TeXes Tips 2013

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Presentation used as a study guide for pre-service, pre-certified teachers in Texas.

Presentation used as a study guide for pre-service, pre-certified teachers in Texas.

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  • 1. TEXES TIPS: EC-6 GENERALIST/ESL Jodi Brooks, M.Ed. 10/5/13
  • 2. Introduction  Why I’m here  Why you’re here:  1. Test prep, obviously.  2. Achievement Gap = There is a persistent gap in academic achievement between English- speaking students and those from culturally and linguistically diverse groups:  Many teachers are not prepared to make content comprehensible for ELLs.  Few teachers are trained to teach literacy or content- area literacy to secondary ELLs.
  • 3. Download YAPP  Go to your app store  Search for “Yapp”  Download it onto your smartphone  Load our YAPP for today’s presentation:  Use code: MPU9WT
  • 4. Activity: RAN Chart  Pick a partner.  Each of you write three things you think you already know about the ESL portion of the EC-6 Generalist/ESL certification test on each sticky (one idea per sticky).  Place stickies under “What I Think I Know” section of RAN Chart.  Discuss with your partner.
  • 5. Domain 1: Competency 001  The ESL Teacher understands fundamental language concepts and knows the structure and conventions of the English Language. A. Understands the basic concepts of language systems (e.g. phonology, morphology, syntax, lexicon, semantics, discourse, pragmatics) and used this understanding to facilitate learning in the ESL classroom. B. Knows the functions and registers of language (social vs. academic language in English) C. Understands the interrelatedness of listening, speaking, reading, and writing D. Knows the structure of the English language (e.g. word formation, grammar, vocabulary, syntax) and the patterns and conventions of written and spoken English
  • 6. Basic Language Concepts  Syntax  Lexicon  Semantics  Discourse  Pragmatics  Phoneme  Phonology  Morphology  Morpheme  Graphophonics Practice: Worksheet
  • 7. Basic Language Concepts Matching Activity  Work with your shoulder partner to complete the handout.
  • 8. Domain 1: Competency 002 The ESL teacher understands the processes of first language (L1) and second language (L2) acquisition and the interrelatedness of L1 and L2 development. A.Knows theories, concepts and research related to L1 and L2 acquisition B.Uses knowledge of theories, concepts and research related to L1 and L2 acquisition to select effective, appropriate methods and strategies for promoting language development C.Knows cognitive processes (e.g. memorization, categorization, generalization, metacognition) involved in synthesizing and internalizing language rules for 2nd language acquisition. D.Analyzes the interrelatedness of first- and second-language acquisition and ways in which L1 may affect development of L2. E.Knows common difficulties (e.g. idiomatic expressions, L1 interference in syntax, phonology, morphology) experienced by ESL students in learning English and effective strategies for helping students overcome those difficulties.
  • 9. T-Chart  Brainstorm with your partner  How did you learn your native language?  How do you think acquiring a 2nd language (L2) is similar to or different from acquiring a 1st (L1) language?  Write your responses in a T-Chart L1 L2
  • 10. Acquisition vs. Learning  Acquisition = subconscious learning, use language to accomplish a goal  Learning = conscious, formal setting, practice, memorization, metacognition
  • 11. The Acquisition Process (Krashen, 1981) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Comprehensible Input Affective Filter Intake (outside of the learner) (Must remain low for intake to occur.) (inside of the learner)
  • 12. Monitor Hypothesis Monit or Acquired Competence Output Outside of the learner
  • 13. The Input Hypothesis (Comprehensible Input) 1. Language is acquired through comprehended messages, or comprehensible input, which is both interesting and relevant to the learner. 2. The focus is on the meaning, more than on how it is spoken. 3. Speaking emerges on its own when the learner’s understanding is good enough. Te ache rs m ust be to le rant o f e arly e rro rs in spe e ch.
  • 14. Teachers must strive to make input comprehensible • Use authentic language • Stress student involvement • Use hands-on activities • Use non-verbal cues (kinesthetic movements) • Use manipulatives, realia (real objects), and visuals • Use prior content introduction in the primary language (English/Spanish word walls) • Create a low-stress, friendly environment • Simplify teacher talk • Avoid slang and idioms
  • 15. CALLA: COGNITIVE ACADEMIC LANGUAGE LEARNING APPROACH  The Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA) integrates instruction in priority topics from the content curriculum, development of the language skills needed for learning in school, and explicit instruction in using learning strategies for academic tasks.
  • 16. CALLA’s principal objectives are to assist students in:  Valuing their own prior knowledge and cultural experiences, and relating this knowledge to academic learning in a new language  Learning the content knowledge and the language skills that are most important for future academic success  Developing language awareness and critical literacy  Selecting and using appropriate learning strategies that will develop knowledge and processes  Developing abilities to work successfully with others in a social context  Learning through hands-on, inquiry-based, and cooperative learning tasks  Increasing motivation for academic learning and confidence in their ability to be successful in school  Evaluating their own learning and planning how to become more effective and independent learners.
  • 17. SIOP: SHELTERED INSTRUCTION OBSERVATION PROTOCOL  What Is the SIOPModel? The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Model is a research-based and validated instructional model that has proven effective in addressing the academic needs of English learners throughout the United States.  The SIOP Model consists of eight interrelated components:  Lesson Preparation  Building Background  Comprehensible Input  Strategies  Interaction  Practice/Application  Lesson Delivery  Review & Assessment  Using instructional strategies connected to each of these components, teachers are able to design and deliver lessons that address the academic and linguistic needs of English learners. (http://www.cal.org/siop/about/index.html)
  • 18. Practice Question Periodically a high school ESL teacher asks each student to complete the following checklist as a se lf- asse ssm e nt tool. Yes or No: _____ I look for word patterns in a sentence to help me read and understand it. ____ I use note taking and flashcards to reinforce new language and vocabulary I have learned ____ I make word associations when learning new language and vocabulary. ____ I use visualization to help me remember new vocabulary.
  • 19. Select the best answer: The primary purpose of the checklist is to help students a. Become effective at determining their own language proficiency b. Develop strategies for overcoming misunderstandings when communicating c. Compensate for gaps in their current language knowledge and skills. d. Use various cognitive strategies for internalizing language.
  • 20. Practice Question When planning lessons or activities for Samira, a new student in Ms. Lynn’s class, Ms. Lynn takes Samira’s reluctance to speak with others into consideration and se ts an instructio nal g o alto incre ase he r o ral-lang uag e pro ficie ncy through self-initiated interactions with classmates.
  • 21. Which of the following should Ms. Lynn incorporate to best help Samira at her curre nt le ve lo f o ral- lang uag e pro ficie ncy? A. Concept attainment model B. Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA) C. Reciprocal teaching strategy D. Total Physical Response (TPR)
  • 22. Domain II: Competency 003 The ESL teacher understands ESL teaching methods and uses this knowledge to plan and implement effective, developmentally appropriate instruction. A.Knows TEKS and ELPS and how to design and implement appropriate instruction B.Knows effective instruction methods and selects/uses instructional methods and resources appropriate for instructional goals. C.Applies knowledge of effective practices, resources, and materials D.Knows how to integrate technological tools E.Applies effective classroom management and teaching strategies.
  • 23. Practice Question A high school ESL teacher is working with a class of beginning-level ELLs. The teacher asks one student to stand up, then asks another to pick up a pencil. The teacher involves each of the students a different points during the activity. According to proponents of To tal PhysicalRe spo nse (TPR), the activity helps students develop English language skills primarily because it… a.Encourages them to use English within authentic contexts b.Allows them to discover a wide range of concepts and rules related to English grammar c.Prompts them to use English to accomplish different goals d.Helps them to develop kinesthetic connections to various English words and phrases.
  • 24. Competency 004 The ESL teacher understands how to promote students’ communicative language development in English. a.Knows TEKS, ELPS, and PLDs b.Understands the role of the linguistic environment and conversational support and uses this to provide a rich, comprehensible language environment. c.Applies knowledge of practices, resources, and materials… d.Understands interrelatedness of listening, speaking, reading and writing e.Applies knowledge of effective strategies related to transfer skills f.Applies knowledge of individual differences (developmental, cultural, academic, learning styles) to select targeted and systematic instruction g.Knows how to provide appropriate feedback
  • 25. The nature of language proficiency BICS Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills *Think social, conversational CALP Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency *Content, academic language
  • 26. 2 major factors that make acquiring CALP more successful  Prior schooling  Literacy development in L1  Reading achievement in L2 is more dependent on reading achievement in L1 than it is on the student’s level of L2 oral proficiency.  **Important to note for Language Transfer  For ELLs to master CALP, they need ample opportunities to orally practice the language.  5-7 years
  • 27. ELL Students need:  Engagement in activities and strategies that enable them to –  View  Do  Talk  Transform (Cummins’ 4-Quadrants)
  • 28. Practice question Which of the following best explains why ELLs need to receive direct instruction in the use of nonverbal elements of English? a.The meanings of gestures and body language vary from culture to culture b.People need explicit instruction in nonverbal communication because they lack instinctive communication skills c.Cultures associated with English tend to have more taboos related to the body than other cultures d.Nonverbal gestures only have meaning when they are connected to specific phrases in the oral language
  • 29. Competency 005 The ESL teacher understands how to promote students’ literacy development in English a.Knows TEKS and ELPS and how to use them to create meaningful lesson plans b.Understands the interrelatedness of listening, speaking, reading, writing. c.Understands that English is an alphabetic language and applies strategies for developing ESL students’ phonological knowledge and skills and sight word vocabularies. d.Knows factors that affect ESL students' reading comprehension (e.g. vocabulary, text structures, cultural references) e. applies knowledge of effective strategies f.Applies knowledge of individual differences g.Knows personal factors that affect ESL students' English literacy development (e.g. interrupted schooling, literacy in L1)
  • 30. TELPAS PLDs: http://www.elltx.org/proficiency_level_descriptors.html
  • 31. Transfer and Interference  Universal Grammar – Natural languages have the same basic underlying grammar, but “surface features” differ  Transfer – When the surface features of two languages are the same in structure, you have transfer.  Interference – also known as “negative transfer”. Sometimes word order and/or other structural elements are so different between the L1 and L2 that problems arise when translating from the L1.
  • 32. Common areas of interference  Syntax – the patterns into which words can be validly arranged to form sentences. Ex:“Il fait chaud” may transfer to “It has hot”, rather than “It is hot”.  Homophones – words that sound alike but are spelled differently and have different meanings. Ex: read/reed  Homographs – words that are spelled the same but have a different pronunciation and meaning. Ex: bow/bow • Figurative language - speech or writing that departs from literal meaning in order to achieve a special effect or meaning. Ex: similes, metaphors, personification, idioms, etc. • Idioms – expressions that cannot be understood from the combined meanings of the words that form them. Idioms are usually distinctive to a particular language. – Ex: A chip on your shoulder Break a leg Change of heart Stick in the mud
  • 33. To minimize the impact of interference:  Monitor student output and look for patterns of errors  Target your instruction to common areas of interference  Teach with kinesthetic symbols  Chants or songs  Foldables/Graphic Organizers
  • 34. What cognitive processes help encode new information into our brains?  Memorization/repetition  Elaboration  Categorization/organization (graphic organizers!)  Sensory input  Experiential learning  Visualization  Metacognition
  • 35. T-P-S: What activities can be used to facilitate language acquisition using these cognitive processes?  For example, for Metacognition, the students could:  Reflect on learning by using a Learning Log  Self-evaluation checklists  Write in journals about the learning topic
  • 36. Practice Question Which of the following strategies would be most effective in helping intermediate and advanced ELLs improve their reading fluency? a.Providing frequent opportunities for students to read and reread texts written at their independent reading levels b.Expanding students’ vocabulary knowledge by assigning challenging texts at and beyond their instructional reading levels c.Encouraging students to use various comprehension strategies, such as self-monitoring, predicting and questioning. d.Administering timed reading tests to students monthly to motivate them to read more quickly and accurately.
  • 37. Competency 006 The ESL teacher understands how to promote students’ content-area learning, academic language development and achievement across the curriculum. A.Applies knowledge of effective practices, resources and materials that is linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) to the student’s levels of English-language proficiency B.Knows instructional delivery practices that are effective in facilitating ESL students’ application of various learning strategies (e.g. preteaching key vocabulary, using metacognition, using hands-on activities, using realia, media, and graphic organizers) across content areas. C.Applies knowledge of individual differences D.Knows personal factors that affect ESL students’ content-area learning (prior learning experiences, familiarity with specialized language and vocabulary)
  • 38. Practice Question Mr. Gregory, a history teacher, notices withing the first two weeks of school that Lana is struggling with history content. When reviewing Lana’s prior school records. Mr. Gregory learns that Lana exited the ESL program the previous year at her former school. He decides to meet with the Language Proficiency Assessment Committee (LPAC) to discuss Lana’s status and performance in school. During the LPAC meeting, Mr. Gregory learns more about Lana’s schooling and is able to discuss her performance in his class with the committee. After discussing Lana’s performance, the committee sets an objective to follow established LPAC guidelines to help Lana.
  • 39. Practice Question Mr. Gregory can best support Lana’s English- language acquisition and content understanding by A. extending the due dates on Lana’s content assignments B. Implementing the use of a variety of content-specific textbooks in Lana’s native language. C. administering an assessment to determine Lana’s current level of content academic language. D. Implementing strategies to make content comprehensible for Lana.
  • 40. Practice Question To most appropriately accommodate beginning- level ELLs in a reduced context vocabulary learning station, the teacher should: A. Incorporate additional words cards with sight work B. Model how to manipulate the words cards. C. Include corresponding illustrations on the word cards. D. Allow nonparticipation.
  • 41. Competency 007 The ESL teacher understands formal and informal assessment procedures and instruments used in ESL programs and uses assessment results to plan and adapt instruction. a.Knows basic concepts, issues and practices related to test design, development and interpretation and uses this knowledge to select, adapt and develop assessments b.Applies knowledge of formal and informal assessments used in the ELS classrooms c.Knows standardized tests commonly used in ESL programs in Texas and knows how to interpret results d.Knows state-mandate LEP policies, including the role of the LPAC e.Understands relationships among state-mandated standards, instruction and assessment f.Knows how to use ongoing assessment to plan and adjust instruction that addresses individual student needs
  • 42. Testing used to identify, classify, and monitor  Pre-K – Grade 1 – Oral Language Proficiency Test (OLPT) approved by TEA  Grades 2-12 – OLPT and the ELA sections from a TEA approved norm-referenced test, or another test approved by the TEA  Must be tested within 20 days of enrollment into a school  TELPAS: Listening, Speaking, Reading (online), Writing
  • 43. HLS: Home Language Survey  First step in student classification  Every new student upon enrollment  Pre-K-8th – must be signed by parent/guardian  9-12 – student must sign  “What language is spoken in your home most of the time?”  “What language does your child speak most of the time?”
  • 44. LPAC: Language Proficiency Assessment Committee  A committee made up of school administration, teachers (ESL, Bilingual, and/or General Ed), and a parent of a LEP student  Must meet within 20 days of enrollment of a LEP student  Prior to STAAR or other state mandated testing, must determine the appropriate assessment option for each ELL  Monitors progress of each student who’s exited from a program for 2 years after exiting
  • 45. The LPAC’s responsibilities:  Beginning and ending of school year, LPAC:  Designates the language proficiency level of each ELL (OLPTs and ELA norm-referenced tests)  Designates the level of academic achievement of each ELL  Designates, with parent approval* , the initial instruction placement of ELLs  Facilitates the participation of ELLs in other special programs if eligible  Classifies students as English proficient and recommends exit *If a parent denies services, no matter what the HLS or testing criteria shows, the school cannot offer services to the ELL student.
  • 46. Back to Mr. Gregory’s class:  Mr. Gregory, a history teacher, notices within the first two weeks of school that Lana is struggling with history content. When reviewing Lana’s prior school records, Mr. Gregory learns that Lana exited the ESL program the previous year at her former school. He decides to meet with the Language Proficiency Assessment Committee (LPAC) to discuss Lana’s status and performance in school. During the LPAC meeting, Mr. Gregory learns more about Lana’s schooling and is able to discuss her performance in his class with the committee. After discussing Lana’s performance, the committee sets an objective to follow established LPAC guidelines to help Lana.
  • 47. Which of the following best meets the LPAC’s objective? a. Lana’s progress will be monitored for the next two years b. Mr. Gregory will meet with Lana’s parents c. Lana will be placed in ESL classes for the next two years d. Mr. Gregory will administer an oral language assessment in Lana’s native language
  • 48. Domain III: Competency 008 The ESL teacher understands the foundations of ESL education and types of ESL programs. a.Knows the historical, theoretical, and policy foundations of ESL education b.Knows types of ESL programs (e.g. Self-contained, pull- out, newcomer centers, dual language, immersion) c.Applies knowledge of various types of ESL programs to make appropriate instructional and management decisions. d.Applies knowledge of research findings related to ESL education, including research on instructional and management practices in ESL programs, to assist in planning and implementing effective ESL programs.
  • 49. Chapter 89 : Texas Law  “ It is the policy of the state that everystudent inthestatewho has ahome languageotherthanEnglishandwho is identifiedas anEnglishlanguage learnershall beprovidedafull opportunityto participateinabilingual educationorEnglishas asecondlanguage(ESL) program, as required in the Texas Education Code (TEC), Chapter 29, Subchapter B. To ensure equal educational opportunity, as required in the TEC, §1.002(a), each school district shall:  (1)  identify English language learners based on criteria established by the state;  (2)  provide bilingual education and ESL programs, as integral parts of the regular program as described in the TEC, §4.002;  (3)  seekcertified teaching personnel to ensure that English language learners are afforded full opportunity to master the essential knowledge and skills required by the state; and  (4)  assess achievement for essential knowledge and skills in accordance with the TEC, Chapter 39, to ensure accountability for English language learners and the schools that serve them.”
  • 50. Historical Background  1920s-60s – sink or swim, “submersion”  1968 – The Bilingual Education Act, Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1968 – established federal policy for bilingual education for economically disadvantage language minority students
  • 51. Significant laws to know  1974 – Lau v. Nichols – ide nticaleducation does not constitute e q ualeducation under the Civil Rights Act  1981 – Castaneda v. Pickard – “Castaneda Test”  1982 – Plyler v. Doe – Supreme Court denies the state’s right to exclude children of illegal immigrants from public schools  1983, 88, 94 – Amendments to Title VII
  • 52. ESL Programs  http://www.elltx.org/bilingual_esl_programs_english.html  Sheltered Instruction: an approach for teaching content to English language learners (ELLs) in strategic ways that make the subject matter concepts comprehensible while promoting the students' English language development. (Echevarria, J., Vogt M.-E., & Short, D., 2000. Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners—The SIOP Model, Allyn and Bacon, p. 1)
  • 53. TEA says:  If there are 20+ ELLs in the same grade level district-wide, the district is required to offer a bilingual education programfor Pre-K – Grade 5 (including 6th when the school has a 6th grade)  Any district not required to offer a bilingual program shall offer an ESL program regardless of students’ grade levels, home language, and number of such students.
  • 54. Practice question Which of the following best characterizes the education of language minority students in the U.S. be fo re WWII? a.There was no concerted effort to assist ELLs in school b.ESL programs were common in larger urban school systems only c.Students who did not speak English could be legally prevented from registering for school d.The majority of ELLs with limited English proficiency attended bilingual parochial schools.
  • 55. Practice question A school district has six elementary schools, all of which enroll a large number of ESL students who come from more than twe nty diffe re nt co untrie s . Which of the following is the most appropriate program model for the district? a.Pull-out ESL classes b.Early-exit bilingual c.Sheltered English d.Late-exit bilingual
  • 56. Practice Question A Texas high school has a program that integrate ESL instruction with academic instruction. The focus of the program is for students to learn English as a second language and use it as a medium to learn other academic subjects. In the program, a full-tim e te ache r pro vide s supple m e ntary instructio n fo r allacade m ic subje cts. Based on the characteristics, the program can best be described as a.Sheltered instruction b.Content-based ESL c.Two-way immersion d.Pull-out ESL
  • 57. Competency 009 The ESL teacher understands factors that affect ESL students’ learning and implements strategies for creating an effective multicultural and multilingual learning environment. a.Understands cultural and linguistic diversity in the ESL classroom and understands other factors that may affect students’ learning of academic content b.Knows how to create an effective multicultural and multilingual learning environment that addresses the affective, linguistic, and cognitive needs of the ESL students c.Demonstrates sensitivity to students’ diverse cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds and shows respect for language differences d.Applies strategies for creating among students an awareness of and respect for linguistic and cultural diversity.
  • 58. Affective Filter • Social/emotional factors affect L2 acquisition • A low affective filter helps a student to make progress when acquiring L2 • Low anxiety, high motivation, and self- confidence are ideal.  Brainstorm: Make a list of possible Social &Brainstorm: Make a list of possible Social & Emotional Factors an ELL may experience in theEmotional Factors an ELL may experience in the classroomclassroom
  • 59. Reducing Affective Filter *Elicit student performance only at the appropriate level and when the student is ready *Avoid error correction; focus on message vs. form *Increase wait time – allow for silent period *Allow for ample rehearsal time before performing in front of others *Maintain a friendly, comfortable environment *Create consistent routines within the classroom *Incorporate students’ native culture and history in activities whenever possible *Challenge students while providing appropriate support *Explicitly teach native and non-native English speakers about cultural differences
  • 60. Partner talk  What are some ways you will create an effective multicultural and multilingual environment in your classroom?
  • 61. Practice Question A teacher replies to an incorrect response from an ELL by re co g nizing the stude nt’s e ffo rt thro ug h po sitive re info rce m e nt. By recognizing the student’s effort, the teacher is demonstrating an understanding of which of the following? a.Enhancing linguistic development b.Incorporating various learning modalities c.Promoting cognitive development d.Lowering the affective filter
  • 62. Practice Question An ESL teacher works in a middle school with a diverse student population. In addition to providing ELLs with language and content instruction, the te ache r he lps stude nts le arn ho w to articulate the ir fe e ling s, pro vide d the m with practice in taking the pe rspe ctive o f o the rs and e nco urag e s the e xpre ssio n o f dive rse po ints o f vie w. The practices are primarily effective in: a.Recognizing and responding to the linguistic diversity of the students b.Promoting students’ academic achievement c.Reducing student conflicts that result from cultural and other misunderstandings d.Resolving students’ cultural identity crises
  • 63. Competency 010 The ESL teacher knows how to serve as an advocate for ESL students and facilitate family and community involvement in their education. a.Applies knowledge of effective strategies advocating educational and social equity for ESL students b.Understands the importance of family involvement in the education of ESL students and knows how to facilitate parent/guardian participation c.Applies skills for communicating and collaborating effectively with parents/guardians d.Knows how community members and resources can positively affect student learning and is able to access community resources to enhance education
  • 64. Practice question An ESL teacher provides training to content-area teachers on ways to sim plify o ne ’s lang uag e whe n talking to ELLs. The training will primarily reinforce the importance of which of the following for the teachers? a.Collaborating with other teachers of ELLs b.Facilitating parental involvement in students’ education c.Incorporating community resources within an ESL classroom d.Implementing ESL strategies within the classroom
  • 65. Building the Four Skills  Listening  Speaking  Reading  Writing  *Integration is key!  Receptive vs. Expressive  The order of achieving proficiency  Construction of knowledge  Integration is good teaching!
  • 66. Listening Comprehension  Being read to/books on tape  Total Physical Response (TPR)  Listen, Watch, Imitate  Information sharing/Giving Directions  Songs  High context, visuals, hands on  Listening/recalling/ retelling  Listening for main idea  Songs/jazz chants  Fairly high context, visuals, hands on  Distinguishing sounds (minimal pairs, ending sounds) Beginner Intermediate Adv/Adv High  Listens for details  Integrated with writing  Lectures/note taking  Provide graphic organizers
  • 67. Quick Note  Can you think of 5-10 key vocabulary terms from a content area you would like to teach that you could teach using TPR?  Share out  Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=bkMQXFOqyQA
  • 68. Speaking: Beginners  Silent period  Single word answers  Query using either/or  Mimicked phrases  Answer knowledge and fact based questions  Retelling stories  Telling stories from pictures*  Informal/imprompt u conversations Beginner Intermediate Adv/Adv High  Formal presentations  Answering higher order questions  Defending/justifying/ debating  Discussion
  • 69. Describe to your neighbor what’s happening in this picture.
  • 70. Reading: Beginner  Phonological awareness taught in isolation  Phonics instruction with words comprehended ORALLY  Single words or short phrases only after introduced through lesson  Sight words  Picture books in English or in L1  Language  Pre-teach key vocabulary  Elicit prior knowledge/make connections  Re-read familiar texts to build fluency  Independent reading at appropriate level  Guided reading  Modified/highly supported texts Beginner Intermediate Adv/Adv High  Intensive reading activity*  Pre-teaching/pre-reading through discussion  Graphic organizers  High interest magazines, chapter books  Re-reading familiar texts
  • 71. Intensive Reading Activity  Fences – by Pat Mora  Fold your index card in half and number each of the four sections, 1…4  I’ll read the poem one time.  On the first section of your card, write down your initial thoughts or reactions to the poem.  I’ll read the poem again.  On the second section of your card, write down any emotions you felt or you think the author feels.  I’ll read the poem a third time.  On the third section of your card, write down any words or phrases you recall from the poem.  On the fourth section of your card, write down your final thought or reactions to the poem.
  • 72. Writing: Beginner  Journals in L1  Fill in the blank  One word answers  S-V-O sentence structure  Drawing  Write narratives they have already told  Dialogue journals  Short answer  Paragraph structure Beginner Intermediate Adv/Adv High  Writer’s Workshop/Writing Process  Peer feedback  Editing tricks (reading to the wall, PVC pipe phones)  Reflection journals  Note taking by listening
  • 73.  Evaluate writing samples
  • 74. Revisit RAN Chart  Take 2 more stickies.  On 1st sticky, write down at least 1 piece of “New Information” you learned.  On 2nd sticky, write down at least 1 “Wondering/Question” you still have.  Share new insights with partner.
  • 75. Actual test taking tips:  Think “perfect world”.  Locate key words or concepts in the question prompt.  Eliminate those answers you know are wrong.  Know “buzz” words in education; they are often used in the correct answers.  Pay attention to absolutes which are often used in wrong answers.
  • 76. Any questions? Clarifications?