Operations Management Session 2 –  Operations Strategy in a Global Environment
Outline <ul><li>Global Company Profile: Boeing </li></ul><ul><li>A Global View of Operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultura...
Outline  –  Continued <ul><li>Achieving Competitive Advantage Through Operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competing On Differ...
Outline  –  Continued <ul><li>Issues In Operations Strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prec...
Outline  –  Continued <ul><li>Strategy Development and Implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical Success Factors and C...
Outline  –  Continued <ul><li>Global Operations Strategy Options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International Strategy </li></ul></...
Learning Objectives <ul><li>Define mission and strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and explain three strategic approaches ...
Learning Objectives <ul><li>Identify five OM strategy insights provided by PIMS research </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and ex...
Some Boeing Suppliers (787) Firm Country Component Latecoere France Passenger doors Labinel France Wiring Dassault France ...
Some Boeing Suppliers (787) Firm Country Component Cobham UK Fuel pumps and valves Rolls-Royce UK Engines Smiths Aerospace...
Some Boeing Suppliers (787) Firm Country Component Fuji Heavy Japan Center wing box Industries Kawasaki Heavy Japan Forwar...
Some Boeing Suppliers (787) Firm Country Component Korean Aviation South Wingtips   Korea Saab Sweden Cargo access doors
Reasons to Globalize Reasons to Globalize <ul><li>Reduce costs (labor, taxes, tariffs, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Improve sup...
Cultural and Ethical Issues <ul><li>Cultures can be quite different </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes can be quite different tow...
You May Wish To Consider <ul><li>National literacy rate </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of tec...
Developing Missions and Strategies Mission  statements tell an organization where it is going The  Strategy  tells the org...
Mission <ul><li>Mission - where are you going? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization’s purpose for being </li></ul></ul><ul><...
FedEx <ul><li>FedEx is committed to our People-Service-Profit philosophy.  We will produce outstanding financial returns b...
Merck <ul><li>The mission of Merck is to provide society with superior products and services - innovations and solutions t...
Hard Rock Cafe <ul><li>Our Mission: To spread the spirit of Rock ‘n’ Roll by delivering an exceptional entertainment and d...
Factors Affecting Mission Benefit to Society Mission Philosophy and Values Profitability and Growth Environment Customers ...
Sample Missions Figure 2.3 Sample Company Mission To manufacture and service an innovative, growing, and profitable worldw...
Sample Missions Figure 2.3 Sample OM Department Missions Product design To design and produce products and services with o...
Sample Missions Figure 2.3 Sample OM Department Missions Location To locate, design, and build efficient and economical fa...
Sample Missions Figure 2.3 Sample OM Department Missions Supply chain   management To collaborate with suppliers to develo...
Strategic Process Organization’s Mission Marketing Operations Finance/ Accounting Functional Area Missions
Strategy <ul><li>Action plan to achieve mission </li></ul><ul><li>Functional areas have strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Strat...
Strategies for Competitive Advantage <ul><li>Differentiation – better, or at least different </li></ul><ul><li>Cost leader...
Competing on Differentiation <ul><li>Uniqueness can go beyond both the physical characteristics and service attributes to ...
Competing on Cost <ul><li>Provide the maximum value as perceived by customer. Does not imply low quality. </li></ul><ul><l...
Competing on Response <ul><li>Flexibility is matching market changes in design innovation and volumes </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
OM’s Contribution to Strategy Figure 2.4 Operations Specific Competitive Decisions Examples Strategy Used Advantage Produc...
10 Strategic OM Decisions <ul><li>Goods and service design  </li></ul><ul><li>Quality  </li></ul><ul><li>Process and capac...
Goods and Services and  the 10 OM Decisions Table 2.1 Operations Decisions Goods Services Goods and service design Product...
Goods and Services and  the 10 OM Decisions Table 2.1 Operations Decisions Goods Services Location selection Near raw mate...
Goods and Services and  the 10 OM Decisions Table 2.1 Operations Decisions Goods Services Supply chain  Relationship criti...
Goods and Services and  the 10 OM Decisions Table 2.1 Operations Decisions Goods Services Maintenance Often preventive and...
Managing Global Service Operations <ul><li>Capacity planning </li></ul><ul><li>Location planning </li></ul><ul><li>Facilit...
Process Design Low Moderate High Volume High Moderate Low Variety of Products Process-focused JOB SHOPS (Print shop, emerg...
Operations Strategies for Two Drug Companies Table 2.2 Brand Name Drugs, Inc. Generic Drug Corp. Competitive Advantage Pro...
Operations Strategies for Two Drug Companies Table 2.2 Brand Name Drugs, Inc. Generic Drug Corp. Competitive Advantage Pro...
Operations Strategies for Two Drug Companies Table 2.2 Brand Name Drugs, Inc. Generic Drug Corp. Competitive Advantage Pro...
Operations Strategies for Two Drug Companies Table 2.2 Brand Name Drugs, Inc. Generic Drug Corp. Competitive Advantage Pro...
Operations Strategies for Two Drug Companies Table 2.2 Brand Name Drugs, Inc. Generic Drug Corp. Competitive Advantage Pro...
Issues In Operations Strategy <ul><li>Research about effective operations management strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Precondi...
Characteristics of  High ROI Firms <ul><li>High product quality  </li></ul><ul><li>High capacity utilization </li></ul><ul...
Strategic Options to Gain a Competitive Advantage <ul><li>28% - Operations Management </li></ul><ul><li>18% - Marketing/di...
Elements of Operations Management Strategy <ul><li>Low-cost product </li></ul><ul><li>Product-line breadth </li></ul><ul><...
Preconditions <ul><li>Strengths and weaknesses of competitors and possible new entrants into the market </li></ul><ul><li>...
Dynamics of  Strategic Change <ul><li>Changes within the organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Product Life Cycle Figure 2.5 Best period to increase market share R&D engineering is critical Practical to change price o...
Product Life Cycle Product design and development critical Frequent product and process design changes Short production ru...
SWOT Analysis  Strategy Analysis Internal  S trengths Internal  W eaknesses External  O pportunities External  T hreats Mi...
Strategy Development Process Figure 2.6 Determine Corporate Mission State the reason for the firm’s existence and identify...
Strategy Development and Implementation <ul><li>Identify critical success factors </li></ul><ul><li>Build and staff the or...
Critical Success Factors Production/Operations Figure 2.7 Decisions Sample Options Chapter Product Customized, or standard...
Four International Operations Strategies Cost Reduction Considerations High Low High Low Local Responsiveness Consideratio...
Four International Operations Strategies Cost Reduction Considerations High Low High Low Local Responsiveness Consideratio...
Four International Operations Strategies International Strategy <ul><li>Import/export or license existing product </li></u...
Four International Operations Strategies Cost Reduction Considerations High Low High Low Local Responsiveness Consideratio...
Four International Operations Strategies <ul><li>Standardized product </li></ul><ul><li>Economies of scale </li></ul><ul><...
Four International Operations Strategies Cost Reduction Considerations High Low High Low Local Responsiveness Consideratio...
Four International Operations Strategies International Strategy <ul><li>Import/export or license existing product </li></u...
Four International Operations Strategies Cost Reduction Considerations High Low High Low Local Responsiveness Consideratio...
The Supply Chain’s Strategic Importance  Supply chain management is the integration of the activities that procure materia...
Supply Chain Management <ul><li>Transportation vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Credit and cash transfers </li></ul><ul><li>Suppl...
A Supply Chain for Beer Figure 11.1
Global Supply Chain Issues <ul><li>React to sudden changes in parts availability, distribution, or shipping channels, impo...
How Supply Chain Decisions Impact Strategy Table 11.1 Low-Cost Strategy Response Strategy Differentiation Strategy Supplie...
How Supply Chain Decisions Impact Strategy Table 11.1 Low-Cost Strategy Response Strategy Differentiation Strategy Process...
How Supply Chain Decisions Impact Strategy Table 11.1 Low-Cost Strategy Response Strategy Differentiation Strategy Lead-ti...
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Operations Strategy

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Material for session Two of the Operations Management Course at the MBA IV at HIBA in Damascus

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  1. 1. Operations Management Session 2 – Operations Strategy in a Global Environment
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Global Company Profile: Boeing </li></ul><ul><li>A Global View of Operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural and Ethical Issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developing Missions And Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Outline – Continued <ul><li>Achieving Competitive Advantage Through Operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competing On Differentiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competing On Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competing On Response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ten Strategic OM Decisions </li></ul>
  4. 4. Outline – Continued <ul><li>Issues In Operations Strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preconditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamics </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Outline – Continued <ul><li>Strategy Development and Implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical Success Factors and Core Competencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build and Staff the Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate OM with Other Activities </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Outline – Continued <ul><li>Global Operations Strategy Options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multidomestic Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transnational Strategy </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Define mission and strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and explain three strategic approaches to competitive advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and define the 10 decisions of operations management </li></ul>When you complete this chapter you should be able to:
  8. 8. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Identify five OM strategy insights provided by PIMS research </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and explain four global operations strategy options </li></ul>When you complete this chapter you should be able to:
  9. 9. Some Boeing Suppliers (787) Firm Country Component Latecoere France Passenger doors Labinel France Wiring Dassault France Design and PLM software Messier-Bugatti France Electric brakes Thales France Electrical power conversion system and integrated standby flight display Messier-Dowty France Landing gear structure Diehl Germany Interior lighting
  10. 10. Some Boeing Suppliers (787) Firm Country Component Cobham UK Fuel pumps and valves Rolls-Royce UK Engines Smiths Aerospace UK Central computer system BAE SYSTEMS UK Electronics Alenia Aeronautics Italy Upper center fuselage & horizontal stabilizer Toray Industries Japan Carbon fiber for wing and tail units
  11. 11. Some Boeing Suppliers (787) Firm Country Component Fuji Heavy Japan Center wing box Industries Kawasaki Heavy Japan Forward fuselage, Industries fixed section of wing, landing gear well Teijin Seiki Japan Hydraulic actuators Mitsubishi Heavy Japan Wing box Industries Chengdu Aircraft China Rudder Group Hafei Aviation China Parts
  12. 12. Some Boeing Suppliers (787) Firm Country Component Korean Aviation South Wingtips Korea Saab Sweden Cargo access doors
  13. 13. Reasons to Globalize Reasons to Globalize <ul><li>Reduce costs (labor, taxes, tariffs, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Improve supply chain </li></ul><ul><li>Provide better goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>Understand markets </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to improve operations </li></ul><ul><li>Attract and retain global talent </li></ul>Tangible Reasons Intangible Reasons
  14. 14. Cultural and Ethical Issues <ul><li>Cultures can be quite different </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes can be quite different towards </li></ul><ul><li>Punctuality </li></ul><ul><li>Lunch breaks </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual property </li></ul><ul><li>Thievery </li></ul><ul><li>Bribery </li></ul><ul><li>Child labor </li></ul>
  15. 15. You May Wish To Consider <ul><li>National literacy rate </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of technology change </li></ul><ul><li>Number of skilled workers </li></ul><ul><li>Political stability </li></ul><ul><li>Product liability laws </li></ul><ul><li>Export restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Variations in language </li></ul><ul><li>Work ethic </li></ul><ul><li>Tax rates </li></ul><ul><li>Inflation </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of raw materials </li></ul><ul><li>Interest rates </li></ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Number of miles of highway </li></ul><ul><li>Phone system </li></ul>
  16. 16. Developing Missions and Strategies Mission statements tell an organization where it is going The Strategy tells the organization how to get there
  17. 17. Mission <ul><li>Mission - where are you going? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization’s purpose for being </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Answers ‘What do we provide society?’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides boundaries and focus </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. FedEx <ul><li>FedEx is committed to our People-Service-Profit philosophy. We will produce outstanding financial returns by providing total reliable, competitively superior, global air-ground transportation of high priority goods and documents that require rapid, time-certain delivery. Equally important, positive control of each package will be maintained using real time electronic tracking and tracing systems. A complete record of each shipment and delivery will be presented with our request for payment. We will be helpful, courteous, and professional to each other and the public. We will strive to have a completely satisfied customer at the end of each transaction. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Merck <ul><li>The mission of Merck is to provide society with superior products and services - innovations and solutions that improve the quality of life and satisfy customer needs - to provide employees with meaningful work and advancement opportunities and investors with a superior rate of return </li></ul>
  20. 20. Hard Rock Cafe <ul><li>Our Mission: To spread the spirit of Rock ‘n’ Roll by delivering an exceptional entertainment and dining experience. We are committed to being an important, contributing member of our community and offering the Hard Rock family a fun, healthy, and nurturing work environment while ensuring our long-term success. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Factors Affecting Mission Benefit to Society Mission Philosophy and Values Profitability and Growth Environment Customers Public Image
  22. 22. Sample Missions Figure 2.3 Sample Company Mission To manufacture and service an innovative, growing, and profitable worldwide microwave communications business that exceeds our customers’ expectations. Sample Operations Management Mission To produce products consistent with the company’s mission as the worldwide low-cost manufacturer.
  23. 23. Sample Missions Figure 2.3 Sample OM Department Missions Product design To design and produce products and services with outstanding quality and inherent customer value. Quality management To attain the exceptional value that is consistent with our company mission and marketing objectives by close attention to design, procurement, production, and field service operations Process design To determine and design or produce the production process and equipment that will be compatible with low-cost product, high quality, and good quality of work life at economical cost.
  24. 24. Sample Missions Figure 2.3 Sample OM Department Missions Location To locate, design, and build efficient and economical facilities that will yield high value to the company, its employees, and the community. Layout design To achieve, through skill, imagination, and resourcefulness in layout and work methods, production effectiveness and efficiency while supporting a high quality of work life. Human resources To provide a good quality of work life, with well-designed, safe, rewarding jobs, stable employment, and equitable pay, in exchange for outstanding individual contribution from employees at all levels.
  25. 25. Sample Missions Figure 2.3 Sample OM Department Missions Supply chain management To collaborate with suppliers to develop innovative products from stable, effective, and efficient sources of supply. Inventory To achieve low investment in inventory consistent with high customer service levels and high facility utilization. Scheduling To achieve high levels of throughput and timely customer delivery through effective scheduling. Maintenance To achieve high utilization of facilities and equipment by effective preventive maintenance and prompt repair of facilities and equipment.
  26. 26. Strategic Process Organization’s Mission Marketing Operations Finance/ Accounting Functional Area Missions
  27. 27. Strategy <ul><li>Action plan to achieve mission </li></ul><ul><li>Functional areas have strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies exploit opportunities and strengths, neutralize threats, and avoid weaknesses </li></ul>
  28. 28. Strategies for Competitive Advantage <ul><li>Differentiation – better, or at least different </li></ul><ul><li>Cost leadership – cheaper </li></ul><ul><li>Response – rapid response </li></ul>
  29. 29. Competing on Differentiation <ul><li>Uniqueness can go beyond both the physical characteristics and service attributes to encompass everything that impacts customer’s perception of value </li></ul><ul><li>Safeskin gloves – leading edge products </li></ul><ul><li>Walt Disney Magic Kingdom – experience differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Rock Cafe – dining experience </li></ul>
  30. 30. Competing on Cost <ul><li>Provide the maximum value as perceived by customer. Does not imply low quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Southwest Airlines – secondary airports, no frills service, efficient utilization of equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Wal-Mart – small overheads, shrinkage, distribution costs </li></ul><ul><li>Franz Colruyt – no bags, low light, no music, doors on freezers </li></ul>
  31. 31. Competing on Response <ul><li>Flexibility is matching market changes in design innovation and volumes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutionalization at Hewlett-Packard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reliability is meeting schedules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German machine industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Timeliness is quickness in design, production, and delivery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Johnson Electric, Bennigan’s, Motorola </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. OM’s Contribution to Strategy Figure 2.4 Operations Specific Competitive Decisions Examples Strategy Used Advantage Product Quality Process Location Layout Human resource Supply chain Inventory Scheduling Maintenance FLEXIBILITY: Sony’s constant innovation of new products……………………………….... Design HP’s ability to lead the printer market……………………………… Volume Southwest Airlines No-frills service……..….. LOW COST DELIVERY: Pizza Hut’s 5-minute guarantee at lunchtime…………………..…..…………………. Speed Federal Express’s “absolutely, positively on time”………………………..…. Dependability QUALITY: Motorola’s HDTV converters….……........ Conformance Motorola’s pagers………………………..…. Performance Caterpillar’s after-sale service on heavy equipment…………….... AFTER-SALE SERVICE Fidelity Security’s broad line of mutual funds…………. BROAD PRODUCT LINE Response (Faster) Cost leadership (Cheaper) Differentiation (Better)
  33. 33. 10 Strategic OM Decisions <ul><li>Goods and service design </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Process and capacity design </li></ul><ul><li>Location selection </li></ul><ul><li>Layout design </li></ul><ul><li>Human resources and job design </li></ul><ul><li>Supply chain management </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul>
  34. 34. Goods and Services and the 10 OM Decisions Table 2.1 Operations Decisions Goods Services Goods and service design Product is usually tangible Product is not tangible Quality Many objective standards Many subjective standards Process and capacity design Customers not involved Customer may be directly involved Capacity must match demand
  35. 35. Goods and Services and the 10 OM Decisions Table 2.1 Operations Decisions Goods Services Location selection Near raw materials and labor Near customers Layout design Production efficiency Enhances product and production Human resources and job design Technical skills, consistent labor standards, output based wages Interact with customers, labor standards vary
  36. 36. Goods and Services and the 10 OM Decisions Table 2.1 Operations Decisions Goods Services Supply chain Relationship critical to final product Important, but may not be critical Inventory Raw materials, work-in-process, and finished goods may be held Cannot be stored Scheduling Level schedules possible Meet immediate customer demand
  37. 37. Goods and Services and the 10 OM Decisions Table 2.1 Operations Decisions Goods Services Maintenance Often preventive and takes place at production site Often “repair” and takes place at customer’s site
  38. 38. Managing Global Service Operations <ul><li>Capacity planning </li></ul><ul><li>Location planning </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities design and layout </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling </li></ul>Requires a different perspective on:
  39. 39. Process Design Low Moderate High Volume High Moderate Low Variety of Products Process-focused JOB SHOPS (Print shop, emergency room, machine shop, fine-dining restaurant ) Repetitive (modular) focus ASSEMBLY LINE (Cars, appliances, TVs, fast-food restaurants ) Product focused CONTINUOUS (steel, beer, paper, bread, institutional kitchen ) Mass Customization Customization at high Volume (Dell Computer’s PC, cafeteria )
  40. 40. Operations Strategies for Two Drug Companies Table 2.2 Brand Name Drugs, Inc. Generic Drug Corp. Competitive Advantage Product Differentiation Low Cost Product Selection and Design Heavy R&D investment; extensive labs; focus on development in a broad range of drug categories Low R&D investment; focus on development of generic drugs Quality Major priority, exceed regulatory requirements Meets regulatory requirements on a country by country basis
  41. 41. Operations Strategies for Two Drug Companies Table 2.2 Brand Name Drugs, Inc. Generic Drug Corp. Competitive Advantage Product Differentiation Low Cost Process Product and modular process; long production runs in specialized facilities; build capacity ahead of demand Process focused; general processes; “job shop” approach, short-run production; focus on high utilization Location Still located in the city where it was founded Recently moved to low-tax, low-labor-cost environment
  42. 42. Operations Strategies for Two Drug Companies Table 2.2 Brand Name Drugs, Inc. Generic Drug Corp. Competitive Advantage Product Differentiation Low Cost Scheduling Centralized production planning Many short-run products complicate scheduling Layout Layout supports automated product-focused production Layout supports process-focused “job shop” practices
  43. 43. Operations Strategies for Two Drug Companies Table 2.2 Brand Name Drugs, Inc. Generic Drug Corp. Competitive Advantage Product Differentiation Low Cost Human Resources Hire the best; nationwide searches Very experienced top executives; other personnel paid below industry average Supply Chain Long-term supplier relationships Tends to purchase competitively to find bargains
  44. 44. Operations Strategies for Two Drug Companies Table 2.2 Brand Name Drugs, Inc. Generic Drug Corp. Competitive Advantage Product Differentiation Low Cost Inventory High finished goods inventory to ensure all demands are met Process focus drives up work-in-process inventory; finished goods inventory tends to be low Maintenance Highly trained staff; extensive parts inventory Highly trained staff to meet changing demand
  45. 45. Issues In Operations Strategy <ul><li>Research about effective operations management strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Preconditions for developing effective OM strategies </li></ul><ul><li>The dynamics of OM strategy development </li></ul>
  46. 46. Characteristics of High ROI Firms <ul><li>High product quality </li></ul><ul><li>High capacity utilization </li></ul><ul><li>High operating efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Low investment intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Low direct cost per unit </li></ul>From the PIMS program of the Strategic Planning Institute
  47. 47. Strategic Options to Gain a Competitive Advantage <ul><li>28% - Operations Management </li></ul><ul><li>18% - Marketing/distribution </li></ul><ul><li>17% - Momentum/name recognition </li></ul><ul><li>16% - Quality/service </li></ul><ul><li>14% - Good management </li></ul><ul><li>4% - Financial resources </li></ul><ul><li>3% - Other </li></ul>
  48. 48. Elements of Operations Management Strategy <ul><li>Low-cost product </li></ul><ul><li>Product-line breadth </li></ul><ul><li>Technical superiority </li></ul><ul><li>Product characteristics/differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Continuing product innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Low-price/high-value offerings </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient, flexible operations adaptable to consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering research development </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling </li></ul>
  49. 49. Preconditions <ul><li>Strengths and weaknesses of competitors and possible new entrants into the market </li></ul><ul><li>Current and prospective environmental, technological, legal, and economic issues </li></ul><ul><li>The product life cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Resources available within the firm and within the OM function </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of OM strategy with company’s strategy and with other functional areas </li></ul>One must understand:
  50. 50. Dynamics of Strategic Change <ul><li>Changes within the organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes in the environment </li></ul>
  51. 51. Product Life Cycle Figure 2.5 Best period to increase market share R&D engineering is critical Practical to change price or quality image Strengthen niche Poor time to change image, price, or quality Competitive costs become critical Defend market position Cost control critical Introduction Growth Maturity Decline Company Strategy/Issues Internet search engines Sales Xbox 360 Drive-through restaurants CD-ROMs 3 1/2” Floppy disks LCD & plasma TVs Analog TVs iPods
  52. 52. Product Life Cycle Product design and development critical Frequent product and process design changes Short production runs High production costs Limited models Attention to quality Forecasting critical Product and process reliability Competitive product improvements and options Increase capacity Shift toward product focus Enhance distribution Standardization Less rapid product changes – more minor changes Optimum capacity Increasing stability of process Long production runs Product improvement and cost cutting Little product differentiation Cost minimization Overcapacity in the industry Prune line to eliminate items not returning good margin Reduce capacity Figure 2.5 Introduction Growth Maturity Decline OM Strategy/Issues
  53. 53. SWOT Analysis Strategy Analysis Internal S trengths Internal W eaknesses External O pportunities External T hreats Mission
  54. 54. Strategy Development Process Figure 2.6 Determine Corporate Mission State the reason for the firm’s existence and identify the value it wishes to create. Form a Strategy Build a competitive advantage, such as low price, design, or volume flexibility, quality, quick delivery, dependability, after-sale service, broad product lines. Environmental Analysis Identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Understand the environment, customers, industry, and competitors.
  55. 55. Strategy Development and Implementation <ul><li>Identify critical success factors </li></ul><ul><li>Build and staff the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate OM with other activities </li></ul>The operations manager’s job is to implement an OM strategy, provide competitive advantage, and increase productivity
  56. 56. Critical Success Factors Production/Operations Figure 2.7 Decisions Sample Options Chapter Product Customized, or standardized 5 Quality Define customer expectations and how to achieve them 6, S6 Process Facility size, technology, capacity 7, S7 Location Near supplier or near customer 8 Layout Work cells or assembly line 9 Human resource Specialized or enriched jobs 10, S10 Supply chain Single or multiple suppliers 11, S11 Inventory When to reorder, how much to keep on hand 12, 14, 16 Schedule Stable or fluctuating production rate 13, 15 Maintenance Repair as required or preventive maintenance 17 Marketing Service Distribution Promotion Channels of distribution Product positioning (image, functions) Finance/Accounting Leverage Cost of capital Working capital Receivables Payables Financial control Lines of credit
  57. 57. Four International Operations Strategies Cost Reduction Considerations High Low High Low Local Responsiveness Considerations (Quick Response and/or Differentiation) <ul><li>Import/export or license existing product </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Harley Davidson </li></ul>International Strategy
  58. 58. Four International Operations Strategies Cost Reduction Considerations High Low High Low Local Responsiveness Considerations (Quick Response and/or Differentiation) International Strategy <ul><li>Import/export or license existing product </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Harley Davidson </li></ul>
  59. 59. Four International Operations Strategies International Strategy <ul><li>Import/export or license existing product </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Harley Davidson </li></ul>Cost Reduction Considerations High Low High Low Local Responsiveness Considerations (Quick Response and/or Differentiation) <ul><li>Standardized product </li></ul><ul><li>Economies of scale </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural learning </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Texas Instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Caterpillar </li></ul><ul><li>Otis Elevator </li></ul>Global Strategy
  60. 60. Four International Operations Strategies Cost Reduction Considerations High Low High Low Local Responsiveness Considerations (Quick Response and/or Differentiation) <ul><li>Standardized product </li></ul><ul><li>Economies of scale </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural learning </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Texas Instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Caterpillar </li></ul><ul><li>Otis Elevator </li></ul>Global Strategy International Strategy <ul><li>Import/export or license existing product </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Harley Davidson </li></ul>
  61. 61. Four International Operations Strategies <ul><li>Standardized product </li></ul><ul><li>Economies of scale </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural learning </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Texas Instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Caterpillar </li></ul><ul><li>Otis Elevator </li></ul>Global Strategy International Strategy <ul><li>Import/export or license existing product </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Harley Davidson </li></ul>Cost Reduction Considerations High Low High Low Local Responsiveness Considerations (Quick Response and/or Differentiation) <ul><li>Use existing domestic model globally </li></ul><ul><li>Franchise, joint ventures, subsidiaries </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Heinz </li></ul><ul><li>McDonald’s </li></ul><ul><li>The Body Shop </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Rock Cafe </li></ul>Multidomestic Strategy
  62. 62. Four International Operations Strategies Cost Reduction Considerations High Low High Low Local Responsiveness Considerations (Quick Response and/or Differentiation) <ul><li>Standardized product </li></ul><ul><li>Economies of scale </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural learning </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Texas Instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Caterpillar </li></ul><ul><li>Otis Elevator </li></ul>Global Strategy International Strategy <ul><li>Import/export or license existing product </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Harley Davidson </li></ul>Multidomestic Strategy <ul><li>Use existing domestic model globally </li></ul><ul><li>Franchise, joint ventures, subsidiaries </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Heinz The Body Shop </li></ul><ul><li>McDonald’s Hard Rock Cafe </li></ul>
  63. 63. Four International Operations Strategies International Strategy <ul><li>Import/export or license existing product </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Harley Davidson </li></ul>Multidomestic Strategy <ul><li>Use existing domestic model globally </li></ul><ul><li>Franchise, joint ventures, subsidiaries </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Heinz The Body Shop </li></ul><ul><li>McDonald’s Hard Rock Cafe </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized product </li></ul><ul><li>Economies of scale </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural learning </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Texas Instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Caterpillar </li></ul><ul><li>Otis Elevator </li></ul>Global Strategy Cost Reduction Considerations High Low High Low Local Responsiveness Considerations (Quick Response and/or Differentiation) <ul><li>Move material, people, ideas across national boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Economies of scale </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural learning </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Coca-Cola </li></ul><ul><li>Nestl é </li></ul>Transnational Strategy
  64. 64. Four International Operations Strategies Cost Reduction Considerations High Low High Low Local Responsiveness Considerations (Quick Response and/or Differentiation) <ul><li>Standardized product </li></ul><ul><li>Economies of scale </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural learning </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Texas Instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Caterpillar </li></ul><ul><li>Otis Elevator </li></ul>Global Strategy Transnational Strategy <ul><li>Move material, people, ideas across national boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Economies of scale </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural learning </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Coca-Cola </li></ul><ul><li>Nestl é </li></ul>International Strategy <ul><li>Import/export or license existing product </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Harley Davidson </li></ul>Multidomestic Strategy <ul><li>Use existing domestic model globally </li></ul><ul><li>Franchise, joint ventures, subsidiaries </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Heinz The Body Shop </li></ul><ul><li>McDonald’s Hard Rock Cafe </li></ul>
  65. 65. The Supply Chain’s Strategic Importance Supply chain management is the integration of the activities that procure materials and services, transform them into intermediate goods and the final product, and deliver them to customers Competition is no longer between companies; it is between supply chains
  66. 66. Supply Chain Management <ul><li>Transportation vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Credit and cash transfers </li></ul><ul><li>Suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Distributors </li></ul><ul><li>Accounts payable and receivable </li></ul><ul><li>Warehousing and inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Order fulfillment </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing customer, forecasting, and production information </li></ul>Important activities include determining
  67. 67. A Supply Chain for Beer Figure 11.1
  68. 68. Global Supply Chain Issues <ul><li>React to sudden changes in parts availability, distribution, or shipping channels, import duties, and currency rates </li></ul><ul><li>Use the latest computer and transmission technologies to schedule and manage the shipment of parts in and finished products out </li></ul><ul><li>Staff with local specialists who handle duties, freight, customs and political issues </li></ul>Supply chains in a global environment must be able to
  69. 69. How Supply Chain Decisions Impact Strategy Table 11.1 Low-Cost Strategy Response Strategy Differentiation Strategy Supplier’s goal Supply demand at lowest possible cost (e.g., Emerson Electric, Taco Bell) Respond quickly to changing requirements and demand to minimize stockouts (e.g., Dell Computers) Share market research; jointly develop products and options (e.g., Benetton) Primary selection criteria Select primarily for cost Select primarily for capacity, speed, and flexibility Select primarily for product development skills
  70. 70. How Supply Chain Decisions Impact Strategy Table 11.1 Low-Cost Strategy Response Strategy Differentiation Strategy Process charact-eristics Maintain high average utilization Invest in excess capacity and flexible processes Modular processes that lend themselves to mass customization Inventory charact-eristics Minimize inventory throughout the chain to hold down cost Develop responsive system with buffer stocks positioned to ensure supply Minimize inventory in the chain to avoid obsolescence
  71. 71. How Supply Chain Decisions Impact Strategy Table 11.1 Low-Cost Strategy Response Strategy Differentiation Strategy Lead-time charact-eristics Shorten lead time as long as it does not increase costs Invest aggressively to reduce production lead time Invest aggressively to reduce development lead time Product-design charact-eristics Maximize performance and minimize costs Use product designs that lead to low setup time and rapid production ramp-up Use modular design to postpone product differentiation as long as possible
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