Hitler's foreign policy, Nazi expansion, road to WWII


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Hitler's foreign policies since 1935, Nazi expansion from the Saar to Poland, Appeasement policy and the Munich Agreement of 1938, and causes of WW2 http://curriculumglobal.blogspot.com

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Hitler's foreign policy, Nazi expansion, road to WWII

  1. 1. Nazi Expansion of Germany 1933-1940
  2. 2. *Hitler's foreign policy Major aims?
  3. 3. Who can tell what my foreign policy goals are?
  4. 4. Abolish the Treaty of Versailles by retrieving lost land, regain the Saar & expand German territory. To restore German pride. Creation of a ‘Greater Germany’ by uniting all German speaking people in one home land. Make Germany a world power. Establish a large empire in Europe where pure Aryans would live. Anschluss (re-unite) with Austria. Rearmament and re-militarisation of the Rhineland; building up German armed forces. To expand in the east and take over Poland and the west of the USSR (lebensraum). To destroy the USSR and remove the threat of communism. Hitler’s foreign policy goals
  5. 5. 1914 (right before The Great War)
  6. 6. Europe -1919 (after Treaty of Versailles ends WWI)
  7. 7. Compare Europe… 1914 1919
  8. 8. 8 German expansion in Europe before the outbreak of World War II HITLER'S FIRST MOVE???
  9. 9. 9 *Rearmament*Rearmament • Introduced a new armed force!Introduced a new armed force! • 1935 began conscription and1935 began conscription and increased the army to 550,000!increased the army to 550,000! • By 'Anglo-German Naval Treaty'By 'Anglo-German Naval Treaty' of 1935, Ger could build a fleetof 1935, Ger could build a fleet 1/3 the size of Britain’s and the1/3 the size of Britain’s and the same number of submarines!same number of submarines! • built 1,000 war planesbuilt 1,000 war planes *What allowed him to rearm*What allowed him to rearm successfully?successfully?
  10. 10. Junker 87 Stuka Dive Bomber Fifth Panzer Attack Tan Battleshi p Bismark
  11. 11. Saar 1935 - A Plebiscite was held by LN to determine the future of the Saar (as stated in the Treaty of Versailles) - Vast majority voted for union with Germany.
  12. 12. *Describe the events in the Saar 1935 [5] rich coal-mining area! Under T of V, the Saar had been under the control of the League of Nations for 15 years. Plebiscite: The vote was 477,000 for; 48,000 against! 90%!!! Implications? A tremendous propaganda success for Hitler!
  13. 13. Germany was restricted from placing troops in the Rhineland according the Versailles Treaty of 1919. HITLER'S THIRD MOVE
  14. 14. 15 Germany’s expansion in EuropeGermany’s expansion in Europe German troops in the Rhineland in 1936 7 March 1936 Hitler broke the Treaty of7 March 1936 Hitler broke the Treaty of Versailles by sending troops into the Rhineland.Versailles by sending troops into the Rhineland.
  15. 15. Germany Invades the Rhineland 1936 Was it a good idea?
  16. 16. Well, not really... Germany was not ready. It's breaking the T of V and not sure how Br and Fr would react. There was a good chance that Fr would send troops to resist the Ger forces and that would mean war. Many German generals were unhappy with the plan as the French outnumbered them. If forced to withdraw, he would face humiliation and would have lost support of the army and people. Germany had accepted the Locarno Treaties of 1925 earlier.
  17. 17. So what happened? *Describe the remilitarisation of Rhineland in 1936. ‘In March 1936, Hitler ordered his troops into the Rhineland, against the terms of the T of V.’ ‘German army generals were against it as the French would resist and German army was not ready for war.’ ‘The army had orders to withdraw if they met opposition.’ ‘It was a gamble made by Hitler, but all went smoothly without opposition. Most people welcomed the troops.’
  18. 18. *But why could Hitler do it?!?! The League of Nations was preoccupied by Abyssinia Crisis of 1935-6. League condemned Hitler’s action but had no power to do anything else. ‘France’s leaders were not prepared to act. France was about to hold an election and no leader was prepared to take responsibility of taking France into war.’ ‘France would not act without British support.’ Britain thought Rhineland belonged to Germany. ‘Britain would not risk war over “Hitler marching into his own backyard” and taking what was rightfully hers.’
  19. 19. The Rhineland was reunited with Germany. France and Great Britain did not move against this violation of Versailles.
  20. 20. 21 In 1936, the Berlin-Rome Axis was formed.In 1936, the Berlin-Rome Axis was formed. Formation of the Axis Powers (Formation of the Axis Powers ( 軸心國軸心國 ))
  21. 21. The Spanish Civil War 1936-9The Spanish Civil War 1936-9
  22. 22. Spanish Civil WarSpanish Civil War Civil war in Spain in which FrancoCivil war in Spain in which Franco succeeded in overthrowing thesucceeded in overthrowing the republican government; during therepublican government; during the war Spain became a battlegroundwar Spain became a battleground for fascists and socialists fromfor fascists and socialists from countries; 1936-1939 (Miller).countries; 1936-1939 (Miller).
  23. 23. How It Started Started in 1936 from a Conflict between the Republic and forces led by Gen. Francisco Franco. i.e. Communists (left) vs. Nationalists / Fascists (right) Italy and Germany helped the Nationalists!
  24. 24. Supplies for WarSupplies for War Mussolini sent 70,000 troops to help the NationalistsMussolini sent 70,000 troops to help the Nationalists Hitler provided planes, pilots, arms, and technicians toHitler provided planes, pilots, arms, and technicians to the Nationalists as well.the Nationalists as well. Britain and France remained neutral during the conflict.Britain and France remained neutral during the conflict.
  25. 25. Guernica A painting by Picasso in 1937 representing the death of 250 people these deaths were due to Nazi Germany testing their new weapons on Spain
  26. 26. March 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria without any significant opposition from the major world powers. The Anschluss Hitler’s next Move
  27. 27. “Anschluss” (Annexation) of Austria 1938
  28. 28. *What did Hitler want to achieve from Anschluss? By joining with Austria (German-speaking), Hitler had helped his development of a Greater Germany. A launch pad for future invasions!!! Hitler had acquired his homeland Austria’s soldiers and rich gold and iron were added to Germany’s army and industry. Austria was economically weak, so the union might be of benefit by bringing them into Greater Germany. It tested the Allies, proving that they would not go to war over a treaty which seemed flawed. This encouraged Hitler.
  29. 29. 31 In 1938, Germany annexed Austria.In 1938, Germany annexed Austria. Hitler’s visit to Austria
  30. 30. *Why could he do it again?!?! Hitler had built up his armed forces + achieved success in the Saar & Rhineland + failures of League of Nations + passivity of Br & Fr = CONFIDENCE! Austrian Chancellor, Schuschnigg, appointed Nazis into his government who campaigned for Hitler by staging mass parades. Hitler bullied him into giving more power to the Austrian Nazis. Schuschnigg changed his mind and ordered a plebiscite. The Austrian Nazis asked Germany to send in troops to restore order. A plebiscite was held and 99% voted in favour of the Anschluss. Other countries took no action. Britain and France did not object as most Austrians were pleased with it.
  31. 31. http://www.schoolhistory.co.uk/games/walk/walk_worldatwar.html World War II: How Did It Start? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PCXSuaOozDE
  32. 32. Hitler now sets his eye on the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia, an area with a large German population!
  33. 33. Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia • (yellow)
  34. 34. 36 Hitler demanded Czechoslovakia to return Sudetenland German troops in Sudetenland in 1938
  35. 35. 37 • RearmingRearming,, • Militarizing theMilitarizing the RhinelandRhineland in 1936in 1936 • Uniting withUniting with AustriaAustria • Occupying parts ofOccupying parts of CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia inin 1938.1938. Germany violatedGermany violated the Treaty ofthe Treaty of Versailles!!!Versailles!!!
  36. 36. Consider this… 1. What are the things you know today but the world did not know in 1938? 2. How do these differences affect the way they looked at Hitler in 1938 and the way we do today?
  37. 37. Consider this… Your 5 year old cousin is very hungry and has stolen a few cookies already. He is now trying to take another one. What would you do? #1 – severely punish him, spank him, lock him up, make him pay for it #2 – tell him it’s wrong and make him pay for it #3 – immediately stop him and make sure he takes no more #4 – tell him he could have this last piece and promise not to take any more
  38. 38. 40 ,British Prime Minister Chamberlain adopted appeasement (trying to satisfy(trying to satisfy someone by givingsomeone by giving him what he wantshim what he wants )) Munich ConferenceMunich Conference 19381938 Chamberlain agreed to give Hitler parts of Czechoslovakia. Hitler agreed not to expand more.
  39. 39. 41 “We, the German Führer and Chancellor, and the British Prime Minister, have had a further meeting today and are agreed in recognising that the question of Anglo-German relations is of the first importance for our two countries and for Europe. We regard the agreement signed last night and the Anglo-German Naval Agreement as symbolic of the desire of our two peoples never to go to war with one another again.”
  40. 40. 42 .France followed Britain She also faced .the same problems in the 1930s WHY?!?!WHY?!?! believed that Germany was unfairly treated.believed that Germany was unfairly treated.  Britain had not recovered from the GreatBritain had not recovered from the Great Depression.Depression. hoped that Nazi Germany could workhoped that Nazi Germany could work against communism.against communism.
  41. 41. 43 How far was Britain’s appeasement policy justified ? Explain clearly.
  42. 42. Chamberlain Returns to Britain • “I have met with Herr Hitler and we have insured peace in our time!”
  43. 43. 45 Responses towards the Munich Agreement ““Give thanks to your God. …It was the war that nobodyGive thanks to your God. …It was the war that nobody wanted. Nobody in Germany. Nobody in France. Nobody,wanted. Nobody in Germany. Nobody in France. Nobody, above all, in Britain.” ~ Daily Express 1938above all, in Britain.” ~ Daily Express 1938 Churchill ““We have experienced a totalWe have experienced a total defeat. Silently,defeat. Silently, Czechoslovakia will beCzechoslovakia will be swallowed by the Nazis. Thisswallowed by the Nazis. This is only the beginning.”is only the beginning.”
  44. 44. 46 USA’s Response… The USA had not yet recovered from the Great .Depression Most Americans supported the policy of isolation. Unemployed Americans (right) and a poor family in the 1930s
  45. 45. 47 Identify the foreign policy of the United States in the cartoon. What was the attitude of the cartoonist towards this policy?
  46. 46. What, no chair for me?What, no chair for me?
  47. 47. 49 Failure of Appeasement  Appeasement by Britain and France encouraged Hitler to expand further.  Germany occupied Czechoslovakia in 1939.
  48. 48. Compare the pictures on p.259 and 270
  49. 49. 51 Poland Germany Austria Czechoslovakia Rhineland land lost to Poland in 1919 land lost to Czechoslovak ia in 1919 Germany in 1935 occupied by Germany, 1936-39 lost by Germany to Poland in 1919
  50. 50. Who’s next? In March 1939, Nazi Troops annexed the complete Czechoslovakia. Where do you think the Nazis would invade next? Hun
  51. 51. To prevent the mistake of another two front war, the Germany signed a Non-Aggression PactNon-Aggression Pact with the Soviet Dictator, Stalin and Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov for the division of Poland on August 23, 1939.
  52. 52. 54 September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland. Hitler signed the Nazi-Hitler signed the Nazi- Soviet Non-aggressionSoviet Non-aggression Pact before invadingPact before invading Poland.Poland.
  53. 53. To ensure he could get Poland without hindrance by USSR. He needed to avoid war on two fronts. Under T of V, Ger had lost Polish corridor and Danzig. Hitler wanted these territories back. Hitler wanted Polish territory as lebensraum. Hitler now knew that if he invaded Poland, the USSR would not stop him. To test Br and Fr since Br had guaranteed Poland’s independence before. USSR, Br and Fr had been discussing how to defend Poland. This was a threat to Hitler.
  54. 54. Stalin knew USSR would fight against Ger. The Pact gave him time to delay war and gained time to re-arm and build up his military strength. Land was partly taken from Russia to re-create Poland after WWI. The pact allowed the USSR to gain get their share of Poland without having to fight. He could not trust Br and Fr. He was upset that he was not invited to the Munich Conference, and that Br and Fr ‘betrayed’ him by making USSR fight alone if war broke out with Ger.
  55. 55. After signing the non-aggression pact with the USSR, Hitler launched the Blitzkrieg of Poland on September 1, 1939.
  56. 56. 60 On September 3, 1939 France and Britain declared war on Germany. Britain and France demanded Hitler to stop the invasion of Poland.
  57. 57.  It brought new alliances as it brought together Ger and the USSR. Suspicion between USSR and Allies continued to grow.  It was the most important immediate cause of war. Hitler knew that he could invade Poland without having to worry about what action the USSR would take. This gave Hitler confidence.  It encouraged the aggression of both Ger and USSR. It gave them time to build up military strength.  The pact left Br and Fr alone to fight against Germany.  Hitler achieved his aims: regained land lost at Versailles, acquired Lebensraum and avoided a two-front war.
  58. 58. Nazi-Soviet Pact Great Depression Others? Hitler's foreign policies Allies’ inaction Br’s Appeasement policy 1919 peace treaties
  59. 59. 63 In 1940, Germany, Italy and Japan formed theIn 1940, Germany, Italy and Japan formed the Berlin-Rome-Tokyo AxisBerlin-Rome-Tokyo Axis..
  60. 60. 1 Sept 1939, German troops swept through Poland using tanks from Czechoslovakian. Br and Fr declared war on Germany on 3 Sept 1939. Blitzkrieg Of Poland
  61. 61. Junker 87 Stuka Dive Bombers rained death upon the City of Warsaw, Poland. The Polish Army, out gunned, out manned, and out fought, retreated eastward.
  62. 62. With the Polish Army in retreat, Stalin stabbed the beleaguered Poles in the back by launching an invasion from the East on September 19, 1939. Poland crumbled. The Polish Government surrendered on September 27, 1939.
  63. 63. With the surrender of Poland, Hitler and the Nazis turned their gaze westward to the nations of Denmark, Norway, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France and the Great Britain. During the winter of 1939-1940, very little fighting took place, while the Nazi armies moved towards their positions for an attack on the Western Front. The Phony War 1939-1940
  64. 64. Nazi Army Italian A. Maginot Line British Army Norwegian & Danish Armies Ardennes French Armies Belgium & Dutch Armies Troop Placements April 1940
  65. 65. The Nazis surprised the Western Powers with this new type of lightning warfare known as Blitzkrieg. The Nazi Armies smashed into France cutting through the Ardennes Forest and driving quickly to the English Channel cutting the Western Forces in two. The British, Belgian, and French Armies now retreated to the port city of Dunkirk and prayed for a miracle. May 15, 1940 the Netherlands SURRENDERED May 28, 1940 Belgium SURRENDERED
  66. 66. Now the Nazi Armies struck Northward in force. April 9, 1940 Denmark fell in one day. On the same day Norway was attacked in an air and sea invasion. On May 10, 1940, the Nazis invaded France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands.
  67. 67. Norway surrendered on June 10, 1940
  68. 68. 335,000 British, Belgian and French Troops were forced to retreat to the beaches of Dunkirk. By a miracle, the Nazi tank halted their advance for three days, allowing for their evacuation to England.
  69. 69. France surrenders on June 22, 1940
  70. 70. Nazi Germany has in only a few short months conquered most of Continental Europe. The Nazis set up a puppet government at Vichy. Great Britain is all that now stands against the German Juggernaut. Great Britain
  71. 71. Great Britain now stood alone, held together only by the iron will of her Bulldog Prime Minister, Winston Churchill.
  72. 72. British Spitfires German Messerschmitt The Battle of Britain