Abolish the Treaty of Versailles by retrieving lost land,
regain the Saar & expand German territory.
To restore German pride.
Creation of a ‘Greater Germany’ by uniting all German
speaking people in one home land.
Make Germany a world power.
Establish a large empire in Europe where pure Aryans
would live. Anschluss (re-unite) with Austria.
Rearmament and re-militarisation of the Rhineland; building
up German armed forces.
To expand in the east and take over Poland and the west of
the USSR (lebensraum).
To destroy the USSR and remove the threat of communism.
Hitler’s foreign policy goals
German expansion in Europe before the outbreak of World War II
HITLER'S FIRST MOVE???
• Introduced a new armed force!Introduced a new armed force!
• 1935 began conscription and1935 began conscription and
increased the army to 550,000!increased the army to 550,000!
• By 'Anglo-German Naval Treaty'By 'Anglo-German Naval Treaty'
of 1935, Ger could build a fleetof 1935, Ger could build a fleet
1/3 the size of Britain’s and the1/3 the size of Britain’s and the
same number of submarines!same number of submarines!
• built 1,000 war planesbuilt 1,000 war planes
*What allowed him to rearm*What allowed him to rearm
Junker 87 Stuka Dive Bomber Fifth Panzer Attack Tan
- A Plebiscite was held by LN to determine
the future of the Saar (as stated in the
Treaty of Versailles)
- Vast majority voted for union with
*Describe the events in the Saar 1935 
rich coal-mining area!
Under T of V, the Saar had been under the control
of the League of Nations for 15 years.
Plebiscite: The vote was 477,000 for;
A tremendous propaganda success for Hitler!
Germany was restricted from placing troops in the
Rhineland according the Versailles Treaty of 1919.
HITLER'S THIRD MOVE
Germany’s expansion in EuropeGermany’s expansion in Europe
German troops in
the Rhineland in
7 March 1936 Hitler broke the Treaty of7 March 1936 Hitler broke the Treaty of
Versailles by sending troops into the Rhineland.Versailles by sending troops into the Rhineland.
Was it a good
Well, not really...
Germany was not ready.
It's breaking the T of V and not sure how Br and Fr would react.
There was a good chance that Fr would send troops to resist the Ger
forces and that would mean war.
Many German generals were unhappy with the plan as the French
If forced to withdraw, he would face humiliation and would have lost
support of the army and people.
Germany had accepted the Locarno Treaties of 1925 earlier.
So what happened?
*Describe the remilitarisation of Rhineland in 1936.
‘In March 1936, Hitler ordered his troops into the
Rhineland, against the terms of the T of V.’
‘German army generals were against it as the French
would resist and German army was not ready for war.’
‘The army had orders to withdraw if they met
‘It was a gamble made by Hitler, but all went smoothly
without opposition. Most people welcomed the
*But why could Hitler do it?!?!
The League of Nations was preoccupied by Abyssinia
Crisis of 1935-6. League condemned Hitler’s action but
had no power to do anything else.
‘France’s leaders were not prepared to act. France was
about to hold an election and no leader was prepared
to take responsibility of taking France into war.’
‘France would not act without British support.’
Britain thought Rhineland belonged to Germany.
‘Britain would not risk war over “Hitler marching into his
own backyard” and taking what was rightfully hers.’
The Rhineland was reunited with Germany. France and Great
Britain did not move against this violation of Versailles.
In 1936, the Berlin-Rome Axis was formed.In 1936, the Berlin-Rome Axis was formed.
Formation of the Axis Powers (Formation of the Axis Powers ( 軸心國軸心國 ))
The Spanish Civil War 1936-9The Spanish Civil War 1936-9
Spanish Civil WarSpanish Civil War
Civil war in Spain in which FrancoCivil war in Spain in which Franco
succeeded in overthrowing thesucceeded in overthrowing the
republican government; during therepublican government; during the
war Spain became a battlegroundwar Spain became a battleground
for fascists and socialists fromfor fascists and socialists from
countries; 1936-1939 (Miller).countries; 1936-1939 (Miller).
How It Started
Started in 1936 from a Conflict
between the Republic and forces
led by Gen. Francisco Franco.
i.e. Communists (left) vs.
Nationalists / Fascists (right)
Italy and Germany helped the
Supplies for WarSupplies for War
Mussolini sent 70,000 troops to help the NationalistsMussolini sent 70,000 troops to help the Nationalists
Hitler provided planes, pilots, arms, and technicians toHitler provided planes, pilots, arms, and technicians to
the Nationalists as well.the Nationalists as well.
Britain and France remained neutral during the conflict.Britain and France remained neutral during the conflict.
A painting by Picasso in 1937 representing the death of 250
these deaths were due to Nazi Germany testing their new
weapons on Spain
March 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria without
any significant opposition from the major world
*What did Hitler want to achieve
By joining with Austria (German-speaking), Hitler had
helped his development of a Greater Germany.
A launch pad for future invasions!!!
Hitler had acquired his homeland
Austria’s soldiers and rich gold and iron were added to
Germany’s army and industry.
Austria was economically weak, so the union might be
of benefit by bringing them into Greater Germany.
It tested the Allies, proving that they would not go to
war over a treaty which seemed flawed. This
In 1938, Germany annexed Austria.In 1938, Germany annexed Austria.
*Why could he do it again?!?!
Hitler had built up his armed forces + achieved success in the Saar &
Rhineland + failures of League of Nations + passivity of Br & Fr
Austrian Chancellor, Schuschnigg, appointed Nazis into his
government who campaigned for Hitler by staging mass parades.
Hitler bullied him into giving more power to the Austrian Nazis.
Schuschnigg changed his mind and ordered a plebiscite. The
Austrian Nazis asked Germany to send in troops to restore order.
A plebiscite was held and 99% voted in favour of the Anschluss.
Other countries took no action. Britain and France did not object as
most Austrians were pleased with it.
World War II: How Did It Start?
Hitler now sets his eye on the Sudetenland
of Czechoslovakia, an area with a large
Hitler demanded Czechoslovakia to return Sudetenland
German troops in Sudetenland in 1938
• Militarizing theMilitarizing the
RhinelandRhineland in 1936in 1936
• Uniting withUniting with AustriaAustria
• Occupying parts ofOccupying parts of
Germany violatedGermany violated
the Treaty ofthe Treaty of
1. What are the things you know today but the world
did not know in 1938?
2. How do these differences affect the way they
looked at Hitler in 1938 and the way we do today?
Your 5 year old cousin is very hungry and has
stolen a few cookies already. He is now trying to
take another one. What would you do?
#1 – severely punish him, spank him, lock him up,
make him pay for it
#2 – tell him it’s wrong and make him pay for it
#3 – immediately stop him and make sure he takes
#4 – tell him he could have this last piece and
promise not to take any more
,British Prime Minister
(trying to satisfy(trying to satisfy
someone by givingsomeone by giving
him what he wantshim what he wants
Munich ConferenceMunich Conference 19381938
Chamberlain agreed to give Hitler parts of
Czechoslovakia. Hitler agreed not to expand
“We, the German Führer and
Chancellor, and the British Prime
Minister, have had a further meeting
today and are agreed in recognising
that the question of Anglo-German
relations is of the first importance
for our two countries and for
We regard the agreement signed last
night and the Anglo-German Naval
Agreement as symbolic of the desire
of our two peoples never to go to war
with one another again.”
.France followed Britain She also faced
.the same problems in the 1930s
believed that Germany was unfairly treated.believed that Germany was unfairly treated.
Britain had not recovered from the GreatBritain had not recovered from the Great
hoped that Nazi Germany could workhoped that Nazi Germany could work
against communism.against communism.
How far was Britain’s
Chamberlain Returns to Britain
• “I have met with Herr Hitler and we have
insured peace in our time!”
Responses towards the Munich Agreement
““Give thanks to your God. …It was the war that nobodyGive thanks to your God. …It was the war that nobody
wanted. Nobody in Germany. Nobody in France. Nobody,wanted. Nobody in Germany. Nobody in France. Nobody,
above all, in Britain.” ~ Daily Express 1938above all, in Britain.” ~ Daily Express 1938
““We have experienced a totalWe have experienced a total
defeat. Silently,defeat. Silently,
Czechoslovakia will beCzechoslovakia will be
swallowed by the Nazis. Thisswallowed by the Nazis. This
is only the beginning.”is only the beginning.”
The USA had not
yet recovered from
the policy of
(right) and a poor family in
Identify the foreign
policy of the
United States in
the cartoon. What
was the attitude of
land lost to
Poland in 1919
land lost to
ia in 1919
Germany in 1935
occupied by Germany, 1936-39
lost by Germany to Poland in
Who’s next? In March 1939, Nazi Troops annexed the complete
Where do you think the Nazis would invade next?
To prevent the mistake of another two front war, the
Germany signed a Non-Aggression PactNon-Aggression Pact with the Soviet
Dictator, Stalin and Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov for
the division of Poland on August 23, 1939.
September 1, 1939,
Hitler signed the Nazi-Hitler signed the Nazi-
Soviet Non-aggressionSoviet Non-aggression
Pact before invadingPact before invading
To ensure he could get Poland without hindrance by
USSR. He needed to avoid war on two fronts.
Under T of V, Ger had lost Polish corridor and
Danzig. Hitler wanted these territories back.
Hitler wanted Polish territory as lebensraum.
Hitler now knew that if he invaded Poland, the
USSR would not stop him.
To test Br and Fr since Br had guaranteed Poland’s
independence before. USSR, Br and Fr had been
discussing how to defend Poland. This was a threat
Stalin knew USSR would fight against Ger. The Pact
gave him time to delay war and gained time to re-arm
and build up his military strength.
Land was partly taken from Russia to re-create Poland
after WWI. The pact allowed the USSR to gain get their
share of Poland without having to fight.
He could not trust Br and Fr.
He was upset that he was not invited to the Munich
Conference, and that Br and Fr ‘betrayed’ him by making
USSR fight alone if war broke out with Ger.
After signing the non-aggression pact with the USSR,
Hitler launched the Blitzkrieg of Poland on
September 1, 1939.
On September 3, 1939
France and Britain declared
war on Germany.
Britain and France demanded Hitler to
stop the invasion of Poland.
It brought new alliances as it brought together Ger and the
USSR. Suspicion between USSR and Allies continued to grow.
It was the most important immediate cause of war. Hitler knew
that he could invade Poland without having to worry about what
action the USSR would take. This gave Hitler confidence.
It encouraged the aggression of both Ger and USSR. It gave
them time to build up military strength.
The pact left Br and Fr alone to fight against Germany.
Hitler achieved his aims: regained land lost at Versailles,
acquired Lebensraum and avoided a two-front war.
Br’s Appeasement policy
1919 peace treaties
In 1940, Germany, Italy and Japan formed theIn 1940, Germany, Italy and Japan formed the
Berlin-Rome-Tokyo AxisBerlin-Rome-Tokyo Axis..
1 Sept 1939, German troops swept through Poland
using tanks from Czechoslovakian.
Br and Fr declared war on Germany on 3 Sept 1939.
death upon the
City of Warsaw,
The Polish Army,
and out fought,
With the Polish Army in retreat, Stalin stabbed
the beleaguered Poles in the back by launching an
invasion from the East on September 19, 1939. Poland
crumbled. The Polish Government surrendered on
September 27, 1939.
With the surrender of Poland, Hitler and the
Nazis turned their gaze westward to the nations of
Denmark, Norway, Belgium, the Netherlands,
Luxembourg, France and the Great Britain. During the
winter of 1939-1940, very little fighting took place, while
the Nazi armies moved towards their positions for an
attack on the Western Front.
Norwegian & Danish Armies
Belgium & Dutch
Troop Placements April 1940
The Nazis surprised the Western
Powers with this new type of
lightning warfare known as
The Nazi Armies smashed into
France cutting through the
Ardennes Forest and driving
quickly to the English Channel
cutting the Western Forces in two.
The British, Belgian, and French
Armies now retreated to the port
city of Dunkirk and prayed for a
May 15, 1940 the Netherlands
May 28, 1940 Belgium
Now the Nazi Armies struck Northward in force.
April 9, 1940 Denmark fell in one day.
On the same day Norway was attacked in an air and sea invasion.
On May 10, 1940, the Nazis invaded France, Belgium,
Luxembourg, and the Netherlands.
335,000 British, Belgian and
French Troops were forced to
retreat to the beaches of
By a miracle, the Nazi tank
halted their advance for three
days, allowing for their
evacuation to England.
Nazi Germany has in only a few short months conquered most
of Continental Europe. The Nazis set up a puppet government
at Vichy. Great Britain is all that now stands against the German
Great Britain now stood alone, held
together only by the iron will of her
Bulldog Prime Minister,
British Spitfires German Messerschmitt
The Battle of Britain