2011 presentation ozse .2


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  • How to solve this problem, or address it in a responsible way.
  • In this project we set out to see what issues are discussed by ethicists & in ethical literature to get an overview of issues. Then see what technology researchers are saying and what the public is saying: overlap so ethicists are doing the right stuff according to the public but otherway around public/ researchers are not aware of a lot of issues. In this talk zoom in on another thing we experienced, might be obvious, but reflects back to our own methodology.
  • This is what we did and succeeded, presented to EU. And that was that. But haching over these findings we noticed discrepancy between method and actual practise (pointed out earlier in the example): fuzziness of technology, not clear cut distinct techno’s (1).
  • How study this dilemma? 5 stages, first 2 done in ETICA, latter building on findings
  • Whilst discerning technologies we found it difficult to carve out distinct technologies: many overlapping features, difficult to find ‘essential’ features Core technologies This technology implies a view of the world, in which humans require and desire support, are seamlessly connected and have an adaptive environment. To realise this vision, numerous artefacts such as sensors, networks, algorithms etc can be used. The technology does not depend on any one of these to become reality.
  • Source: Forecasting study Sensoring technology, biotechnology, GPS, cloning, Grid, Cloud, smart materials, Hands free interaction, independent robots, Quantum computing, Embedded intelligence Somewhat difficult to classify technologies: brought down to 11: fierce debates: based on characteristic features and
  • When started to look at applications of technologies and literature on that, we noticed mixing of techno’s
  • To tackle the dilemma take into account ‘convergingness’
  • VR: know thuself AI: moral reasoning, autonomous behavior by machine
  • For policy makers etc. higher level: features  categories of issues
  • How to solve this problem, or address it in a responsible way.
  • Starting to formulate an answere
  • You can find a complete overview of the findings of ETICA at our website :ethical analysis per technology, discerning process of technologies etc.
  • How study this dilemma? 5 stages, first 2 done in ETICA, latter building on findings
  • 2011 presentation ozse .2

    1. 1. Job Timmermans (Presenting) Bernd Stahl (De Montfort University UK) Ethics of Emerging Information and Communication Technologies. Converging technologies, converging issues.
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Background: ETICA project </li></ul><ul><li>Findings: technologies / issues </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection on process /findings </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation </li></ul>
    3. 3. Nanotechnology <ul><li>Massive promise to humanity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lab on a chip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doctor in a cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self healing materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Urge to market </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High investments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public backlash </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Huge Uncertainty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior /properties of particles largely unknown </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unclear definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common property=‘smallness’: 0.1nm to 100nm (lin & allhoff) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Convergence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nanotechnology, biotechnology and informatics </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Collingridge dilemma <ul><li>Development stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibility to direct technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethical and social issues unclear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implementation stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibilities to direct decline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues become clear and defined </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(David Collingridge, 1980) </li></ul>
    5. 5. ETICA project <ul><li>Ethical Issues of Emerging ICT Applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Funded by the European Commission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International & Multidisciplinary collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aim: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identify ethical issues arising from ICTs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in the coming 10 to 15 years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Ambient Intelligence, Affective Computing & Cloud Computing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate issues  support addressing issues (government + R&D) </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Aims of the ETICA project <ul><li>Identify emerging ICTs </li></ul><ul><li>Identify ethical issues likely to be raised by those ICTs </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate and rank these issues </li></ul><ul><li>Provide recommendations on appropriate governance structures to address these. </li></ul>
    7. 7. How? <ul><li>Identifying Emerging Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical evaluation per technology </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical research amongst stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Policy implications </li></ul>
    8. 8. Stage 1: Discerning Technologies <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High level system that affects the way humans interact with the world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Core Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Ambient Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining features: embeddedness, invisibility, personalization, adaptivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widely described and researched </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Likely to play a role in the future </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Artificial Intelligence [Korea] Data transfer Technologies [Korea] Data handling technologies Technology implants & Cyborgs Human-computer interaction technologies Cooperative machines, interoperability Locating Technologies [Siemens; USA] Sensor Technology [Siemens; USA] Ambient intelligence Robots and control engineering [Korea] Algorithms Human-like understanding Independent robots In 2020 (wildcard): Very humanlike robots [USA; Korea] Mathematics, logic, philosophy Hardware technology Context- awareness Proactive devices Augmented reality User-friendly interfaces Actuators Moving robot parts Voice generator Technology / Research area Sub domains Specific technologies Example applications, artefacts, and use cases Field of application Users of applications, Other concerned parties, Cultures, Forms of life Topic for technologies GPS, Global Positioning System [USA] Innovative interaction paradigms Very small, unobtrusive sensors Mini-, micro-, nano-sized robots Wireless data Transfer [Korea] Short-range wireless data transfer Bluetooth Infrared RFID “ Brain computer” In 2020 (wildcard): Implants connected straight to brain and nervous system [USA] Wearable ICT Hands-free Interaction [Korea; USA] Data storage technologies Database Systems [Korea] Data foundability Data mining Automatic data analysis Data filtering Data presentation and visualization Data usability Cloud computing Interoperable devices [Siemens] Human language analyzing Picture, video content recognition [Korea] Speech recognition [Korea] Sense of relevance Semantics, ontologies, “ understanding” Sensor Networks [Korea; USA] Movement sensors, Accelometers Pressure sensors Thermographic camera Video camera Machine vision Identification of objects of environment Chemicals detection, toxicometers Military Technology [Korea] Medicine & Health technology [Korea; USA] Home environment and personal life Public spaces and services Transportation Individuals making applications Dangerous tasks for humans [Korea] Security and legality control Factories & Product manufacturing [Korea; Siemens] Office work & Business life Consumer goods business Global information accessibility Sources: [USA] RAND corporation. 2006. The Global Technology Revolution 2020. Bio/Nano/Materials/Information Trends, Drivers, Barriers, and Social Implications. 316 pp. [Korea] Korea. 2000. Vision 2025. Korea’s long-term plan for science and technology development. 178 pp. [Siemens] Pictures of the Future. [WWW]. Available: http://w1.siemens.com/innovation/en/strategie/results_future_study/index.htm . In 2020: Wireless Internet available worldwide to middle and upper Classes [USA] Emerging technologies and their role in the future In 2020: Wearable Computers expanded to control medical devices, appliances, and entertainment Systems [USA] In 2020: Massive databases holding Personal information such as History and log of information viewed or processed, as well as such items as medical records and genomic information [USA] In 2020: Small and inexpensive devices storing massive data such as voice, video, and Web pages [USA] In 2020: Increasingly improved search capabilities to locate not only text phrases but semantic phrases, pictures, and video through both meta representations and exemplars [USA] In 2020: RFID tags to track commercial goods, consumer buying patterns, and even individual movement for security and targeted advertising [USA] In 2020: Small ubiquitous cameras and widespread sensor networks with increasingly small size and unobtrusiveness [USA] In 2020: Hands-free machine interfaces and input devices (e.g. light scanned directly to the retina) [USA] Environment protection [Korea] Digital security Technologies [Korea] In 2010: Reproductive factory system, reusing materials [Korea] In 2010: Robots carrying out tasks in extremely hard environment. E.g. seabed buried site, volcanoes, etc. [Korea] In 2010: Supersonic fighters and 30 cm or shorter micro-unmanned aircraft and low and medium altitude satellites, along with ultraviolet X-ray observation satellites and ultra-mini, artificial satellites that are lighter than 5kg. [Korea] In 2010: Waste water and food waste Management [Korea] In 2010: Nuclear power plants design and construction [Korea] In 2010: Earthquake protection Systems [Korea] In 2010: Geothermal energy use [Korea] Energy production [Korea] Food production technologies [Korea] In 2020: 30% of human brain functions will be understandable. [Korea] In 2020: cancer, AIDS, Alzheimer’s disease, bacterial and viral cures will be developed, along with methods of overcoming the drug tolerance ability of malignant tumours that prevents its spreading, [Korea] In 2030: Space travel and transportation systems [Korea] In 2030: Artificial intelligence chips, which enable computers to understand human feelings In 2030: Computers are able to read information stored in the human brain by using electronic magnetic Information. [Korea] In 2030: A gene controlling human sensitivity is in the brain will be clarified and interfaced directly to a computer. [Korea] Youngsters Children Old people Young adults Middle-aged people Middle class Rich people Poor people Caring sector, doctors, nurses Policemen, Fire workers Low-wage workers Unemployed Salesmen Logistic workers Customer servants Business leaders Politicians, state officials Western countries Far east countries Third world countries Active citizens Social butterflies, Party night-life fanatics Lonely isolated people Computer and Internet freaks Happy elderly people Artists, writers, bohemians Green hippies, activists Researchers, scientists Sports people Journalists, media workers Multimedia and web content development [Korea] Digital content creation Public system Business companies Individuals Social groups Organizations Display technologies Vacuum cleaners exchange information with one another and with other robots on how best to do the work, the location of particular obstacles, or which trash can is to be emptied. [Siemens] Modifiable surroundings: In response to a signal from a wheelchair, the stairs turn into a ramp. [Siemens] Built environment A health-monitoring device in the handle of a walking stick: Sensors attached to the body monitor vital functions. When the person is at risk, a warning signal sounds, and help can be summoned via an SOS button. [Siemens] Data on the sales of a shop will be sent to headquarters on an hourly basis. The data from the warehouse and deliveries will be tracked via satellite. In case of emergency, a coordinator will be brought to assess the various options for dealing with it. [Siemens] Real-time companies: In the future, it will be possible to follow products throughout their entire life cycle. In turn, comprehensive information about all the activities of a company will be available and transferred in real time to relevant persons. [Siemens] The vehicles of the future will not only be equipped with sensors, navigation systems and communications technology but will also autonomously exchange data with other vehicles so as to avoid accidents and traffic congestion. [Siemens] Virtual reality Travellers Simple life, ordinary work On the ball at any time and any place [Siemens] The computer as personal assistant [Siemens] Electronic money and transactions Widespread [Korea; USA] Information technology Biotechnology Biotechnology Biomaterials [Korea] Clone technology DNA and gene Technology [Korea] Identification technologies Fingerprint recognition Iris of eye recognition DNA identification In 2020: Biometrics (e.g. fingerprints, iris scans) widely required for travel, for security access to computers and locations, and, perhaps, for commerce [USA] Applied physics Nano & micro Technologies [Korea; Siemens; USA] Quantum computing Smaller, lighter ICT devices [Korea] MEMS [Korea] Smart materials Semi- and supra-conductivity [Korea] Electronics Printed electronics Battery technology Power transmit technology Research on human Psychology Social psychology Consumer Behaviour [USA] Feelings, Moods [Siemens] Brain functions [Korea] Consciousness Physiology, biological functions Sociology Human-centred view on technology Robot societies Nano-robot “ armies” NFC Much more computing power [Korea; Siemens] Environment for education and training in cyberspace. [Korea] Interpretation telephone (automatic simultaneous interpretation) [Korea] Bio-human computer interface technology [Korea] Image-to-voice transformation Systems [Korea] Human-friendly information processing technology [Korea] Fibre-optic [Korea] Bio-computer [Korea] Encryption Technologies [Korea] Software technology and automatic programming systems will be developed to support the creation, storage, distribution and utilization of information. [Korea] Robots for medical application [Korea] Personal human robot [Korea] Highly efficient zero-emission vehicle [Korea] Fully automated vehicle that doesn’t need any human driver [Korea] Propulsion system as plasma acceleration system and utilization of micro-electro-mechanical systems for next-generation aircrafts. [Korea] Basic and application technologies for sensors that have sensing capability similar to human sensing organs (eyesight, touch, hearing, smell) [Korea] Embedded intelligence Enhanced 3D modelling Technology [Korea] Increased control of individual people.
    10. 10. Grid of analysis
    11. 11. Emerging ICTs, in order of relevance <ul><li>Ambient Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Augmented and virtual reality </li></ul><ul><li>Future Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Robotics / Artificial Intelligence /Affective computing </li></ul>7. Neuroelectronics / Bioelectronics / Human-Machine Symbiosis 10. Cloud Computing 11. Quantum Computing
    12. 12. Emerging Technologies – Shared Features <ul><li>Natural interaction </li></ul>http://www.research.ibm.com/natural/dreamspace/
    13. 13. Emerging Technologies – Shared Features <ul><li>Natural interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Invisibility </li></ul>http://mindsourcer.com/invisible-technology/
    14. 14. Emerging Technologies – Shared Features <ul><li>Natural interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Invisibility </li></ul><ul><li>Direct link </li></ul>http://www.fidis.net/resources/deliverables/hightechid/d122-study-on-emerging-ami-technologies/doc/8/
    15. 15. Emerging Technologies – Shared Features <ul><li>Natural interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Invisibility </li></ul><ul><li>Direct link </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed understanding of the user </li></ul>http://www.passiondownload.com/sa/ADVANCE+SYSTEM+CARE+3.html
    16. 16. Emerging Technologies – Social Impact <ul><li>Natural interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Invisibility </li></ul><ul><li>Direct link </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed understanding of the user </li></ul><ul><li>Pervasiveness </li></ul>http://203crjameshowe.blogspot.com/2008/10/203cr-designing-for-usability-2-studio.html
    17. 17. Emerging Technologies – Social Impact <ul><li>Natural interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Invisibility </li></ul><ul><li>Direct link </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed understanding of the user </li></ul><ul><li>Pervasiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul>http://www.armybase.us/2009/09/micro-robotic-systems-get-personal/
    18. 18. Emerging Technologies – Social Impact <ul><li>Natural interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Invisibility </li></ul><ul><li>Direct link </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed understanding of the user </li></ul><ul><li>Pervasiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Power over the user </li></ul>http://www.logosapologia.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/transhuman.jpg
    19. 19. Emerging Technologies – Shared Features <ul><li>Natural interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Invisibility </li></ul><ul><li>Direct link </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed understanding of the user </li></ul><ul><li>Pervasiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Power over the user </li></ul><ul><li>Market driven </li></ul>http://www.civilsociety.co.uk/finance/news/content/3229/ncvo_misses_out_on_capacitybuilders_ict_funding?topic=&print=1
    20. 20. Converging Technologies <ul><li>synergies between originally separate fields leading to revolutionary innovations and thereby new impacts (Sandberg, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Mutually enabling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AI – Robotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud Computing – Future Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fuzziness in applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Lab on a chip: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud computing / Nanotechnology / AI / Human machine symbioses / Neuroelectronics / Robotics </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Stage 2: Ethical evaluation <ul><li>Ethics of emerging technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identify and articulate ethical issues of technologies that do not yet exist but are likely to emerge (Swierstra & Rip 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Descriptive approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NON normative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empirical research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropological/sociological stance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aim: scholars in computer and information ethics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 journals and 3 conference proceedings in the field of computer and information ethics over the last 7 years, that is, between 2003 and 2010 </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Ethical Issues
    23. 23. Predictable Ethical Issues (examples) <ul><li>Privacy, but: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New types of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New ways of linking data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New quantitities of data </li></ul></ul>http://richardwillisuk.wordpress.com/2009/08/10/labour%E2%80%99s-surveillance-society/
    24. 24. Predictable Ethical Issues (examples) <ul><li>Privacy, but: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New types of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New ways of linking data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New quantitities of data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul>http://www.informationassurancefacts.com/how-to-start-a-career-in-information-assurance
    25. 25. Predictable Ethical Issues (examples) <ul><li>Privacy, but: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New types of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New ways of linking data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New quantitities of data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul>http://smstemplates.net/category/trust-sms/
    26. 26. Predictable Ethical Issues (examples) <ul><li>Privacy, but: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New types of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New ways of linking data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New quantitities of data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Liability </li></ul>http://www.openplanetideas.com/how-can-sony-technology-be-used-to-address-environmental-challenges/inpiration/oil-spill-catastrophe-prevention-/
    27. 27. Predictable Ethical Issues (examples) <ul><li>Privacy, but: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New types of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New ways of linking data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New quantitities of data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Liability </li></ul><ul><li>Digital divides </li></ul>http://www.dividedbytechnology.co.uk/what.html
    28. 28. Less Obvious Ethical Issues (examples) <ul><li>View of humans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Therapy / enhancement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mortality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity </li></ul></ul>http://fhapgood.fastmail.fm/transhumanism01.html
    29. 29. Less Obvious Ethical Issues (examples) <ul><li>View of humans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Therapy / enhancement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mortality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power relationships </li></ul>http://wordpod.wordpress.com/
    30. 30. Less Obvious Ethical Issues (examples) <ul><li>View of humans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Therapy / enhancement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mortality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul>http://www.traffickills.com/blog/?p=287
    31. 31. Less Obvious Ethical Issues (examples) <ul><li>View of humans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Therapy / enhancement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mortality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of society </li></ul><ul><li>Changing cultures </li></ul>http://www.sec-ed.co.uk/cgi-bin/go.pl/article/article.html?uid=36203;type_uid=2
    32. 32. Additional stages <ul><li>Discerning Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical evaluation per technology </li></ul><ul><li>Categorization of ethical issues across technologies </li></ul>
    33. 33. Stage 3: Categorizing issues
    34. 34. Ethical Issues
    35. 35. Categories of issues <ul><li>Perceptions of technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral status of technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human machine relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role of humans </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty of outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual issues </li></ul><ul><li>Social consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual impact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Autonomy <ul><li>Implicated by all technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Different accounts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuroelectronics: overtaking human functions (Bostrom) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AI: requirement machine agency (Floridi) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud: informational self determination (Cavoukian) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual Reality: increased awareness (Rizzo) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AmI: increase human self-governance (Brey) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overlapping & complementing </li></ul>
    37. 37. Human Identity <ul><li>Implicated by 4 of 11 technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Accounts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HMS: Self centeredness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuro: authenticity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robotics: personal integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VR: Escapism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuro: paradox of recovery (deal with new self) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overlapping & complementing </li></ul>
    38. 38. Social consequences: Culture <ul><li>Affective Computing: cultural differences </li></ul><ul><li>AI: Machine agency and cultural differences </li></ul><ul><li>Cloud: privacy across (cultural) borders </li></ul><ul><li>Cloud: cultural imperialism </li></ul>
    39. 39. Convergence of issues <ul><li>Convergence of issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interrelatedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reoccurrence / co-occurance of issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convergence of issues parallel to convergence of technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuzziness of actual applications calls for different approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Current approach: focus on individual technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work from categories/ types of issues across issues attached to specific technologies </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Collingridge dilemma <ul><li>Development stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibility to direct technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethical and social issues unclear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implementation stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibilities to direct decline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues become clear and defined </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(David Collingridge, 1980) </li></ul>
    41. 41. Requirements Possible Answer <ul><li>Convergence of technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interdependencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutually enabling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuzziness of applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compound issues: exacerbation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Convergence of issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interrelatedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reoccurrence / co-occurance of issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Justice to context of issues </li></ul>
    42. 42. Recommendations <ul><li>Further empirical research to test hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Establish an ICT Ethics Observatory </li></ul>http://www.hampsteadscience.ac.uk/astro/observatory.html
    43. 43. Questions? <ul><li>www.etica-project.eu </li></ul>
    44. 44. ETICA Recommendations to policy makers <ul><li>Provide regulatory framework which will support Ethical Impact Assessment for ICTs </li></ul><ul><li>Establish an ICT Ethics Observatory </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a forum for stakeholder involvement </li></ul>http://www.codeman.org/
    45. 45. ETICA findings and FP7 ICT ethics Likely to find Likely to find aspects Unlikely to find A significant proportion of ethical issues of emerging ICTs are not captured by FP7 ICT ethics processes.
    46. 46. Ethics and morality of emerging ICT <ul><li>Huge number of artefacts, application areas, interlinking systems </li></ul><ul><li>Infinity of moral issues / diverging ethical evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>Moral issues are context dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Moral issues will change over time, are impossible to predict comprehensively </li></ul><ul><li>Governance must be flexible and open to change and development </li></ul><ul><li>Required: a combination of ethical procedure and moral guidance </li></ul>
    47. 47. Additional stages <ul><li>Discerning Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical evaluation per technology </li></ul><ul><li>Categorization of ethical issues across technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Convergence of issues within themes </li></ul><ul><li>Technology in practice: convergence of technologies </li></ul>
    48. 48. Current EU way of addressing these issues <ul><li>Based on medical ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not question the principle of intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrates on process (informed consent), ignores product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compliance-oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expressed in check-list </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration on selected substantive issues (e.g. privacy, animals, implants, dual use, developing countries) </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes clear answers </li></ul><ul><li>Ignore context </li></ul><ul><li>Expert-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Legalises ethics </li></ul>