ELSIN 2013
Symposium
Effective use of Assessment for
Learning (AfL) for Improved Learning
and Progress: Challenges for
Edu...
Research Context
Findings based on:
• a study into assessment practices in an
independent school for boys aged 2 ½ to 13
d...
Research Focus
ASSESSMENT for LEARNING

Classroom assessment aimed at
improving learning
“The process of seeking and inter...
Assessment for Learning
Teaching

Part of the teaching
and learning cycle
aimed at
supporting student
learning

Learning
(...
Assessment for Learning
“Any assessment for which the first priority in
its design and practice is to serve the purpose
of...
Effective Classroom Assessment
Embedded in
everyday
practice

Pupils
masters of
their learning

Pupil engagement
and
co-op...
The Essence of Effective AfL Practice
Pupils masters of their
learning

Sharing
learning
intentions

Pupil
engagement
and
...
AfL: Learning Gains
AfL
understanding

AfL
strategies

Gain of
1–2
grades

Improvement in pupils’ learning = 0.4 – 0.7 eff...
Challenges for the Teaching
Profession
• Lack of in-depth understanding of the AfL strategies by
the teaching profession
•...
Disappointment with Poor
Implementation of the AfL Principles
Dylan Wiliam (2012) on 14 years of government
initiative:
Th...
Issues with Implementation
Dylan Wiliam (2012):

The big mistake that Paul Black and I
made was calling that stuff
“assess...
Key Conclusions from my Data
Analysis
Focused Lesson Observation Data: interaction and feedback
Activity

Number of Lesson...
Proportion of Time Spent in Lessons on
Different Interactions
Average proportion of
lesson duration

Focus

Questioning/di...
Lesson Observation Data Summary
• Teacher-led discussion as main form of classroom
interaction
• More time devoted to clas...
Key Conclusions from Lesson
Observations
• Teaching mainly didactic in style
• Teaching focused on activities, rather than...
Book Scrutiny Data
Marking/feedback strategies used:
• Ticks
• Grades or/and marks
• Praise/ego enhancing comments – focus...
Book Scrutiny Outcomes
• Pupils rarely involved in self-assessment or
evaluation
• Little evidence of independent work or ...
Teacher Views and Practice
• “Pupils are programmed to need grades”
• None agreed that comments without grades could be mo...
Pupils’ Views and Comments
All pupils agreed that the most useful feedback for
them was formative guidance: “corrected and...
Pupils: Examples of Useful Feedback
to Future Learning
Eric:
Roman:
Marc:
Jason:

When it tells me what I need to
improve ...
Developing Learning Sustainability:
Challenges for Schools
Crucial Challenge
To develop strategies of working
successfully...
Learning Sustainability
Essential

• Self-regulation
• Self-monitoring

Skills

• Self-evaluation
• Self-assessment

For L...
Pupils’ Involvement in Their Own
Learning
The only kind of learning which significantly
affects behaviour is self-discover...
HE: some specific challenges regarding
assessment
Important to empower students to work with and understand qualifications...
Conclusion: Assessment Practices in
British Schools
Evidence from my study:
• Teachers mainly used assessment for summativ...
Key References
Assessment Reform Group (1999). Assessment for Learning: Beyond the
Black Box. Cambridge: Cambridge Univers...
Dr Joanna Goodman
jg@cromwell-consulting.com
www.cromwell-consulting.com

ELSIN 2013
Goodman, J. (2013). Developing Learni...
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Assessment for Learning: challenges for full implementation

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Elsin 2013 presentation

  1. 1. ELSIN 2013 Symposium Effective use of Assessment for Learning (AfL) for Improved Learning and Progress: Challenges for Educational Institutions Dr Joanna Goodman Cromwell Consulting Ltd. http://cromwell-consulting.com/
  2. 2. Research Context Findings based on: • a study into assessment practices in an independent school for boys aged 2 ½ to 13 during a period of about 6 years • observations of assessment practices during school inspections ELSIN 2013, Dr Joanna Goodman www.cromwell-consulting.com
  3. 3. Research Focus ASSESSMENT for LEARNING Classroom assessment aimed at improving learning “The process of seeking and interpreting evidence for use by learners and their teachers to decide where the learners are in their learning, where they needs to go and how to best get there”. (AGR, 2002) ELSIN 2013, Dr Joanna Goodman www.cromwell-consulting.com
  4. 4. Assessment for Learning Teaching Part of the teaching and learning cycle aimed at supporting student learning Learning (Stobart and Gipps, 1997) ELSIN 2013, Dr Joanna Goodman www.cromwell-consulting.com
  5. 5. Assessment for Learning “Any assessment for which the first priority in its design and practice is to serve the purpose of promoting pupils’ learning.” (Black et al., 2002) ELSIN 2013, Dr Joanna Goodman www.cromwell-consulting.com
  6. 6. Effective Classroom Assessment Embedded in everyday practice Pupils masters of their learning Pupil engagement and co-operative working Selfassessment, peerassessment Promoting learning through active engagement Teacher feedback focused on feeding forward ELSIN 2013, Dr Joanna Goodman www.cromwell-consulting.com
  7. 7. The Essence of Effective AfL Practice Pupils masters of their learning Sharing learning intentions Pupil engagement and co-operative learning ELSIN 2013, Dr Joanna Goodman www.cromwell-consulting.com Long-term learning independence
  8. 8. AfL: Learning Gains AfL understanding AfL strategies Gain of 1–2 grades Improvement in pupils’ learning = 0.4 – 0.7 effect size “Effect size” is the ratio between the average improvement in pupils’ scores and the range of scores for typical groups of pupils on the same tests. Effect size of 0.4 = improvement of 1 – 2 grades in public examinations ELSIN 2013, Dr Joanna Goodman www.cromwell-consulting.com
  9. 9. Challenges for the Teaching Profession • Lack of in-depth understanding of the AfL strategies by the teaching profession • Inconsistency in approach between schools and different departments within the same schools • Inadequate training and poor understanding of what AfL involves • Reluctance to change practice • Satisfaction from own ends of using tried methods • Poor implementation of the AfL principles • Confusion between monitoring progress and changing teaching methods ELSIN 2013, Dr Joanna Goodman www.cromwell-consulting.com
  10. 10. Disappointment with Poor Implementation of the AfL Principles Dylan Wiliam (2012) on 14 years of government initiative: There are very few schools where all the principles of AfL, as I understand them, are being implemented effectively. The problem is that government told schools that it was about monitoring of pupils’ progress; it wasn’t about pupils becoming owners of their learning. ELSIN 2013, Dr Joanna Goodman www.cromwell-consulting.com
  11. 11. Issues with Implementation Dylan Wiliam (2012): The big mistake that Paul Black and I made was calling that stuff “assessment” , he said. Because when you use the word assessment, people think about tests and exams. For me , AfL is about better teaching. ELSIN 2013, Dr Joanna Goodman www.cromwell-consulting.com
  12. 12. Key Conclusions from my Data Analysis Focused Lesson Observation Data: interaction and feedback Activity Number of Lessons Sum. 1 Teacher-led questioning/discussions 17 “No hands up” approach 0 Peer-interaction Group work Peer-assessment 4 2 0 Self-reflection Self-assessment Oral evaluation Formative Focus Explicit learning objectives 2 0 2 Summative activities 14 ELSIN 2013, Dr Joanna Goodman www.cromwell-consulting.com
  13. 13. Proportion of Time Spent in Lessons on Different Interactions Average proportion of lesson duration Focus Questioning/discussion Focus Summative Formative Activity 21% of lesson time Peer-interaction 11% of lesson time Self-evaluation 4% of lesson time Grading, scoring, ranking, percentages, tests with summative outcomes 29% of lesson time 12% ELSIN 2013, Dr Joanna Goodman www.cromwell-consulting.com 29%
  14. 14. Lesson Observation Data Summary • Teacher-led discussion as main form of classroom interaction • More time devoted to class discussion in arts and humanities (average 30 % of lesson time) than in science and mathematics (average 16% of lesson time) • Restricted peer-interaction (in 4 out of 20 observed lessons) • In 14 out of 20 lessons teachers used assessment based on summative practice ELSIN 2013, Dr Joanna Goodman www.cromwell-consulting.com
  15. 15. Key Conclusions from Lesson Observations • Teaching mainly didactic in style • Teaching focused on activities, rather than learning (lack of sharing learning objectives) • Limited peer-interactions • Limited engagement of pupils through self or peer-assessment, or evaluation • Mainly summative practice with focus on grades/marks/scoring/ranking ELSIN 2013, Dr Joanna Goodman www.cromwell-consulting.com
  16. 16. Book Scrutiny Data Marking/feedback strategies used: • Ticks • Grades or/and marks • Praise/ego enhancing comments – focused on person, rather than task • Comments focused on presentational aspects • Grades and comments, e.g. ‘D’ This is not finished • Direct organisational instructions, e.g. Should be in the back of book • Praise, e.g. Well done! • Little guidance on next steps in learning ELSIN 2013, Dr Joanna Goodman www.cromwell-consulting.com
  17. 17. Book Scrutiny Outcomes • Pupils rarely involved in self-assessment or evaluation • Little evidence of independent work or note-taking • Little evidence of extended project work • Over-use of worksheets • Little opportunity to assess pupils’ reasoning • Inconsistence in marking strategies between different subjects ELSIN 2013, Dr Joanna Goodman www.cromwell-consulting.com
  18. 18. Teacher Views and Practice • “Pupils are programmed to need grades” • None agreed that comments without grades could be more useful to future learning and motivation • Some teachers were not able to say if pupils evaluated their work or examples of self-evaluation included: “Achieve a better % mark in assessment” or “Aim for a higher grade in the next test” • Most teachers demonstrated reliance on test and examinations to assess attainment thus confirming the practice of measuring attainment for summative purposes • No evidence of specific target setting focused on tasks ELSIN 2013, Dr Joanna Goodman www.cromwell-consulting.com
  19. 19. Pupils’ Views and Comments All pupils agreed that the most useful feedback for them was formative guidance: “corrected and told us how to be done right”. Teacher Data Pupil Data TENSION ELSIN 2013, Dr Joanna Goodman
  20. 20. Pupils: Examples of Useful Feedback to Future Learning Eric: Roman: Marc: Jason: When it tells me what I need to improve on. Well…, when it tells me how I’ve gone wrong anywhere and where I can improve. That kind of thing. When I know what’s right or wrong. Yes, that’s helpful. It tells you what you have done wrong and why. ELSIN 2013, Dr Joanna Goodman www.cromwell-consulting.com
  21. 21. Developing Learning Sustainability: Challenges for Schools Crucial Challenge To develop strategies of working successfully within the system of high-stake tests, for certification purposes , and developing selfregulated learners through formative practices. ELSIN 2013, Dr Joanna Goodman www.cromwell-consulting.com
  22. 22. Learning Sustainability Essential • Self-regulation • Self-monitoring Skills • Self-evaluation • Self-assessment For Learning Sustainability • Motivation • Learning autonomy ELSIN 2013, Dr Joanna Goodman www.cromwell-consulting.com
  23. 23. Pupils’ Involvement in Their Own Learning The only kind of learning which significantly affects behaviour is self-discovered, selfappropriated learning (Rogers, 1991) Part of being a self-regulated learner is to accept responsibility for learning, just as teachers must take responsibility for creating a context which helps learning (Stobart, 2008) ELSIN 2013, Dr Joanna Goodman www.cromwell-consulting.com
  24. 24. HE: some specific challenges regarding assessment Important to empower students to work with and understand qualifications and grades Removing barriers: the older the students, the less they like self- and peer-assessment To encourage collaborative learning and group presentation (reluctance where roles are ‘fuzzy’) Student expectations: tutor feedback with grade Clarity of communication Cultural change ELSIN 2013, Dr Joanna Goodman www.cromwell-consulting.com
  25. 25. Conclusion: Assessment Practices in British Schools Evidence from my study: • Teachers mainly used assessment for summative and managerial purposes • Lacked in-depth understanding of AfL strategies • Saw little reason to change their practice Evidence as observed by Black et al, 2003 • Teacher feedback to pupils served mainly managerial functions • Teacher tests encouraged rote learning rather than developing understanding ELSIN 2013, Dr Joanna Goodman www.cromwell-consulting.com
  26. 26. Key References Assessment Reform Group (1999). Assessment for Learning: Beyond the Black Box. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Black, P., Harrison, C., Lee, C., Marshall, B., Wiliam, D. (2002). Working inside the Black Box: Assessment for Learning in the Classroom. London: nferNelson. Black, P. and Wiliam, D. (1998). Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment. London: GL Assessment. Goodman, J. (2011). Assessment Practices in an Independent School: The Spirit versus the Letter. London: King’s College London. Rogers, C. (1991). On Becoming a Person. Boston. MA: Houghton Mifflin. Stobart, G. (2008). Testing Times: The uses and abuses of assessment. Oxon: Routledge. ELSIN 2013, Dr Joanna Goodman www.cromwell-consulting.com
  27. 27. Dr Joanna Goodman jg@cromwell-consulting.com www.cromwell-consulting.com ELSIN 2013 Goodman, J. (2013). Developing Learning Sustainability: Focus on Effective Use of Formative Assessment for Developing Learning Autonomy. ELSIN 2013, Dr Joanna Goodman www.cromwell-consulting.com

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