Operations Management Session 3 –  Process and Layout Strategies
Outline <ul><li>Global Company Profile:  Dell Computer Corp. </li></ul><ul><li>Four Process Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Outline – Continued <ul><li>Process Analysis and Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow Diagrams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tim...
Outline – Continued <ul><li>Service Process Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer Interaction and Process Design </li></ul...
Outline – Continued <ul><li>Production Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auto...
Outline – Continued <ul><li>Production Technology (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (A...
Outline – Continued <ul><li>Technology in Services </li></ul><ul><li>Process Redesign  </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics and Enviro...
Learning Objectives <ul><li>When you complete this chapter you should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe four producti...
Dell Computer Company Mass customization provides a competitive advantage <ul><li>Sell custom-built PCs directly to consum...
Process, Volume, and Variety Process Focus projects, job shops (machine, print, carpentry) Standard Register Repetitive (a...
Process Strategies <ul><li>How to produce a product or provide a service that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meets or exceeds custo...
Process Strategies Four basic strategies <ul><li>Process focus </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitive focus </li></ul><ul><li>Produc...
Process Focus <ul><li>Facilities are organized around specific activities or processes </li></ul><ul><li>General purpose e...
Process Focus Job Shop Many inputs Many variety of outputs Many departments and many routings
Process Flow Diagram Figure 7.2 Accounting Information flow Material flow COLLATING DEPT GLUING, BINDING, STAPLING, LABELI...
Repetitive Focus <ul><li>Facilities often organized as assembly lines </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by modules with part...
Repetitive Focus Automobile Assembly Line Raw materials and module inputs Modules combined for many output options Few mod...
Process Flow Diagram Figure 7.3 THE ASSEMBLY LINE TESTING 28 tests Oil tank work cell Shocks and forks Handlebars Fender w...
Product Focus <ul><li>Facilities are organized by product </li></ul><ul><li>High volume but low variety of products </li><...
Product Focus Continuous Work Flow Few inputs Output variations in size, shape, and packaging
Product Focus Nucor Steel Plant Continuous caster Continuous cast steel sheared into 24-ton slabs Hot tunnel furnace - 300...
Mass Customization <ul><li>The rapid, low-cost production of goods and service to satisfy increasingly unique customer des...
Mass Customization Table 7.1 Vehicle models 140 286 Vehicle types 18 1,212 Bicycle types 8 19 Software titles 0 400,000 We...
Mass Customization Effective scheduling techniques Rapid throughput techniques Figure 7.5 Mass Customization Repetitive Fo...
Comparison of Processes Table 7.2 Process Focus (Low volume, high variety) Repetitive Focus (Modular) Product Focus (High-...
Comparison of Processes Table 7.2 Process Focus (Low volume, high variety) Repetitive Focus (Modular) Product Focus (High-...
Comparison of Processes Table 7.2 Process Focus (Low volume, high variety) Repetitive Focus (Modular) Product Focus (High-...
Comparison of Processes Table 7.2 Process Focus (Low volume, high variety) Repetitive Focus (Modular) Product Focus (High-...
Comparison of Processes Table 7.2 Process Focus (Low volume, high variety) Repetitive Focus (Modular) Product Focus (High-...
Comparison of Processes Table 7.2 Process Focus (Low volume, high variety) Repetitive Focus (Modular) Product Focus (High-...
Process Analysis Tools <ul><li>Flowcharts provide a view of the big picture </li></ul><ul><li>Time-function mapping adds r...
Improving Service Productivity Table 7.3 Strategy Technique Example Separation Structure service so customers must go wher...
Improving Service Productivity Table 7.3 Strategy Technique Example Postponement Customizing at delivery Customizing vans ...
Improving Service Productivity Table 7.3 Strategy Technique Example Automation Separating services that may lend themselve...
Improving Service Processes <ul><li>Layout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product exposure, customer education, product enhancement...
Production Technology <ul><li>Machine technology </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic identification  systems (AISs) </li></ul><ul>...
Technology in Services Table 7.4 Service Industry Example Financial Services Debit cards, electronic funds transfer, ATMs,...
Technology in Services Table 7.4 Service Industry Example Hotels Electronic check-in/check-out, electronic key/lock system...
Process Redesign <ul><li>The fundamental rethinking of business processes to bring about dramatic improvements in performa...
Ethics and Environmentally Friendly Processes <ul><li>Encourage recycling </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient use of resources </l...
Operations Management Layout Strategies
Outline <ul><li>Global Company Profile:  McDonald’s </li></ul><ul><li>The Strategic Importance of Layout Decisions </li></...
Outline – Continued <ul><li>Retail Layout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Servicescapes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Warehousing and Stora...
Outline – Continued <ul><li>Process-Oriented Layout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Software for Process-Oriented Layouts <...
Outline – Continued <ul><li>Repetitive and Product-Oriented Layout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assembly-Line Balancing </li></ul...
Learning Objectives <ul><li>When you complete this chapter you should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the different...
Innovations at McDonald’s <ul><li>Indoor seating (1950s) </li></ul><ul><li>Drive-through window (1970s) </li></ul><ul><li>...
Innovations at McDonald’s <ul><li>Indoor seating (1950s) </li></ul><ul><li>Drive-through window (1970s) </li></ul><ul><li>...
McDonald’s New Layout <ul><li>Seventh major innovation  </li></ul><ul><li>Redesigning all 30,000 outlets around the world ...
Strategic Importance of Layout Decisions The objective of layout strategy is to develop a cost-effective layout that will ...
Layout Design Considerations <ul><li>Higher utilization of space, equipment, and people </li></ul><ul><li>Improved flow of...
Types of Layout <ul><li>Office layout  </li></ul><ul><li>Retail layout  </li></ul><ul><li>Warehouse layout </li></ul><ul><...
Types of Layout <ul><li>Office layout: Positions workers, their equipment, and spaces/offices to provide for movement of i...
Types of Layout <ul><li>Fixed-position layout: Addresses the layout requirements of large, bulky projects such as ships an...
Types of Layout <ul><li>Work cell layout: Arranges machinery and equipment to focus on production of a single product or g...
Good Layouts Consider <ul><li>Material handling equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity and space requirements </li></ul><ul>...
Layout Strategies Table 9.1 Office Retail Warehouse (storage) Examples Allstate Insurance Microsoft Corp. Kroger’s   Super...
Layout Strategies Table 9.1 Project  (fixed position) Job Shop  (process oriented) Examples Ingall Ship Building   Corp. T...
Layout Strategies Table 9.1 Work Cells  (product families) Repetitive/ Continuous (product oriented) Examples Hallmark Car...
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Process And Layout Strategies

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Material for session Three of the Operations Management Course at the MBA IV at HIBA in Damascus

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Transcript of "Process And Layout Strategies"

  1. 1. Operations Management Session 3 – Process and Layout Strategies
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Global Company Profile: Dell Computer Corp. </li></ul><ul><li>Four Process Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process Focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repetitive Focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product Focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass Customization Focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparison of Process Choices </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Outline – Continued <ul><li>Process Analysis and Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow Diagrams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time-Function Mapping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value-Stream Mapping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process Charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service Blueprinting </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Outline – Continued <ul><li>Service Process Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer Interaction and Process Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More Opportunities to Improve Service Processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selection of Equipment and Technology </li></ul>
  5. 5. Outline – Continued <ul><li>Production Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic Identification Systems (AISs) and RFID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robots </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Outline – Continued <ul><li>Production Technology (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRSs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMSs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Outline – Continued <ul><li>Technology in Services </li></ul><ul><li>Process Redesign </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics and Environmentally Friendly Processes </li></ul>
  8. 8. Learning Objectives <ul><li>When you complete this chapter you should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe four production processes </li></ul><ul><li>Compute crossover points for different processes </li></ul><ul><li>Use the tools of process analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Describe customer interaction in process design </li></ul><ul><li>Identify recent advances in production technology </li></ul>
  9. 9. Dell Computer Company Mass customization provides a competitive advantage <ul><li>Sell custom-built PCs directly to consumer </li></ul><ul><li>Lean production processes and good product design allow responsiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate the Web into every aspect of its business </li></ul><ul><li>Focus research on software designed to make installation and configuration of its PCs fast and simple </li></ul>
  10. 10. Process, Volume, and Variety Process Focus projects, job shops (machine, print, carpentry) Standard Register Repetitive (autos, motorcycles) Harley-Davidson Product Focus (commercial baked goods, steel, glass) Nucor Steel High Variety one or few units per run, high variety (allows customization) Changes in Modules modest runs, standardized modules Changes in Attributes (such as grade, quality, size, thickness, etc.) long runs only Mass Customization (difficult to achieve, but huge rewards) Dell Computer Poor Strategy (Both fixed and variable costs are high) Figure 7.1 Low Volume Repetitive Process High Volume Volume
  11. 11. Process Strategies <ul><li>How to produce a product or provide a service that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meets or exceeds customer requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meets cost and managerial goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Has long term effects on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency and production flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs and quality </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Process Strategies Four basic strategies <ul><li>Process focus </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitive focus </li></ul><ul><li>Product focus </li></ul><ul><li>Mass customization </li></ul>Within these basic strategies there are many ways they may be implemented
  13. 13. Process Focus <ul><li>Facilities are organized around specific activities or processes </li></ul><ul><li>General purpose equipment and skilled personnel </li></ul><ul><li>High degree of product flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Typically high costs and low equipment utilization </li></ul><ul><li>Product flows may vary considerably making planning and scheduling a challenge </li></ul>
  14. 14. Process Focus Job Shop Many inputs Many variety of outputs Many departments and many routings
  15. 15. Process Flow Diagram Figure 7.2 Accounting Information flow Material flow COLLATING DEPT GLUING, BINDING, STAPLING, LABELING POLYWRAP DEPT SHIPPING Customer PRINTING DEPT PREPRESS DEPT Vendors Receiving Warehouse Purchasing Customer Customer sales representative
  16. 16. Repetitive Focus <ul><li>Facilities often organized as assembly lines </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by modules with parts and assemblies made previously </li></ul><ul><li>Modules may be combined for many output options </li></ul><ul><li>Less flexibility than process-focused facilities but more efficient </li></ul>
  17. 17. Repetitive Focus Automobile Assembly Line Raw materials and module inputs Modules combined for many output options Few modules
  18. 18. Process Flow Diagram Figure 7.3 THE ASSEMBLY LINE TESTING 28 tests Oil tank work cell Shocks and forks Handlebars Fender work cell Air cleaners Fluids and mufflers Fuel tank work cell Wheel work cell Roller testing Incoming parts From Milwaukee on a JIT arrival schedule Engines and transmissions Frame tube bending Frame-building work cells Frame machining Hot-paint frame painting Crating
  19. 19. Product Focus <ul><li>Facilities are organized by product </li></ul><ul><li>High volume but low variety of products </li></ul><ul><li>Long, continuous production runs enable efficient processes </li></ul><ul><li>Typically high fixed cost but low variable cost </li></ul><ul><li>Generally less skilled labor </li></ul>
  20. 20. Product Focus Continuous Work Flow Few inputs Output variations in size, shape, and packaging
  21. 21. Product Focus Nucor Steel Plant Continuous caster Continuous cast steel sheared into 24-ton slabs Hot tunnel furnace - 300 ft Hot mill for finishing, cooling, and coiling D E F G H I Scrap steel Ladle of molten steel Electric furnace A B C
  22. 22. Mass Customization <ul><li>The rapid, low-cost production of goods and service to satisfy increasingly unique customer desires </li></ul><ul><li>Combines the flexibility of a process focus with the efficiency of a product focus </li></ul>
  23. 23. Mass Customization Table 7.1 Vehicle models 140 286 Vehicle types 18 1,212 Bicycle types 8 19 Software titles 0 400,000 Web sites 0 98,116,993 Movie releases 267 458 New book titles 40,530 77,446 Houston TV channels 5 185 Breakfast cereals 160 340 Items (SKUs) in 14,000 150,000 supermarkets LCD TVs 0 102 Number of Choices Item 1970s 21 st Century
  24. 24. Mass Customization Effective scheduling techniques Rapid throughput techniques Figure 7.5 Mass Customization Repetitive Focus Flexible people and equipment Process-Focused High variety, low volume Low utilization (5% to 25%) General-purpose equipment Product-Focused Low variety, high volume High utilization (70% to 90%) Specialized equipment Modular techniques Supportive supply chains
  25. 25. Comparison of Processes Table 7.2 Process Focus (Low volume, high variety) Repetitive Focus (Modular) Product Focus (High-volume, low-variety) Mass Customization (High-volume, high-variety) Small quantity, large variety of products Long runs, standardized product made from modules Large quantity, small variety of products Large quantity, large variety of products General purpose equipment Special equipment aids in use of assembly line Special purpose equipment Rapid changeover on flexible equipment
  26. 26. Comparison of Processes Table 7.2 Process Focus (Low volume, high variety) Repetitive Focus (Modular) Product Focus (High-volume, low-variety) Mass Customization (High-volume, high-variety) Operators are broadly skilled Employees are modestly trained Operators are less broadly skilled Flexible operators are trained for the necessary customization Many job instructions as each job changes Repetition reduces training and changes in job instructions Few work orders and job instructions because jobs standardized Custom orders require many job instructions
  27. 27. Comparison of Processes Table 7.2 Process Focus (Low volume, high variety) Repetitive Focus (Modular) Product Focus (High-volume, low-variety) Mass Customization (High-volume, high-variety) Raw material inventories high JIT procurement techniques used Raw material inventories are low Raw material inventories are low Work-in-process is high JIT inventory techniques used Work-in-process inventory is low Work-in-process inventory driven down by JIT, lean production
  28. 28. Comparison of Processes Table 7.2 Process Focus (Low volume, high variety) Repetitive Focus (Modular) Product Focus (High-volume, low-variety) Mass Customization (High-volume, high-variety) Units move slowly through the plant Movement is measured in hours and days Swift movement of unit through the facility is typical Goods move swiftly through the facility Finished goods made to order Finished goods made to frequent forecast Finished goods made to forecast and stored Finished goods often build-to-order (BTO)
  29. 29. Comparison of Processes Table 7.2 Process Focus (Low volume, high variety) Repetitive Focus (Modular) Product Focus (High-volume, low-variety) Mass Customization (High-volume, high-variety) Scheduling is complex, trade-offs between inventory, availability, customer service Scheduling based on building various models from a variety of modules to forecasts Relatively simple scheduling, establishing output rate to meet forecasts Sophisticated scheduling required to accommodate custom orders
  30. 30. Comparison of Processes Table 7.2 Process Focus (Low volume, high variety) Repetitive Focus (Modular) Product Focus (High-volume, low-variety) Mass Customization (High-volume, high-variety) Fixed costs low, variable costs high Fixed costs dependent on flexibility of the facility Fixed costs high, variable costs low Fixed costs high, variable costs must be low Costing estimated before job, known only after the job Costs usually known due to extensive experience High fixed costs mean costs dependent on utilization of capacity High fixed costs and dynamic variable costs make costing a challenge
  31. 31. Process Analysis Tools <ul><li>Flowcharts provide a view of the big picture </li></ul><ul><li>Time-function mapping adds rigor and a time element </li></ul><ul><li>Value-stream analysis extends to customers and suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Process charts show detail </li></ul><ul><li>Service blueprint focuses on customer interaction </li></ul>
  32. 32. Improving Service Productivity Table 7.3 Strategy Technique Example Separation Structure service so customers must go where service is offered Bank customers go to a manager to open a new account, to loan officers for loans, and to tellers for deposits Self-service Self-service so customers examine, compare, and evaluate at their own pace Supermarkets and department stores, Internet ordering
  33. 33. Improving Service Productivity Table 7.3 Strategy Technique Example Postponement Customizing at delivery Customizing vans at delivery rather than at production Focus Restricting the offerings Limited-menu restaurant Modules Modular selection of service, modular production Investment and insurance selection, prepackaged food modules in restaurants
  34. 34. Improving Service Productivity Table 7.3 Strategy Technique Example Automation Separating services that may lend themselves to automation Automatic teller machines Scheduling Precise personnel scheduling Scheduling ticket counter personnel at 15-minute intervals at airlines Training Clarifying the service options, explaining how to avoid problems Investment counselor, funeral directors, after-sale maintenance personnel
  35. 35. Improving Service Processes <ul><li>Layout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product exposure, customer education, product enhancement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruiting and training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact of flexibility </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Production Technology <ul><li>Machine technology </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic identification systems (AISs) </li></ul><ul><li>Process control </li></ul><ul><li>Vision system </li></ul><ul><li>Robot </li></ul><ul><li>Automated storage and retrieval systems (ASRSs) </li></ul><ul><li>Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs) </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) </li></ul>
  37. 37. Technology in Services Table 7.4 Service Industry Example Financial Services Debit cards, electronic funds transfer, ATMs, Internet stock trading Education Electronic bulletin boards, on-line journals, WebCT and Blackboard Utilities and government Automated one-man garbage trucks, optical mail and bomb scanners, flood warning systems Restaurants and foods Wireless orders from waiters to kitchen, robot butchering, transponders on cars that track sales at drive-throughs Communications Electronic publishing, interactive TV
  38. 38. Technology in Services Table 7.4 Service Industry Example Hotels Electronic check-in/check-out, electronic key/lock system Wholesale/retail trade ATM-like kiosks, point-of-sale (POS) terminals, e-commerce, electronic communication between store and supplier, bar coded data Transportation Automatic toll booths, satellite-directed navigation systems Health care Online patient-monitoring, online medical information systems, robotic surgery Airlines Ticketless travel, scheduling, Internet purchases
  39. 39. Process Redesign <ul><li>The fundamental rethinking of business processes to bring about dramatic improvements in performance </li></ul><ul><li>Relies on reevaluating the purpose of the process and questioning both the purpose and the underlying assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Requires reexamination of the basic process and its objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on activities that cross functional lines </li></ul><ul><li>Any process is a candidate for redesign </li></ul>
  40. 40. Ethics and Environmentally Friendly Processes <ul><li>Encourage recycling </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient use of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of waste by-products </li></ul><ul><li>Use less harmful ingredients </li></ul><ul><li>Use less energy </li></ul>Reduce the negative impact on the environment
  41. 41. Operations Management Layout Strategies
  42. 42. Outline <ul><li>Global Company Profile: McDonald’s </li></ul><ul><li>The Strategic Importance of Layout Decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Layout </li></ul><ul><li>Office Layout </li></ul>
  43. 43. Outline – Continued <ul><li>Retail Layout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Servicescapes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Warehousing and Storage Layouts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-Docking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Random Docking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customizing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fixed-Position Layout </li></ul>
  44. 44. Outline – Continued <ul><li>Process-Oriented Layout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Software for Process-Oriented Layouts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements of Work Cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staffing and Balancing Work Cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Focused Work Center and the Focused Factory </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Outline – Continued <ul><li>Repetitive and Product-Oriented Layout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assembly-Line Balancing </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Learning Objectives <ul><li>When you complete this chapter you should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the different types of layout and its uses </li></ul><ul><li>Understand layout relevance for strategy </li></ul>
  47. 47. Innovations at McDonald’s <ul><li>Indoor seating (1950s) </li></ul><ul><li>Drive-through window (1970s) </li></ul><ul><li>Adding breakfast to the menu (1980s) </li></ul><ul><li>Adding play areas (late 1980s) </li></ul><ul><li>Redesign of the kitchens (1990s) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-service kiosk (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Now three separate dining sections </li></ul>
  48. 48. Innovations at McDonald’s <ul><li>Indoor seating (1950s) </li></ul><ul><li>Drive-through window (1970s) </li></ul><ul><li>Adding breakfast to the menu (1980s) </li></ul><ul><li>Adding play areas (late 1980s) </li></ul><ul><li>Redesign of the kitchens (1990s) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-service kiosk (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Now three separate dining sections </li></ul>Six out of the seven are layout decisions!
  49. 49. McDonald’s New Layout <ul><li>Seventh major innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Redesigning all 30,000 outlets around the world </li></ul><ul><li>Three separate dining areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linger zone with comfortable chairs and Wi-Fi connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grab and go zone with tall counters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible zone for kids and families </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facility layout is a source of competitive advantage </li></ul>
  50. 50. Strategic Importance of Layout Decisions The objective of layout strategy is to develop a cost-effective layout that will meet a firm’s competitive needs
  51. 51. Layout Design Considerations <ul><li>Higher utilization of space, equipment, and people </li></ul><ul><li>Improved flow of information, materials, or people </li></ul><ul><li>Improved employee morale and safer working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Improved customer/client interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul>
  52. 52. Types of Layout <ul><li>Office layout </li></ul><ul><li>Retail layout </li></ul><ul><li>Warehouse layout </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed-position layout </li></ul><ul><li>Process-oriented layout </li></ul><ul><li>Work-cell layout </li></ul><ul><li>Product-oriented layout </li></ul>
  53. 53. Types of Layout <ul><li>Office layout: Positions workers, their equipment, and spaces/offices to provide for movement of information </li></ul><ul><li>Retail layout: Allocates shelf space and responds to customer behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Warehouse layout: Addresses trade-offs between space and material handling </li></ul>
  54. 54. Types of Layout <ul><li>Fixed-position layout: Addresses the layout requirements of large, bulky projects such as ships and buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Process-oriented layout: Deals with low-volume, high-variety production (also called job shop or intermittent production) </li></ul>
  55. 55. Types of Layout <ul><li>Work cell layout: Arranges machinery and equipment to focus on production of a single product or group of related products </li></ul><ul><li>Product-oriented layout: Seeks the best personnel and machine utilizations in repetitive or continuous production </li></ul>
  56. 56. Good Layouts Consider <ul><li>Material handling equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity and space requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Environment and aesthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Flows of information </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of moving between various work areas </li></ul>
  57. 57. Layout Strategies Table 9.1 Office Retail Warehouse (storage) Examples Allstate Insurance Microsoft Corp. Kroger’s Supermarket Walgreen’s Bloomingdale’s Federal-Mogul’s warehouse The Gap’s distribution center Problems/Issues Locate workers requiring frequent contact close to one another Expose customer to high-margin items Balance low-cost storage with low-cost material handling
  58. 58. Layout Strategies Table 9.1 Project (fixed position) Job Shop (process oriented) Examples Ingall Ship Building Corp. Trump Plaza Pittsburgh Airport Arnold Palmer Hospital Hard Rock Café Olive Garden Problems/Issues Move material to the limited storage areas around the site Manage varied material flow for each product
  59. 59. Layout Strategies Table 9.1 Work Cells (product families) Repetitive/ Continuous (product oriented) Examples Hallmark Cards Wheeled Coach Standard Aero Sony’s TV assembly line Toyota Scion Problems/Issues Identify a product family, build teams, cross train team members Equalize the task time at each workstation
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