Animating Science Education
Dr Jocelyn Wishart, Graduate School of Education
Teacher Educator
This presentation is about h...
2
20 September 2013Introduction
It is now relatively quick and easy to create a short stop-motion animation in a science
t...
3
20 September 2013What do we already know?
Using models is common in teaching science concepts, Harrison and Treagust (20...
4
20 September 2013Research questions
About learning:
• Which activities within the process of creating stop motion animat...
Study One 5
20 September 2013Participants
Participants were recruited through contacting teachers known to be interested
i...
6
20 September 2013Methods Used
Each teacher chose to manage the lesson or sequence of lessons on animation
slightly diffe...
7
20 September 2013What happened
Grade Four pupils spent the morning making animations to show how filters and
sieves work...
8
20 September 2013What happened
The Grade 12 teacher worked within a single 100 minute double lesson with a
smaller class...
9
20 September 2013Findings
Learning activity
Median Enjoyment
Score (max 7)
N
Seeing other's animations 7 59
Making, mode...
10
20 September 2013Findings
Learning Activity Median Helps
Understanding
Score (max 7)
N
Talking during task 6 50
Discuss...
11
20 September 2013What did the teachers say?
The teachers were concerned primarily with the students’ capability to use
...
12
20 September 2013What happened
Making animations as a means of teaching and learning was introduced in three
universiti...
13
20 September 2013Participants
Secondary science teacher trainees from two universities
• for video during making at uni...
14
20 September 2013Methods Used
Qualitative data to give a rich picture of the student teachers’ learning was
captured th...
15
20 September 2013Findings
From the PGCE student survey (n=13) (they were asked to give up to 5 words to
describe the ac...
16
20 September 2013Findings
From thematic analysis of ITE student video recordings using nVivo
4 students, 25
minutes
Dis...
17
20 September 2013Findings
From thematic analysis of ITE student video recordings using nVivo
2 students, 20
minutes
3 s...
18
20 September 2013Findings
Detail from thematic analysis of ITE student video recordings using nVivo
Thinking as a teach...
19
20 September 2013Findings
Benefits of making animations reported by ITE students in post-project interview
(n=6)
Freq
A...
20
20 September 2013Findings
Issues with making animations reported by more than one ITE student in post-
project intervie...
21
20 September 2013Conclusions
Making animations in learning science is enjoyed by nearly all. It aids
understanding and ...
22
20 September 2013Recommendations
Recommendations from participants focused mainly on preparation including
• trial maki...
23
20 September 2013Teaching resources
Guidance for ITE students and teachers in teaching science through creating
animati...
24
20 September 2013Where next?
This is an interactive session:
What would you like to know more about?
Other suggestions ...
25
20 September 2013Bibliography
Ainsworth, S. (2008). How do animations influence learning? In D. Robinson & G. Schraw
(E...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Stemx13 Animating Science presentation J_Wishart

202 views
171 views

Published on

Teaching and learning science by making stop-motion animations of science concepts and processes

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
202
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Stemx13 Animating Science presentation J_Wishart

  1. 1. Animating Science Education Dr Jocelyn Wishart, Graduate School of Education Teacher Educator This presentation is about how making stop motion animations as a way of teaching science processes like waves, diffusion, life cycles, evaporation, transfer of momentum, bonding, enzyme action etc. supports learning Here are some examples https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QI7o73mZObo
  2. 2. 2 20 September 2013Introduction It is now relatively quick and easy to create a short stop-motion animation in a science teaching session using a digital or mobile phone camera, Plasticine or card, laptops and freely downloadable software (iMotion, Windows Moviemaker). Teachers and lecturers in different countries are seizing on the learning opportunities offered by having students animate a science process yet there has been little research into how and why this engaging activity supports learning. Today I am reporting results from two projects: • observing the impact of teaching though animation with school students of different ages • working with initial teacher trainees (both primary and secondary) to explore exactly how creating animations can be used to teach about and reinforce understanding of science processes.
  3. 3. 3 20 September 2013What do we already know? Using models is common in teaching science concepts, Harrison and Treagust (2000) even wrote up a typology of the many kinds found. However, animation is much more than a single model as it comprises a dynamic, visual and kinaesthetic multi- stage modelling process. Indeed Hoban and Nielsen (2013) consider all the different stages in creating an animation to be important to learning. They speculate that each stage explores the same concept but in different ways with meaning building from one representation to the next to promote learning. Also making animations is certainly engaging, as Hoban, Loughran and Neilsen (2011) observed in both graduate student teachers and their primary school pupils. However Ainsworth (2008) notes that animations themselves can detract from, as well as, engender learning which reinforces Sutherland et al (2004)’s point that the role played by the teacher in creating a culture for learning when employing technology based activities is critical.
  4. 4. 4 20 September 2013Research questions About learning: • Which activities within the process of creating stop motion animations and which properties of the resulting animations promote effective learning? And about teaching: • How can learning activities involving stop-motion animations be effectively deployed in teaching science at different levels? • What issues in using digital and mobile phone cameras in schools and universities do teachers need to engage with and what information do they need?
  5. 5. Study One 5 20 September 2013Participants Participants were recruited through contacting teachers known to be interested in research opportunities and eventually comprised students from four of their classes • grade 4 (25 students) • grade 8 (26 students) • grade 11 (25 students) • grade 12 (9 students)
  6. 6. 6 20 September 2013Methods Used Each teacher chose to manage the lesson or sequence of lessons on animation slightly differently however, in every case it was presented to the pupils as a way of consolidating their learning on the current science topics. Each lesson was followed by a questionnaire survey that asked students to rate the different experiences during creating animations on a seven point scale (where 1 represented not at all and 7 represented very, very much) once for enjoyment and once for support with understanding the science. The participating teachers were then interviewed using deliberately more open questions that addressed the necessary preparation, the teachers’ perceptions of learning that took place and any concerns they had about teaching in this way. Study One
  7. 7. 7 20 September 2013What happened Grade Four pupils spent the morning making animations to show how filters and sieves work. They started by storyboarding their animations and then worked in groups of 3 and 4 to create them using Powerpoint with one image per slide. Finally, the teacher showed the class their work on the data projector. The Grade Eight teacher took a much more open approach, the class had been asked to prepare ideas for creating an animation on the respiratory and/or circulatory systems. Students, working in pairs, then chose from Powerpoint, Serif Draw Plus and Pivot. All animations were completed, this time in 60 minutes, and emailed to the teacher. They were not shown to the class. There was much more time available to the Grade 11 teacher who devoted six lessons to students creating animated stories with narrations showing their understanding of a Physics topic of their choice. Student worked in groups using Plasticine, digital cameras and Moviemaker. With more time models made by this class were much more detailed and several incorporated human characters and were well received at the playback session. Study One
  8. 8. 8 20 September 2013What happened The Grade 12 teacher worked within a single 100 minute double lesson with a smaller class using Flip video cameras (1 camera to 3 students) to make animations to demonstrate the biological structures and physical processes that enabled transport of proteins, sugars and fluids across animal cell membranes. Again they were expected to research and write a short commentary to accompany their video. Ten minutes before the end of the lesson the animations were shown to the whole class via a data projector and used for both discussion of biological functions and pointing out misconceptions. Study One
  9. 9. 9 20 September 2013Findings Learning activity Median Enjoyment Score (max 7) N Seeing other's animations 7 59 Making, modelling and/or drawing 6 56 Talking during the task 6 52 Seeing finished animation 6 59 Adding sound fx or music 6 18 Taking photos 5.5 51 Adding titles 5.5 40 Storyboarding 5 39 Discussing other's animations 5 29 Ordering images 5 32 Adding a commentary 4.5 8 Researching the topic 4 12 Study One
  10. 10. 10 20 September 2013Findings Learning Activity Median Helps Understanding Score (max 7) N Talking during task 6 50 Discussing other's animations 6 26 Making, modelling and/or drawing 5.5 54 Seeing other's animations 5.5 54 Storyboarding 5 38 Taking photos 5 48 Ordering images 5 30 Adding titles 5 39 Seeing finished animation 5 55 Researching the topic 5 12 Adding sound fx or music 4 18 Adding a commentary 4 8 Study One
  11. 11. 11 20 September 2013What did the teachers say? The teachers were concerned primarily with the students’ capability to use the animation tools: cameras, laptops and software and the necessary preparation. Though all four teachers noted how making animations led to opportunities for questioning whether for assessing students’ science knowledge and understanding or for evaluating their progress. Other strategies noted by the teachers included consolidation through multiple opportunities for learning. One teacher noted the activities matched VAK learning styles. When asked whether ALL the learning activities were important to learning three of the four agreed however, the fourth teacher prioritised the making of the models. Study One
  12. 12. 12 20 September 2013What happened Making animations as a means of teaching and learning was introduced in three universities in a 3 hour teaching session during which student teachers practiced making animations themselves. In one university this was a voluntary session, in the other two it was scheduled as part of their teacher education programme. Students were then asked to report back on any opportunities they had in their subsequent school placements to teach themselves by getting pupils to make animations. Data were collected at opportunity throughout these activities using mixed methods under a pragmatic approach. Study Two
  13. 13. 13 20 September 2013Participants Secondary science teacher trainees from two universities • for video during making at university: Two groups of 3 • for interview following placement: 6 • in survey following placement:2 Primary teacher trainees from a third university • for video during making: Two groups, a pair & a four • in survey following placement: 11 Study Two
  14. 14. 14 20 September 2013Methods Used Qualitative data to give a rich picture of the student teachers’ learning was captured through both video recording and post-placement interview. It was also planned that quantitative data would captured through survey of the student teachers’ pupils however, only one student achieved this. Though a number of them completed a survey themselves. Ethical considerations included ensuring participation was fully informed, voluntary and remaining mindful of the need to prioritise trainee’s work for their ITE programme Study Two
  15. 15. 15 20 September 2013Findings From the PGCE student survey (n=13) (they were asked to give up to 5 words to describe the activity) Study Two
  16. 16. 16 20 September 2013Findings From thematic analysis of ITE student video recordings using nVivo 4 students, 25 minutes Discussion unclear, 8 minutes Study Two
  17. 17. 17 20 September 2013Findings From thematic analysis of ITE student video recordings using nVivo 2 students, 20 minutes 3 students, 53 minutes Study Two
  18. 18. 18 20 September 2013Findings Detail from thematic analysis of ITE student video recordings using nVivo Thinking as a teacher (n=11) Enhancing pupil understanding 6 Preparing to teach through animation 4 Assessing pupil understanding 3 Making animations seen to motivate pupils 2 Issues with time needed for making animations 2 Storyboarding would help pupils plan 1 Considering need for scaffolds according to class ability 1 Debating curriculum level of animation 1 Accessibility of learning through animation 1 Any process can be animated 1 Highlighting possible misconceptions 1 Study Two
  19. 19. 19 20 September 2013Findings Benefits of making animations reported by ITE students in post-project interview (n=6) Freq Aids pupils' understanding 9 Enables teachers to 'see' what pupils know 6 Animation is fun, engaging, enjoyable 6 Aids learning to teach by helping us think about how to explain or show concepts to others 4 Relevant to all age groups 4 Enables pupil creativity 2 Enables science thinking 2 Enables teachers to challenge & interest pupils in science 2 Models how scientists work 1 Enables multiple learning styles 1 Aids active learning 1 Study Two
  20. 20. 20 20 September 2013Findings Issues with making animations reported by more than one ITE student in post- project interview or survey (n=19) Freq Amount of necessary preparation 10 Resources (availability and knowing how to use them) 10 Available time 8 Finding a curriculum subject opportunity 4 Watch the number of photos being taken 3 Watch out for camera shake - tripods? 2 Clear timings 2 Managing other PGCE work 2 Lack of confidence 2 Children's ability (lack of) 2 N.B. 4 students reported no issues, recommending “Just go for it” Study Two
  21. 21. 21 20 September 2013Conclusions Making animations in learning science is enjoyed by nearly all. It aids understanding and memory in a number of ways: • Visual and tangible representation of abstract science concepts • Provision of opportunities to learn in different modes (or styles) • Reinforcement through multiple stages in their production including storyboarding, making, viewing and especially discussing • Enabling teachers to 'see' what pupils know and understand It was particularly useful for ITE students as it enabled them to focus on thinking about how to explain or show concepts to others i.e. their future pupils. As an ITE tutor I found it particularly useful in enabling me to explain science concepts with the primary ITE students who had less specialist subject knowledge than the secondary students.
  22. 22. 22 20 September 2013Recommendations Recommendations from participants focused mainly on preparation including • trial making one yourself • organisation of teaching groups • checking means of image capture and transfer to the software • fix the maximum number of images to be used in the light of time available My advice from the teaching sessions • don’t let plasticine get too cold • avoid carpets • don’t insist on storyboarding first And finally, as several students said , “Just go for it”
  23. 23. 23 20 September 2013Teaching resources Guidance for ITE students and teachers in teaching science through creating animations will be made available before Christmas at http://www.bristol.ac.uk/education/research/sites/animating-science/.
  24. 24. 24 20 September 2013Where next? This is an interactive session: What would you like to know more about? Other suggestions welcome…
  25. 25. 25 20 September 2013Bibliography Ainsworth, S. (2008). How do animations influence learning? In D. Robinson & G. Schraw (Eds.), Current Perspectives on Cognition, Learning, and Instruction: Recent Innovations in Educational Technology that Facilitate Student Learning. pp 37-67. Information Age Publishing. Harrison, A. G., & Treagust, D. F. (2000). A typology of school science models. International Journal of Science Education, 22(9), 1011–1026 Hoban, G., Loughran, J. and Nielsen, W. (2011). Slowmation: Preservice elementary teachers representing science knowledge through creating multimodal digital animations. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48, 985–1009. Hoban, G and Nielsen, W. (2013). Learning Science through Creating a ‘Slowmation’: A case study of preservice primary teachers, International Journal of Science Education, 35 (1), 119-146 Sutherland, R., Armstrong, V., Barnes, S., Brawn, R., Breeze, N., Gall, M., Matthewman, S., Olivero, F. Taylor, A., Triggs, P., Wishart, J. and John P. (2004). Transforming teaching and learning: embedding ICT into everyday classroom practices, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 20, 413-425

×