-CYTOKINES IN THE ADAPTIVE
IMMUNE RESPONSE
- ERYTHROPOIETIN AND COLONY
STIMULATING FACTORS
CYTOKINES IN THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE
RESPONSE
• Mainly secreted by T cells
▫ By T helper (Th) cells
• Affect T and B cell func...
• Development of T helper and T regulatory cells
Naiv
e
Naive
Th1
Th2
Treg
IL-12
IL-4
IL-10
IFN-γ
IL-4
IL -10
Cell
mediate...
CYTOKINES IN THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE
RESPONSE
• Th1 cytokines
▫ IL-12
 Produced by dentritic cells in damaged
tissues, macrop...
CYTOKINES IN THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE
RESPONSE
• Th1 cytokines
▫ Activation of Th1 cells
 Induces high-level of expression of ...
CYTOKINES IN THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE
RESPONSE
• Th1 cytokines
▫ IFN-γ
 Stimulates antigen presentation by MHC I and MHC
II mo...
CYTOKINES IN THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE
RESPONSE
• Th1 cytokines
▫ IL-2
 Produced by Th1 cells
 Known as the T-cell growth fact...
CYTOKINES IN THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE
RESPONSE
• Th2 cytokines
▫ IL-4
 Regulates Th2 immune activities and helps drive
antibod...
CYTOKINES IN THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE
RESPONSE
• Th2 cytokines
▫ IL-4
 Induced genes are:
 MHC-I
 IL-5
 IL-13
 Co-stimulat...
CYTOKINES IN THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE
RESPONSE
• Th2 cell
▫ Responsible for regulating many aspects of the
immune response
 Re...
CYTOKINES IN THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE
RESPONSE
• Th2 cytokines
▫ IL-10
 Has anti-inflammatory and suppressive effects on Th1
c...
CYTOKINES IN THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE
RESPONSE
• Cytokines associated with T Regulatory cells
▫ T regulatory cells (Treg)
 CD4...
ERYTHROPOIETIN AND COLONY
STIMULATING FACTORS
▫ Colony stimulating factors
 IL-3, erythropoietin
(EPO), granulocyte, macr...
ERYTHROPOIETIN AND COLONY
STIMULATING FACTORS
▫ IL-3
 Acts on bone marrow stem cells to begin the
differentiation cycle
...
ERYTHROPOIETIN AND COLONY
STIMULATING FACTORS
▫ Macrophage-colony stimulating factors
 If activated, the cells become mac...
ERYTHROPOIETIN AND COLONY
STIMULATING FACTORS
▫ Granulocyte-colony stimulating factors
 Decreases IFN-γ production and In...
ERYTHROPOIETIN AND COLONY
STIMULATING FACTORS
▫ Erythropoietin (EPO)
 Regulates RBC production in the bone marrow
 Prima...
Cytokines in the adaptive immune response
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Cytokines in the adaptive immune response

765
-1

Published on

IMMUNOLOGY
SEROLOGY
CYTOKINES
ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
765
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
59
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Cytokines in the adaptive immune response

  1. 1. -CYTOKINES IN THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE - ERYTHROPOIETIN AND COLONY STIMULATING FACTORS
  2. 2. CYTOKINES IN THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE • Mainly secreted by T cells ▫ By T helper (Th) cells • Affect T and B cell function more directly. • Three main subclasses of T cells  Th 1  Th 2  Treg (T regulatory cells) Each has a specific function and produces a different set of cytokines
  3. 3. • Development of T helper and T regulatory cells Naiv e Naive Th1 Th2 Treg IL-12 IL-4 IL-10 IFN-γ IL-4 IL -10 Cell mediated immunity Antibody mediated immunity Regulate Th1 and Th2 activities
  4. 4. CYTOKINES IN THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE • Th1 cytokines ▫ IL-12  Produced by dentritic cells in damaged tissues, macrophages and B cells.  Causes expression of a new set of genes on naïve T cells which determine its maturation into Th1 cell.  Increases the cytolytic ability of NK cells
  5. 5. CYTOKINES IN THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE • Th1 cytokines ▫ Activation of Th1 cells  Induces high-level of expression of IFN-γ. ▫ IFN γ  Principal molecule produced by Th1 cells  Affects the RNA expression levels of more than 200 genes  Genes involved in regulation and activation by IFN-γ ▫ CD4+ Th1 cells, CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes, Nk cells, bactericidal activities, IL-12 and IL-18R.
  6. 6. CYTOKINES IN THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE • Th1 cytokines ▫ IFN-γ  Stimulates antigen presentation by MHC I and MHC II molecules  Increased expression of MHC class I and II molecules on antigen presenting cells increases the likelihood of antigen capture and involvement of additional lymphocytes.  Enhances immune response  Being a strong stimulator of macrophages which boosts their tumoricidal activity.
  7. 7. CYTOKINES IN THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE • Th1 cytokines ▫ IL-2  Produced by Th1 cells  Known as the T-cell growth factor  Drives the growth and differentiation of both T and B cells  Induces lytic activity in NK cells  Activate proliferation of Th2 cells and helps to generate IgG1 and IgE producing cells.
  8. 8. CYTOKINES IN THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE • Th2 cytokines ▫ IL-4  Regulates Th2 immune activities and helps drive antibody responses in a variety of diseases  Its activity on naïve T cells turns on the genes that generate Th2 cells and turns off the genes that promote Th1 cells.  Production was enhanced by the chemokine MCP-1 which directs the naïve T cells to develop into a Th2 cell.
  9. 9. CYTOKINES IN THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE • Th2 cytokines ▫ IL-4  Induced genes are:  MHC-I  IL-5  IL-13  Co-stimulatory molecules ▫ B7.1 ▫ B7.2  Promotes production of IgG2a and IgE  Along with IL-5, drives the differentiation and activation of eusinophils in both allergic and immune responses and response to parasitic infections
  10. 10. CYTOKINES IN THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE • Th2 cell ▫ Responsible for regulating many aspects of the immune response  Related to allergies  Autoimmune diseases  Fighting off parasites
  11. 11. CYTOKINES IN THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE • Th2 cytokines ▫ IL-10  Has anti-inflammatory and suppressive effects on Th1 cells.  Produced by monocytes, macrophages, CD8+ T cells, and Th2 CD4+ T cells.  Inhibits antigen presentation by macrophages and dendritic cells and stimulate CD8+ T cells.  Induces the production of MHC-II on B cells.  One of the major effects is the inhibition of IFN-γ production via suppression of IL-12 synthesis by accessory cells and the promotion of a Th2 cytokine pattern.
  12. 12. CYTOKINES IN THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE • Cytokines associated with T Regulatory cells ▫ T regulatory cells (Treg)  CD4+ CD25 + T cell that are selected in the thymus.  Play a key role in establishing peripheral tolerance to a wide variety of self antigens, and infectious antigens.  Affect T cell activity through the actions of TGF-β  Induce IL-10 and TGF-β expression in adaptive T regulatory 1 (Tr1) cells in the peripheral circulation
  13. 13. ERYTHROPOIETIN AND COLONY STIMULATING FACTORS ▫ Colony stimulating factors  IL-3, erythropoietin (EPO), granulocyte, macrophage, and granulocyte- macrophage colony stimulating factors.  In response to IL-1, they act on bone marrow cells at the different developmental stages and promote specific colony formation for various cell lineages  IL-3  Multilineage colony stimulating factor  Induces CD34+ bone marrow stem cells to develop into RBCs, platelets, and various types of WBCs.
  14. 14. ERYTHROPOIETIN AND COLONY STIMULATING FACTORS ▫ IL-3  Acts on bone marrow stem cells to begin the differentiation cycle  Alone drives the stem cells into the lymphocyte differentiation pathway. ▫ Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factors (GM-CSF)  Act to drive differentiation toward other white cell types
  15. 15. ERYTHROPOIETIN AND COLONY STIMULATING FACTORS ▫ Macrophage-colony stimulating factors  If activated, the cells become macrophages  Increases phagocytosis, chemotaxis, and additional cytokine production in monocytes and macrophages. ▫ Granulocyte-colony stimulating factors  If activated, the cell become neutrophils  Enhances the function of mature neutrophils and affect the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of all cell types in the neutrophil lineage.
  16. 16. ERYTHROPOIETIN AND COLONY STIMULATING FACTORS ▫ Granulocyte-colony stimulating factors  Decreases IFN-γ production and Increases IL-4 production in T cells  Mobilizes multipotential stem cells from the bone marrow  These stem cells are utilized to repair damaged tissues and create new vasculature
  17. 17. ERYTHROPOIETIN AND COLONY STIMULATING FACTORS ▫ Erythropoietin (EPO)  Regulates RBC production in the bone marrow  Primarily produced in the kidneys  Protein with high carbohydrate content and has a molecular mass of 34 kD  Two structures: EPO-α and EPO-β  EPO-α is often prescribed to improve RBCs counts for individuals with anemia and cancer.
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×