• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
 

Joanna Final Defence

on

  • 317 views

2013.06.25

2013.06.25
It's my BIG day^^

Statistics

Views

Total Views
317
Views on SlideShare
317
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Joanna Final Defence Joanna Final Defence Presentation Transcript

    • 2 Contents 1 2 3 4 5 2
    • 3 INTRODUCTION 3
    • effective communication Important Skill 4 Speaking ability has been regarded as the most important skill and the necessary for effective communication in any language. CHAPTER 1 Background 4English Speaking Anxiety
    • CHAPTER 1 Background Listening Speaking Reading Writing 5
    • CHAPTER 1 Background It has been observed that highly efficacious students are confident about what they can achieve. Set themselves challenges and are committed to achieve them, work harder to avoid failure. (Cheng, 2001) 6
    • Learning Anxiety English Speaking Anxiety 7 CHAPTER 1 Statement of the Problems 7 Numerous studies have found that English speaking anxiety was prompted the most especially for the EFL learners and previous studies also pointed that anxiety was a barrier while learning in a foreign language. (Hung, 2005; Knock, 2010; Li, 2010; Mak, 2011)
    • 8 CHAPTER 1 Statement of the Problems 8 Many researches showed that self-efficacy influenced academic achievement motivation, learning and academic achievement. (Pajares, 1996; Schunk, 1995) The research on students’ self-efficacy and foreign language speaking anxiety is not enough. Self-efficacy Speaking anxiety
    • 9 CHAPTER 1 Purposes of the Study 9 To explore the relationship between students’ self-efficacy and English speaking anxiety 1 To examine the effects of using Spoken Learning Log, reflective journals, self-efficacy evaluation and observe whether students’ English speaking anxiety decreased or not 2 English speaking anxiety Self-efficacy Reflective journals Self-efficacy evaluation Spoken Learning Log
    • CHAPTER 1 Research Questions To what extent do the students experience English speaking anxiety in the English Listening and Speaking Class? 1 Are students’ proficiency levels and English speaking anxiety correlated among English major college students? 2 Will students’ English speaking anxiety be reduced through the activities of spoken learning log and reflective journals? 3 Are there any correlation between English speaking anxiety and learners’ self-efficacy? 4 10
    • CHAPTER 1 Definition of Terms It’s a psychological variable, it occurs when learners speak with unfamiliar language and less self-confidence. 11 (Bookit, 2010) Incorrect pronunciation Word stress Grammar structure
    • CHAPTER 1 Definition of Terms 12 People’s judgment of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances. (Bandura & Schunk, 1981, p. 31) 1 = Good 2 = Fair 3 = Bad (Yilmaz, 2010)
    • CHAPTER 1 Definition of Terms 13 It is a way for students to have critical and analytic thinking for their works in the progress. It shows different aspects and makes everything interconnect. Time Spent Difficulties Evaluation
    • CHAPTER 1 Definition of Terms 14 It is an online teaching and learning system of iLMS which is widely used in many universities in Taiwan. Designated assignments and the related information are all post on it.
    • CHAPTER 1 Example 15
    • 1 6 LITERATURE REVIEW
    • 17 CHAPTER 2 Krashen (1982) Filter influences how well a learner acquires language when absorb with comprehensible input. Highly motivated Strong sense of self Low level of anxiety
    • Horwitz et al. (1986) developed the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS), which has gained widespread popularity in subsequent research studies on anxiety in language learning situations. (Aida, 1994; Chen, 2002; Cheng et al., 1999; Kitano, 2001; Phillips,1992; Saito et al., 1999; Wang & Ding, 2001; Worde, 2003) 18 CHAPTER 2
    • 19 CHAPTER 2 There were three components of foreign language anxiety: (Horwitz et al., 1986 ) Communication Apprehension Test Anxiety Fear of Negative Evaluation
    • 20 CHAPTER 2 Female Students are more effective time management behavior than males, but also experience higher academic stress and anxiety. (Huang, 2005; Misra & Machean, 2000; Ozturk & Gurbuz, 2013)
    • 21 CHAPTER 2 (Cheng, 2009; Liu, 2006; Gai & Yang, 2010; Kao & Craige, 2010) High proficiency level of students have low English speaking anxiety. Low proficiency level of students have high English speaking anxiety. Speaking Anxiety Speaking Anxiety Monica & Maria (2008) Advanced students showed higher level of speaking anxiety.
    • Self-efficacy are closely related to language anxiety since students with stronger self-efficacy showed lower levels of language anxiety and better language proficiency compared to lower self-efficacy students. (Mills, Pajares, & Herron, 2006) 22 CHAPTER 2 Self- efficacy Anxiety
    • 2 3 METHODOLOGY
    • 93 English-major sophomore students enrolled in English Listening and Speaking class 78 females 15 males24 CHAPTER 3
    • Self-efficacy evaluation Reflective Journal Spoken Learning Log 25 CHAPTER 3 FLSAS • Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety Scale • 24-item • Adapted from Young (1990) and modified by Huang (2005). • Two Video Clips • Two Self-reflective Journals Writing • Self-evaluation • (Poor, Fair, Good) • 100-word writing • Post on Spoken Learning Log
    • 26 CHAPTER 3 Participants 33 participants 4 males 29 females English major s sollege students In Spring Semester of 2011 Instrument Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety Scale (FLSAS) Reliability Cronbach’s Alpha was 0.838
    • 27 CHAPTER 3 Pilot Study • 33 English-major students • Spring, 2011 • FLSAS (Cronbach Alpha was 0.838) • English Listening and Speaking Class Formal Study • 93 English-major students • Fall, 2011 • FLSAS • English Listening and Speaking Class Phase I (Pre-test) • 93 English-major students • September, 2011 • FLSAS (Pre-test) Phase II (Treatments) • Spoken Learning Log • Reflective Journals • Self-efficacy evaluation Phase III (Post-test) • 93 English-major students • January, 2012 • FLSAS (Post-test)
    • To what extent do the students experience English speaking anxiety in the English Listening and Speaking Class? 28 CHAPTER 3 Descriptive Statistics Analysis Question 1 Are students’ proficiency levels and English speaking anxiety correlated among English major college students? Question 2 • Descriptive Statistics Analysis • Pearson Correlation
    • Will students’ English speaking anxiety be reduced through the activities of spoken learning log and reflective journals? 29 CHAPTER 3 Paired Sample t-test Question 3 Are there any correlation between English speaking anxiety and learners’ self-efficacy? Question 4 • Descriptive Statistics Analysis • T-test • Pearson Correlation
    • 3 0 RESULTS
    • No. Items P / N 1 I would feel anxious while speaking English in class. 2 I would feel less nervous about speaking in English in front of others if I knew them. 3 I feel very relaxed in English Listening and Speaking class when I have studied the scheduled learning contents. 4 I am anxious in class when I am the only person answering the question advanced by teacher in English Listening and Speaking class. 5 I start to panic when I know I will be graded in English Listening and Speaking class. 6 I fear giving a wrong answer while answering questions in English Listening and Speaking class. 7 I enjoy English Listening and Speaking class when I know that we are going to discuss in English. 8 I feel shy when I speak in English on the stage in front of the class. 9 When it comes to being corrected by my teacher, I am afraid of taking English class. 31 CHAPTER 4
    • No. Items P / N 10 I am so nervous that I tremble when I am going to attend the English oral tests. 11 I get frustrated when I am asked to discuss with classmates in English in a short period of time. 12 I am worried about the oral test in English Listening and Speaking class. 13 I would feel better about speaking in English if the class were smaller. 14 I feel relaxed in English Listening and Speaking class when I preview very well. 15 I am more willing to speak in English Listening and Speaking class when I know the scheduled oral activities. 16 I stumble when I answer questions in English. 17 I like going to class when I know that oral tasks are going to be performed. 18 I know that everyone makes mistakes while speaking in English, so I am not afraid of being laughed at by others. 19 I like to volunteer answers in English Listening and Speaking class. 32 CHAPTER 4
    • No. Items P / N 20 I am more willing to get involved in class when the topics are interesting. 21 I don’t feel tense in oral test if I get more practice speaking in class. 22 I feel uncomfortable when my teacher asks other students to correct my oral practice in class 23 I feel pressure when my teacher corrects my oral mistakes in class. 24 Going to English Listening and Speaking class makes me more nervous than going to other classes. 33 CHAPTER 4 Item 2, 3, 7, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20 and 21 are opposite statements. Therefore the score was reversed.
    • 34 CHAPTER 4 Measure No. of Items Min Max Mean SD FLSAS Pre-test (N=93) 24 32.00 95.00 70.55 11.42 Descriptive Statistic Analysis of the English Speaking Anxiety for Pre-test Descriptive Statistic Analysis of the English Speaking Anxiety for Post-test Measure No. of Items Min Max Mean SD FLSAS Pre-test (N=93) 24 28.00 95.00 70.80 10.05 The mean scores of pre- and post-test revealed that students suffered highly English speaking anxiety in the English Listening and Speaking Class.
    • 35 Question 1 To what extent do the students experience English speaking anxiety in the English Listening and Speaking Class? 60 / 64.5 % 57 / 61.3 % 49 / 52.7 % 48 / 48.4 %
    • 36 Question 1 To what extent do the students experience English speaking anxiety in the English Listening and Speaking Class? 50 / 52.7 % 47 / 49.4 % 44 / 46.3 % 39 / 41.1 %
    • 37 Question 1 Summary of Research Question 1 Item 8 I feel shy when I speak in English on the stage in front of the class. Item 10 I am so nervous that I tremble when I am going to attend the English oral tests. Item 24 Going to English Listening and Speaking class makes me more nervous than going to other classes. Horwitz (1986) theory: Students’ speaking anxiety was prompted by the communication apprehension and test anxiety.
    • 38 Question 2 Are students’ proficiency levels and English speaking anxiety correlated among English major college students? Proficiency Levels N Mean SD Pre-test Low 27 72.74 8.36 High 24 71.25 9.32 Proficiency Levels N Mean SD Post-test Low 27 72.62 7.59 High 24 70.75 7.74
    • 39 Question 2 Are students’ proficiency levels and English speaking anxiety correlated among English major college students? Proficiency Levels FLSAS Proficiency Level Pearson Correlation 1 .124 Sig. (2-tailed) .386 N 51 51 FLSAS Pearson Correlation .124 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .386 N 51 93 Pearson’s Correlation There was not any relationship between English speaking anxiety and proficiency level.
    • The result confirmed Liu’s (2006) and Lin’s (2012) finding that “proficiency level did not play a significant role in the students” Low proficiency level students suffer higher English speaking anxiety than high proficiency level ones. 40 Question 2 Summary of Research Question 2 1 Students’ proficiency level and English speaking anxiety did not show any significant correlation ( p > 0.05). 2 2
    • 41 Question 3 Will students’ English speaking anxiety be reduced through the activities of spoken learning log and reflective journals? Paired Sample N M SD df t-value Sig. p Post-Pre test 93 .247 8.623 93 .277 .783 *p >.05 Paired Samples t-test The t-test (p=.783, p > .05) of all participants’ English speaking anxiety did not significantly change after implantation of the spoken learning logs.
    • 42 Question 4 Are there any correlation between English speaking anxiety and learners’ self-efficacy? Item of Self-efficacy Band Video Clip 1 N (%) Video Clip 2 N (%) 1 = Good 14 (15.1%) 14 (15.1%) 2 = Fair 56 (60.2%) 57 (61.3%) 3 = Bad 23 (24.7%) 22 (23.7%) Distribution of Participants on Both of Self-efficacy Evaluations (N=93) Students in this study were required to self- rated for themselves on the self-efficacy evaluation, and from the distribution of the table we could see that most of the students were lack of confidence.
    • 43 Question 4 Are there any correlation between English speaking anxiety and learners’ self-efficacy? (Self-efficacy Evaluation 1) Note: Correlation is significant at the self-efficacy evaluation 1 on pre-test of FLSAS, p < .05 p < .05, Correlation is significant p > .05, Correlation is not significant
    • 44 Question 4 Are there any correlation between English speaking anxiety and learners’ self-efficacy? (Self-efficacy Evaluation 2) Note: Correlation is significant at the self-efficacy evaluation 1 on pre-test of FLSAS, p < .05 p < .05, Correlation is significant
    • 45 Question 4 Summary of Question 4 t-test of English Speaking Anxiety and Self-efficacy Evaluation 1 t-test of English Speaking Anxiety and Self-efficacy Evaluation 2 Low self-efficacious students have higher English speaking anxiety than high self- efficacious students
    • 46 Question 4 Summary of Question 4 The students who rated “”Bad” has higher English speaking anxiety than the students with “Good”.
    • 4 7 Conclusions
    • 48 CHAPTER 5 Horwitz 1986 Communication Apprehension Test anxiety Fear of Negative Evaluation Krashen 19 1985 Stephen Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition Affective Filter hypothesis.
    • 49 CHAPTER 5 Some students did not have professional skill in using the digital equipment, in this study, the computer skill should be a variable. 1 There were more female students in the English Listening and Speaking Class. 2
    • 50 CHAPTER 5 The iLMS can be implemented in language learning classes. 1 In addition to Spoken Learning Log, the researcher can try different online teaching and learning instruments to help students overcome their English speaking anxiety. 2
    • 5 1