Why I’m here
Why you’re here:
1. Test prep, obviously.
2. Achievement Gap = There is a persistent
gap in academic achievement between
English- speaking students and those from
culturally and linguistically diverse groups:
Many teachers are not prepared to make content
comprehensible for ELLs.
Few teachers are trained to teach literacy or content-
area literacy to secondary ELLs.
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Activity: RAN Chart
Pick a partner.
Each of you write three things you think you already
know about the ESL portion of the EC-6 Generalist/ESL
certification test on each sticky (one idea per sticky).
Place stickies under “What I Think I Know” section of
Discuss with your partner.
Domain 1: Competency 001
The ESL Teacher understands fundamental
language concepts and knows the structure and
conventions of the English Language.
A. Understands the basic concepts of language systems
(e.g. phonology, morphology, syntax, lexicon,
semantics, discourse, pragmatics) and used this
understanding to facilitate learning in the ESL
B. Knows the functions and registers of language (social
vs. academic language in English)
C. Understands the interrelatedness of listening,
speaking, reading, and writing
D. Knows the structure of the English language (e.g. word
formation, grammar, vocabulary, syntax) and the
patterns and conventions of written and spoken English
Basic Language Concepts Matching
Work with your shoulder partner to complete
Domain 1: Competency 002
The ESL teacher understands the processes of first
language (L1) and second language (L2) acquisition and
the interrelatedness of L1 and L2 development.
A.Knows theories, concepts and research related to L1 and L2 acquisition
B.Uses knowledge of theories, concepts and research related to L1 and L2
acquisition to select effective, appropriate methods and strategies for
promoting language development
C.Knows cognitive processes (e.g. memorization, categorization,
generalization, metacognition) involved in synthesizing and internalizing
language rules for 2nd
D.Analyzes the interrelatedness of first- and second-language acquisition
and ways in which L1 may affect development of L2.
E.Knows common difficulties (e.g. idiomatic expressions, L1 interference in
syntax, phonology, morphology) experienced by ESL students in learning
English and effective strategies for helping students overcome those
Brainstorm with your partner
How did you learn your native language?
How do you think acquiring a 2nd
language (L2) is
similar to or different from acquiring a 1st
Write your responses in a T-Chart
Acquisition vs. Learning
Acquisition = subconscious learning, use
language to accomplish a goal
Learning = conscious, formal setting, practice,
The Acquisition Process
(outside of the
(Must remain low
for intake to occur.)
(inside of the
Outside of the
The Input Hypothesis
1. Language is acquired through comprehended messages,
comprehensible input, which is both interesting and
2. The focus is on the meaning, more than on how it is
3. Speaking emerges on its own when the learner’s
understanding is good enough. Te ache rs m ust be to le rant
o f e arly
e rro rs in spe e ch.
Teachers must strive to make input
• Use authentic language
• Stress student involvement
• Use hands-on activities
• Use non-verbal cues (kinesthetic movements)
• Use manipulatives, realia (real objects), and visuals
• Use prior content introduction in the primary language
(English/Spanish word walls)
• Create a low-stress, friendly environment
• Simplify teacher talk
• Avoid slang and idioms
CALLA: COGNITIVE ACADEMIC
LANGUAGE LEARNING APPROACH
The Cognitive Academic Language Learning
Approach (CALLA) integrates instruction in
priority topics from the content curriculum,
development of the language skills needed for
learning in school, and explicit instruction in
using learning strategies for academic tasks.
CALLA’s principal objectives are to
assist students in:
Valuing their own prior knowledge and cultural experiences,
and relating this knowledge to academic learning in a new
Learning the content knowledge and the language skills that
are most important for future academic success
Developing language awareness and critical literacy
Selecting and using appropriate learning strategies that will
develop knowledge and processes
Developing abilities to work successfully with others in a
Learning through hands-on, inquiry-based, and cooperative
Increasing motivation for academic learning and confidence
in their ability to be successful in school
Evaluating their own learning and planning how to become
more effective and independent learners.
SIOP: SHELTERED INSTRUCTION
What Is the SIOPModel?
The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Model is a research-based and
validated instructional model that has proven effective in addressing the academic
needs of English learners throughout the United States.
The SIOP Model consists of eight interrelated components:
Review & Assessment
Using instructional strategies connected to each of these components, teachers are
able to design and deliver lessons that address the academic and linguistic needs of
Periodically a high
school ESL teacher
asks each student to
complete the following
checklist as a se lf-
asse ssm e nt tool.
Yes or No:
_____ I look for word patterns
in a sentence to help me read
and understand it.
____ I use note taking and
flashcards to reinforce new
language and vocabulary I
____ I make word
associations when learning
new language and vocabulary.
____ I use visualization to
help me remember new
Select the best answer:
The primary purpose of the checklist is to help
a. Become effective at determining their own
b. Develop strategies for overcoming
misunderstandings when communicating
c. Compensate for gaps in their current language
knowledge and skills.
d. Use various cognitive strategies for internalizing
When planning lessons or activities for Samira,
a new student in Ms. Lynn’s class, Ms. Lynn
takes Samira’s reluctance to speak with others
into consideration and se ts an instructio nal
g o alto incre ase he r o ral-lang uag e pro ficie ncy
through self-initiated interactions with
Which of the following should Ms. Lynn incorporate
to best help Samira at her curre nt le ve lo f o ral-
lang uag e pro ficie ncy?
A. Concept attainment model
B. Cognitive Academic Language Learning
C. Reciprocal teaching strategy
D. Total Physical Response (TPR)
Domain II: Competency 003
The ESL teacher understands ESL teaching methods and uses
this knowledge to plan and implement effective,
developmentally appropriate instruction.
A.Knows TEKS and ELPS and how to design and implement
B.Knows effective instruction methods and selects/uses
instructional methods and resources appropriate for instructional
C.Applies knowledge of effective practices, resources, and
D.Knows how to integrate technological tools
E.Applies effective classroom management and teaching
A high school ESL teacher is working with a class of
beginning-level ELLs. The teacher asks one student to
stand up, then asks another to pick up a pencil. The
teacher involves each of the students a different points
during the activity. According to proponents of To tal
PhysicalRe spo nse (TPR), the activity helps students
develop English language skills primarily because it…
a.Encourages them to use English within authentic contexts
b.Allows them to discover a wide range of concepts and rules related to
c.Prompts them to use English to accomplish different goals
d.Helps them to develop kinesthetic connections to various English
words and phrases.
The ESL teacher understands how to promote
students’ communicative language development in
a.Knows TEKS, ELPS, and PLDs
b.Understands the role of the linguistic environment and
conversational support and uses this to provide a rich,
comprehensible language environment.
c.Applies knowledge of practices, resources, and materials…
d.Understands interrelatedness of listening, speaking, reading and
e.Applies knowledge of effective strategies related to transfer skills
f.Applies knowledge of individual differences (developmental,
cultural, academic, learning styles) to select targeted and
g.Knows how to provide appropriate feedback
The nature of language
2 major factors that make acquiring CALP more
Literacy development in L1
Reading achievement in L2 is more dependent on
reading achievement in L1 than it is on the student’s
level of L2 oral proficiency.
**Important to note for Language Transfer
For ELLs to master CALP, they need ample
opportunities to orally practice the language.
ELL Students need:
Engagement in activities and strategies that
enable them to –
Which of the following best explains why ELLs need
to receive direct instruction in the use of nonverbal
elements of English?
a.The meanings of gestures and body language vary from
culture to culture
b.People need explicit instruction in nonverbal
communication because they lack instinctive
c.Cultures associated with English tend to have more
taboos related to the body than other cultures
d.Nonverbal gestures only have meaning when they are
connected to specific phrases in the oral language
The ESL teacher understands how to promote students’
literacy development in English
a.Knows TEKS and ELPS and how to use them to create
meaningful lesson plans
b.Understands the interrelatedness of listening, speaking, reading,
c.Understands that English is an alphabetic language and applies
strategies for developing ESL students’ phonological knowledge
and skills and sight word vocabularies.
d.Knows factors that affect ESL students' reading comprehension
(e.g. vocabulary, text structures, cultural references)
e. applies knowledge of effective strategies
f.Applies knowledge of individual differences
g.Knows personal factors that affect ESL students' English literacy
development (e.g. interrupted schooling, literacy in L1)
Transfer and Interference
Universal Grammar – Natural languages have the
same basic underlying grammar, but “surface
Transfer – When the surface features of two
languages are the same in structure, you have
Interference – also known as “negative transfer”.
Sometimes word order and/or other structural
elements are so different between the L1 and L2
that problems arise when translating from the L1.
Common areas of interference
Syntax – the patterns into which words can be validly arranged to form sentences.
Ex:“Il fait chaud” may transfer to “It has hot”, rather than “It is hot”.
Homophones – words that sound alike but are spelled differently and have different
meanings. Ex: read/reed
Homographs – words that are spelled the same but have a different pronunciation and
• Figurative language - speech or writing that departs from literal meaning in order to achieve a
special effect or meaning.
Ex: similes, metaphors, personification, idioms, etc.
• Idioms – expressions that cannot be understood from the combined meanings of the words that
form them. Idioms are usually distinctive to a particular language.
A chip on your shoulder
Break a leg
Change of heart
Stick in the mud
To minimize the impact of
Monitor student output and look for patterns of
Target your instruction to common areas of
Teach with kinesthetic symbols
Chants or songs
What cognitive processes help encode
new information into our brains?
T-P-S: What activities can be used to facilitate language
acquisition using these cognitive processes?
For example, for Metacognition, the students
Reflect on learning by using a Learning Log
Write in journals about the learning topic
Which of the following strategies would be
most effective in helping intermediate and
advanced ELLs improve their reading fluency?
a.Providing frequent opportunities for students to read and
reread texts written at their independent reading levels
b.Expanding students’ vocabulary knowledge by assigning
challenging texts at and beyond their instructional reading levels
c.Encouraging students to use various comprehension
strategies, such as self-monitoring, predicting and questioning.
d.Administering timed reading tests to students monthly to
motivate them to read more quickly and accurately.
The ESL teacher understands how to promote
students’ content-area learning, academic language
development and achievement across the curriculum.
A.Applies knowledge of effective practices, resources and materials
that is linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and
scaffolded) to the student’s levels of English-language proficiency
B.Knows instructional delivery practices that are effective in facilitating
ESL students’ application of various learning strategies (e.g.
preteaching key vocabulary, using metacognition, using hands-on
activities, using realia, media, and graphic organizers) across content
C.Applies knowledge of individual differences
D.Knows personal factors that affect ESL students’ content-area
learning (prior learning experiences, familiarity with specialized
language and vocabulary)
Mr. Gregory, a history teacher, notices withing the first two
weeks of school that Lana is struggling with history content.
When reviewing Lana’s prior school records. Mr. Gregory learns
that Lana exited the ESL program the previous year at her
former school. He decides to meet with the Language
Proficiency Assessment Committee (LPAC) to discuss Lana’s
status and performance in school. During the LPAC meeting,
Mr. Gregory learns more about Lana’s schooling and is able to
discuss her performance in his class with the committee. After
discussing Lana’s performance, the committee sets an objective
to follow established LPAC guidelines to help Lana.
Mr. Gregory can best support Lana’s English-
language acquisition and content understanding by
A. extending the due dates on Lana’s content assignments
B. Implementing the use of a variety of content-specific textbooks
in Lana’s native language.
C. administering an assessment to determine Lana’s current level
of content academic language.
D. Implementing strategies to make content comprehensible for
To most appropriately accommodate beginning-
level ELLs in a reduced context vocabulary learning
station, the teacher should:
A. Incorporate additional words cards with sight work
B. Model how to manipulate the words cards.
C. Include corresponding illustrations on the word cards.
D. Allow nonparticipation.
The ESL teacher understands formal and informal
assessment procedures and instruments used in ESL
programs and uses assessment results to plan and
a.Knows basic concepts, issues and practices related to test design,
development and interpretation and uses this knowledge to select, adapt and
b.Applies knowledge of formal and informal assessments used in the ELS
c.Knows standardized tests commonly used in ESL programs in Texas and
knows how to interpret results
d.Knows state-mandate LEP policies, including the role of the LPAC
e.Understands relationships among state-mandated standards, instruction and
f.Knows how to use ongoing assessment to plan and adjust instruction that
addresses individual student needs
Testing used to
identify, classify, and monitor
Pre-K – Grade 1 – Oral Language Proficiency
Test (OLPT) approved by TEA
Grades 2-12 – OLPT and the ELA sections
from a TEA approved norm-referenced test, or
another test approved by the TEA
Must be tested within 20 days of enrollment
into a school
TELPAS: Listening, Speaking, Reading
HLS: Home Language Survey
First step in student classification
Every new student upon enrollment
– must be signed by parent/guardian
9-12 – student must sign
“What language is spoken in your home most of the
“What language does your child speak most of the
LPAC: Language Proficiency
A committee made up of school administration,
teachers (ESL, Bilingual, and/or General Ed), and a
parent of a LEP student
Must meet within 20 days of enrollment of a LEP
Prior to STAAR or other state mandated testing,
must determine the appropriate assessment option
for each ELL
Monitors progress of each student who’s exited
from a program for 2 years after exiting
The LPAC’s responsibilities:
Beginning and ending of school year, LPAC:
Designates the language proficiency level of each
ELL (OLPTs and ELA norm-referenced tests)
Designates the level of academic achievement of
Designates, with parent approval* , the initial
instruction placement of ELLs
Facilitates the participation of ELLs in other special
programs if eligible
Classifies students as English proficient and
*If a parent denies services, no matter what the HLS
or testing criteria shows, the school cannot offer
services to the ELL student.
Back to Mr. Gregory’s class:
Mr. Gregory, a history teacher, notices within the
first two weeks of school that Lana is struggling
with history content. When reviewing Lana’s prior
school records, Mr. Gregory learns that Lana
exited the ESL program the previous year at her
former school. He decides to meet with the
Language Proficiency Assessment Committee
(LPAC) to discuss Lana’s status and performance
in school. During the LPAC meeting, Mr. Gregory
learns more about Lana’s schooling and is able to
discuss her performance in his class with the
committee. After discussing Lana’s performance,
the committee sets an objective to follow
established LPAC guidelines to help Lana.
Which of the following best meets
the LPAC’s objective?
a. Lana’s progress will be monitored for the next
b. Mr. Gregory will meet with Lana’s parents
c. Lana will be placed in ESL classes for the
next two years
d. Mr. Gregory will administer an oral language
assessment in Lana’s native language
Domain III: Competency 008
The ESL teacher understands the foundations of
ESL education and types of ESL programs.
a.Knows the historical, theoretical, and policy foundations
of ESL education
b.Knows types of ESL programs (e.g. Self-contained, pull-
out, newcomer centers, dual language, immersion)
c.Applies knowledge of various types of ESL programs to
make appropriate instructional and management
d.Applies knowledge of research findings related to ESL
education, including research on instructional and
management practices in ESL programs, to assist in
planning and implementing effective ESL programs.
Chapter 89 : Texas Law
“ It is the policy of the state that everystudent inthestatewho has ahome
languageotherthanEnglishandwho is identifiedas anEnglishlanguage
learnershall beprovidedafull opportunityto participateinabilingual
educationorEnglishas asecondlanguage(ESL) program, as required in the
Texas Education Code (TEC), Chapter 29, Subchapter B. To ensure equal
educational opportunity, as required in the TEC, §1.002(a), each school
(1) identify English language learners based on criteria established by the
(2) provide bilingual education and ESL programs, as integral parts of the
regular program as described in the TEC, §4.002;
(3) seekcertified teaching personnel to ensure that English language
learners are afforded full opportunity to master the essential knowledge and
skills required by the state; and
(4) assess achievement for essential knowledge and skills in accordance
with the TEC, Chapter 39, to ensure accountability for English language
learners and the schools that serve them.”
1920s-60s – sink or swim, “submersion”
1968 – The Bilingual Education Act, Title VII of
the Elementary and Secondary Education Act
of 1968 – established federal policy for
bilingual education for economically
disadvantage language minority students
Significant laws to know
1974 – Lau v. Nichols – ide nticaleducation
does not constitute e q ualeducation under the
Civil Rights Act
1981 – Castaneda v. Pickard – “Castaneda
1982 – Plyler v. Doe – Supreme Court denies
the state’s right to exclude children of illegal
immigrants from public schools
1983, 88, 94 – Amendments to Title VII
Sheltered Instruction: an approach for teaching
content to English language learners (ELLs) in
strategic ways that make the subject matter concepts
comprehensible while promoting the students' English
language development. (Echevarria, J., Vogt M.-E., & Short, D., 2000.
Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners—The SIOP Model,
Allyn and Bacon, p. 1)
If there are 20+ ELLs in the same grade level
district-wide, the district is required to offer a
bilingual education programfor Pre-K –
Grade 5 (including 6th
when the school has a 6th
Any district not required to offer a bilingual
program shall offer an ESL program
regardless of students’ grade levels, home
language, and number of such students.
Which of the following best characterizes the
education of language minority students in the
U.S. be fo re WWII?
a.There was no concerted effort to assist ELLs in school
b.ESL programs were common in larger urban school
c.Students who did not speak English could be legally
prevented from registering for school
d.The majority of ELLs with limited English proficiency
attended bilingual parochial schools.
A school district has six elementary schools, all of which
enroll a large number of ESL students who come from
more than twe nty diffe re nt co untrie s . Which of the
following is the most appropriate program model for the
a.Pull-out ESL classes
A Texas high school has a program that integrate ESL
instruction with academic instruction. The focus of the
program is for students to learn English as a second
language and use it as a medium to learn other
academic subjects. In the program, a full-tim e te ache r
pro vide s supple m e ntary instructio n fo r allacade m ic
subje cts. Based on the characteristics, the program can
best be described as
The ESL teacher understands factors that affect ESL students’
learning and implements strategies for creating an effective
multicultural and multilingual learning environment.
a.Understands cultural and linguistic diversity in the ESL
classroom and understands other factors that may affect
students’ learning of academic content
b.Knows how to create an effective multicultural and multilingual
learning environment that addresses the affective, linguistic, and
cognitive needs of the ESL students
c.Demonstrates sensitivity to students’ diverse cultural and
socioeconomic backgrounds and shows respect for language
d.Applies strategies for creating among students an awareness
of and respect for linguistic and cultural diversity.
• Social/emotional factors affect L2 acquisition
• A low affective filter helps a student to make
progress when acquiring L2
• Low anxiety, high motivation, and self-
confidence are ideal.
Brainstorm: Make a list of possible Social &Brainstorm: Make a list of possible Social &
Emotional Factors an ELL may experience in theEmotional Factors an ELL may experience in the
Reducing Affective Filter
*Elicit student performance only at the appropriate level and when
the student is ready
*Avoid error correction; focus on message vs. form
*Increase wait time – allow for silent period
*Allow for ample rehearsal time before performing in front of others
*Maintain a friendly, comfortable environment
*Create consistent routines within the classroom
*Incorporate students’ native culture and history in activities
*Challenge students while providing appropriate support
*Explicitly teach native and non-native English speakers about
What are some ways you will create an
effective multicultural and multilingual
environment in your classroom?
A teacher replies to an incorrect response from an ELL
by re co g nizing the stude nt’s e ffo rt thro ug h po sitive
re info rce m e nt. By recognizing the student’s effort, the
teacher is demonstrating an understanding of which of
a.Enhancing linguistic development
b.Incorporating various learning modalities
c.Promoting cognitive development
d.Lowering the affective filter
An ESL teacher works in a middle school with a diverse student
population. In addition to providing ELLs with language and content
instruction, the te ache r he lps stude nts le arn ho w to articulate the ir
fe e ling s, pro vide d the m with practice in taking the pe rspe ctive o f
o the rs and e nco urag e s the e xpre ssio n o f dive rse po ints o f vie w. The
practices are primarily effective in:
a.Recognizing and responding to the linguistic diversity of the students
b.Promoting students’ academic achievement
c.Reducing student conflicts that result from cultural and other
d.Resolving students’ cultural identity crises
The ESL teacher knows how to serve as an
advocate for ESL students and facilitate family and
community involvement in their education.
a.Applies knowledge of effective strategies advocating
educational and social equity for ESL students
b.Understands the importance of family involvement in the
education of ESL students and knows how to facilitate
c.Applies skills for communicating and collaborating effectively
d.Knows how community members and resources can positively
affect student learning and is able to access community
resources to enhance education
An ESL teacher provides training to content-area
teachers on ways to sim plify o ne ’s lang uag e whe n
talking to ELLs. The training will primarily reinforce
the importance of which of the following for the
a.Collaborating with other teachers of ELLs
b.Facilitating parental involvement in students’ education
c.Incorporating community resources within an ESL classroom
d.Implementing ESL strategies within the classroom
Building the Four Skills
*Integration is key!
The order of achieving
Integration is good
Being read to/books
visuals, hands on
Listening for main
Fairly high context,
visuals, hands on
Beginner Intermediate Adv/Adv High
Listens for details
Integrated with writing
Provide graphic organizers
Can you think of 5-10 key vocabulary terms
from a content area you would like to teach
that you could teach using TPR?
Beginner Intermediate Adv/Adv High
Describe to your neighbor what’s
happening in this picture.
Single words or
Picture books in
English or in L1
texts to build
Beginner Intermediate Adv/Adv High
Intensive reading activity*
High interest magazines,
Re-reading familiar texts
Intensive Reading Activity
Fences – by Pat Mora
Fold your index card in half and number each of the four sections,
I’ll read the poem one time.
On the first section of your card, write down your initial thoughts or
reactions to the poem.
I’ll read the poem again.
On the second section of your card, write down any emotions you
felt or you think the author feels.
I’ll read the poem a third time.
On the third section of your card, write down any words or phrases
you recall from the poem.
On the fourth section of your card, write down your final thought or
reactions to the poem.
Journals in L1
Fill in the blank
Beginner Intermediate Adv/Adv High
(reading to the wall,
PVC pipe phones)
Note taking by
Revisit RAN Chart
Take 2 more stickies.
On 1st sticky, write down at least 1 piece of
“New Information” you learned.
sticky, write down at least 1
“Wondering/Question” you still have.
Share new insights with partner.
Actual test taking tips:
Think “perfect world”.
Locate key words or concepts in the question
Eliminate those answers you know are wrong.
Know “buzz” words in education; they are
often used in the correct answers.
Pay attention to absolutes which are often
used in wrong answers.