall project. Often
times, the meaning of important task get lost. Team members must understand their roles
are valid and valued.
• Trust: The team must believe in their personal stability. The team must also believe in the
methodology being implemented and it must remain consistent on certain levels.
Empowerment is the first step to reducing controls and then quickly after, Delegation comes.
Through delegation the project manager assigns tasks to team members to complete. The team
must be involved in the processes. Like the people who are to do a given task should create the
WBS, when work is delegated it must be delegated with the team’s involvement. The task must
be delegated completely with the final goal in mind.
For a project, this final goal can be their specific deliverable or it can be from a bigger
perspective like corporate goals. Either way, the goals must be defined. Once this happens, the
focus can shift towards accountability, results, and consequences. If the PM is consistent in his or
her approach to delegation, the team will develop trust in the system and continue to grow within
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This is really a statement about the old saying ‘what goes around comes around.’ If one does
good things, he or she will receive good things in return. If not they will not. It turns out we are
hardwired to do this. When someone gives another something, even if it is only a small token,
that person will instinctually feel the need to return the favor.
Commitment & Consistency
People want to do what they say especially if they put it in writing. Even if an individual does
not completely believe what they are stating once they state it they are much more likely to want
to follow through with it.
This speaks to people’s need for group belonging. When a person knows that someone else is
doing something or acting in a certain way, they will be more likely to follow along. This means
that team members will act as they see other team members acting. Individuals will tend to
believe that the way to behave is as such.
Individuals in a perceived position of power they are thought to be experts. Being in a position of
power could simply mean an expert on a subject, or it could mean absolute power. Either way
people will act according to their perception of power.
When someone is liked, others will be more apt to do what they ask. This one is fairly obvious in
that one is more receptive to people that they find pleasurable much more than otherwise.
If an object is thought to be limited, humans instinctively begin to react with panic. Humans
want more of what they cannot have. Again, this is hardwired into our instincts. Like the other
means of influence, it helped people to develop groups and react to hardships better. In today’s
society, scarcity can still be used to influence people’s actions.
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P.M. Office Integration
If it is decided that project management is a useful asset to your institution or group than
standards must be developed. One of the keys to long-term successful project management is the
ability to learn from past mistakes and repeat successes. This is done through developing of
standards. Standard documentation is one way to ensure that standards are met.
Training & Mentoring
Training and mentoring new project managers also helps in creating a standard. Since the goal is
to produce repeatable successes using mentoring programs to train new or less experienced
project managers is completely necessary.
Support comes from organizational support. It is about more than just financial support. Support
means a dedication to developing a mature projectized organization that uses standards
procedures for success in combination with training and mentoring. It means allow project
manager to give input into what works within the organization and what does not.
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1 Project Charter Example
The purpose of this project is to obtain a working restaurant in Arizona. The business need is for
both an investment and employment.
In the great Mesa, AZ area there are multiple food service establishments available. The long-
term plan of running and establishing a profitable restaurant business begins with the selection,
purchasing, and improving an existing restaurant concept.
Obtaining and opening a working food service establishment within the parameters laid out in
the project plan.
The project is complete upon the opening of the establishment to the general public as customers.
Previous Owners Name
Not Finding Location
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Estimated Budget & Variance Management
$150,000: Give each activity a reserve once exceeded reevaluate situation and decide whether to
end, or create a new budget.
The decision process will begin with communication. The utilization of qualitative and qualities
tools will also help guide the decision process. Further decisions will be divided up into two gen-
eral role categories with Andy handle the operations aspects of the company. Tristan will handle
the financial decisions.
51% ownership to Andy
49% ownership to Tristan
The final decision will rest with Andy’s majority vote.
Project Manager: ____________________________________ Date: _______________
Owner: ____________________________________________ Date: _______________
Owner: ____________________________________________ Date: _______________
2 AON and AOA examples
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3 Forward & Backwards Pass
Early Start + Duration = Early Finish
Late Finish – Duration = Later Start
Late Start – Early Start = Max Float
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4 Selection Criteria
Criteria Name Description Weight
Space 600 – 800 Square feet 3
Cost Between $125,000 and $75,000 5
Visibility Is the space noticeable 5
Parking Availability of parking 3
Cash flow Money coming in 5
Management Management issues 1
Décor How the place is furnished 1
Kitchen Good kitchen equipment 5
Seating Seating area and arrangement 3
Location The neighborhood 5
Foot Traffic Number of people going by the restaurant 3
Food Quality of food 5
Hours Potential Hours of operation 3
Storage Well situated storage space 5
Bathrooms Adequate restrooms 1
Accessibility Is the space easily accessible 3
Ta b l e :
1=Nice to have
3 = Fa v o r a b l e
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Selection Criteria Continued
S c o r e = We i g h t * R a t i n g
1 thru 5: 1 being low, 5 being high
Criteria Name & Weight Option A Option B Option C
Rating Score Rating Score Rating Score
Space - 3 3 9
Cost - 5 5 25
Visibility - 5 3 15
Parking - 3 1 3
Cash Flow - 5 4 20
Management - 1 4 4
Décor - 1 3 3
Kitchen – 5 4 20
Seating - 3 1 3
Location - 5 4 20
Foot Traffic - 3 4 12
Food - 5 4 20
Hours – 3 3 9
Storage - 5 1 5
Bathroom - 1 0 0
Accessibility - 3 3 9
Totals 46 177
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Cialdini, R. B. (2007). Influence The Psychology of Persuasion. New York , NY: Collins .
David, M. G. (2005). Exploring Psychology Sixth Ed. New York: Worth.
Davis, S. B., & Goetsch, D. L. (2001). Total Quality Handbook. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Project Management Institute . (2008). A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge.
Newtown Square, PA: PMI.
Stackpole, C. S. (2009). A Project Manager's Book of Forms. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley .
Whetten, D. A., & Cameron, K. S. Developing Management Skills. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Project Manual 26