Cold War beginning 1945-1949


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Origins of the Cold War - Yalta Conference, Potsdam, Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, Berlin Blockade & Airlift, China, NATO

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Cold War beginning 1945-1949

  1. 1. COLD WAR (1945-90) US vs. USSR
  2. 2. - Have you had a cold war with someone? - How can you tell when two people are having a cold war? - What do people do to each other in a cold war? - How similar / different is it when two countries are having a cold war?
  3. 3. ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR After being Allies during WWII, USA and USSR viewed each other with increasing suspicion Their political differences created a climate of tension that plunged the two countries into an era of bitter rivalry The Cold War would dominate global affairs from 1945 until the breakup of the USSR in 1991
  4. 4. POLITICAL DIFFERENCES At the core of the tension was a fundamental difference in ideological & political systems U.S.A.: democracy + capitalist economic system: elections and competing political parties U.S.S.R.: one party dictatorship – the Communists – in which the state controls all resources and activities, little rights for the citizens Soviets viewed Marx, Engels and Lenin as founders of Communism
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. Yalta Conference Feb 1945Yalta Conference Feb 1945 Germany was stillGermany was still undefeated, but losing!undefeated, but losing! Relationship between BigRelationship between Big 3?3? What's on the agenda?What's on the agenda?
  7. 7. *What was decided at the Yalta Conference of February 1945? Ger was to be defeated and then disarmed. Ger was to be divided into 4 occupational zones, which to be controlled by USA, USSR, Br and Fr. Berlin would be in the Soviet zone and also to be divided into 4. Ger would have to pay reparations. USSR would join the war against Japan. A United Nations to be set up to keep the peace. Eastern Europe to become a ‘sphere of influence’ for the USSR. As E. E. countries are liberated, they would hold elections to set up democratic governments. There were to be adjustments to the Polish/USSR border.
  8. 8. Yalta Feb 1945 Big Three – Roosevelt – Churchill – Stalin Agreed to govern Germany jointly
  9. 9. RT – 65th anniversary of Yalta v=xVGDJNxRzOw
  10. 10. What did Stalin gain from Yalta? [5] - One Soviet zone in Germany; one Soviet zone in Berlin. - E. Europe would be a ‘Soviet sphere of influence’ - His plans for Poland’s boundaries included large territories from E. Poland. - the right to deal with prisoners of war from Soviet territories. - USSR would have veto power in the UN Security Council.
  11. 11. Yalta – Feb 1945
  12. 12. Potsdam – Aug 1945
  13. 13. What had changed? P. 322-323 And what problems were created these changes?
  14. 14. Battle of Berlin 1945
  15. 15. SUSPICIONS DURING THE WAR Stalin was furious that the U.S. had kept its development of the atomic bomb a secret ISSUE S
  16. 16. USSR DOMINATED E. EUROPE USSR suffered ~ 20 million deaths (half were civilians) they felt justified in their claim to E E needed E E as a buffer against future German aggression Also the land lost in WWI
  17. 17. PUPPET GOVERNMENTSPUPPET GOVERNMENTS Stalin installed “satellite” states in E. E.: Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia and E. Germany This after promising “free elections” for Eastern Europe at the Yalta Conference In a 1946 speech, Stalin said communism and capitalism were incompatible – and another war was inevitable
  18. 18. *What was agreed at Potsdam?*What was agreed at Potsdam? • Japan would be attacked as planned (didn't say how) • Ger (+Berlin) would be divided into 4 occupational zones. Details were finalized • Anything of value could be taken from Germany as reparations. USSR could have additional reparations. • Nuremberg trials set up to deal with Nazi criminals. • Germans living in Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Poland to be sent back to Germany.
  19. 19. Relations at Potsdam?Relations at Potsdam?
  20. 20. *Why so much difficulties and*Why so much difficulties and tension at Potsdam?tension at Potsdam? - USSR and the West held differing views regarding future of Germany and EE. Both were suspicious of the other side's motives - Roosevelt died. Truman was more anti-Communist. He saw Stalin’s actions as a Soviet take-over of EE. - Soviet troops had liberated EE but refused to withdraw. During Potsdam Conf, Stalin’s troops controlled the Baltic States → widespread fear of a Communist take-over. - Stalin set up a Communist govt in Poland as buffer zone against the west, ignoring protests of Br, USA, and the Poles. - Stalin discovered that USA had secretly tested an atomic bomb! → more suspicion and tension.
  21. 21. U.S. ESTABLISHED POLICY OF CONTAINMENTCONTAINMENT Faced with the Soviet threat, in 1946, George Kennan, an American diplomat in Moscow, proposed a policy of containment It meant U.S.A. would do anything to prevent further expansion of communism
  22. 22. CHURCHILL’sCHURCHILL’s ““IRON CURTAIN” SPEECHIRON CURTAIN” SPEECH Europe was now divided into two political camps: a democratic WE and a communist EE In a 1946 speech, Churchill said, “An iron curtain has descended across the continent” The phrase “iron curtain” came to stand for the division of Europe Churchill, right, in Fulton, Missouri delivering his “iron curtain” speech, 1946
  23. 23. The idea of ‘West vs. East’ A guarded border between two rivalry political systems The imaginary division of Europe into two halves: the Soviet satellites in communist and dictatorships in EE VS. the capitalist & democratic states in WE.
  24. 24. *So what’s the situation in 1946? • EE was largely in the hands of the USSR! Why? • USSR’s Red Army liberated EE from Nazis occupation during WWII. • Yalta Conf. guaranteed EE to be Soviet ‘sphere of influence’. • Stalin refused to withdraw his troops and used EE as a buffer zone against ‘attacks’ from the west. • Communist govts in Soviet satellites. • The ‘democratic elections’ were rigged by Stalin. • 'Iron Curtain' speech
  25. 25. THE UNITED NATIONS Hopes for world peace were high at the end of the war The most visible symbol was the United Nations (U.N.) Formed in June 1945, the U.N. was composed of 50 nations Unfortunately, the U.N. soon became a forum for competing superpowers to spread their influence over others The United Nations today has 191 member countries
  26. 26. Then something happened in Greece...
  27. 27. THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE American policy of “containment” soon became the “Truman Doctrine” This doctrine vowed to provide aid to support “free peoples who are resisting outside pressures” of communism Aid = military + financial aid! By 1950, the U.S. had given $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey Implications? Biography: atch?v=XzviCCiQ6MwCold War doc on
  28. 28. Marshall Plan U.S. Secretary of State George Marshall proposed a large-scale aid program to rebuild Europe. Nearly $17 billion in U.S. aid was sent to Europe 1948 - 1952.
  29. 29. THE MARSHALL PLAN Post-war Europe was devastated economically In 1947, Secretary of State Marshall proposed a U.S. aid package to European nations Western Europe accepted the help, while Eastern Europe was not allowed to. 16 countries received $13 billion in U.S. aid By 1952 Western Europe’s economy was flourishing The Marshall Plan helped Western Europe recover economically
  30. 30. Marshall Plan aid sent to European countries
  31. 31. Greece 1947
  32. 32. Marshall Aid cartoon, 1947
  33. 33. “It’s the same thing without mechanical problems.”
  34. 34. USA USSR 1
  35. 35. So why the Truman Doctrine & MarshallSo why the Truman Doctrine & Marshall Plan were so significant?Plan were so significant? Hints: - to Greece? - to Eastern Europe/ Europe? - to USA’s foreign policy? - to US-Soviet relations? - for the development of Cold War?
  36. 36. • It ensured Greece did not fall to the Communists. In 1945 Br sent troops to Greece to support the non-Communist side. But in 1947 Br could not afford it anymore. The USA offered financial aid for Br troops and helped the non-communist side win. This marked start of Truman Doctrine era. • It marked the end of USA isolationism and beginning of USA’s active involvement and ‘world collaboration’ and that ‘there would be no more appeasement of dictators.’ USA was determined to prevent the spread of Communism. Every Communist action would meet an American reaction. • USA was resolved to send financial and equipment aid to any country threatened by a Communist take-over. Truman’s aim was ‘containment’ - to stop communism from spreading further. • Money and advice were invested in WE to recover from WWII. • It contributed to the Cold War and further increased tension and suspicion between the two superpowers. It led to more hostile reactions from Stalin (Berlin), formation of NATO, arms race and USA’s involvement later in Asia, (Korea and Vietnam).
  37. 37. US$ 17 billion to Europe!
  38. 38. Where is this?
  39. 39. Why was Berlin a source ofWhy was Berlin a source of conflicts in 1940s?conflicts in 1940s? The future of Berlin was never clarified in Potsdam. In 1948 USA, Br and Fr zones merged to form West Berlin and introduced a new currency. Stalin thought this was against the Yalta Agreement and was a plot to make East Berliners envious of capitalism. West Berlin was an isolated area of capitalism (with Marshall Aid $) and democracy, surrounded by communism. Stalin feared that the Allies were planning to reunite Germany. So he tried to force them out from West Berlin. USA convinced the world that Stalin was plotting to take over the whole of Ger and then the rest of Europe. Tension escalated when Stalin blockaded all supply routes into West Berlin. Eventually Stalin had to back down.
  40. 40. SUPERPOWERS STRUGGLE OVER GERMANY In 1948. USA, Fr, and Br decided to combine their 3 zones into 1 (West Germany) and introduced a new currency Stalin thought it was against Yalta agreement and that the Allies were trying to create a new Germany that was wealthier than the Soviet East Germany. Now more problems were bound to occur
  41. 41. Western Allies had no right to be in Berlin. They are threatening us because they had a base in our Soviet Zone and they are showing off the capitalist way of life!
  42. 42. Berlin BlockadeBerlin Blockade  On 24 June 1948, Stalin blocked all 3 routes between West Allied zone to West Berlin!  the 2.1 million residents of West Berlin had only enough food for 5 weeks ch?v=5EAwwNmBRP8 Intro -> 13:34 – 16:00 ->
  43. 43. USA & BR AIRLIFT SUPPLIESUSA & BR AIRLIFT SUPPLIES TO WEST BERLINTO WEST BERLIN Trying avoid a military war with the Soviets, USA and Br started the Berlin airlift to drop supplies into West Berlin For 327 days, 277,000 flights, they brought in 2.3 million tons of food, fuel and medicine to the West Berliners
  44. 44. Facts about theFacts about the OperationOperation  All for 2.5 million people (~ 4,500 tons of supplies each day).  On its biggest day, the "Easter parade“, April 16, 1949, there were 1,398 flights -- one every minute.  In total, >278,000 flights carried 2.3 million tons of relief supplies.
  45. 45. Berliners receiving food
  46. 46. SOVIETS LIFT BLOCKADE Realizing they were beaten and suffering a public relations nightmare, the Soviets gave up and lifted their blockade in May, 1949
  47. 47. Results ofResults of Airlift?Airlift?  A victory for Allies and disaster for Stalin  Tensions between the West and the Soviets further increased!  Allied cooperation paved way for formation of new military alliance, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO  Soviets formed their own alliance, called Warsaw Pact in 1955
  48. 48. USA USSR 12
  49. 49. v=5EAwwNmBRP8 Beginning until 03:40 13:34-20:47 32:14-37:16 40:40-
  50. 50. NATO FORMED The Berlin blockade increased Western Europe’s fear of Soviet aggression As a result, ten West European nations joined the U.S and Canada on April 4, 1949 to form a defensive alliance known as the North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationThe NATO flag
  51. 51. On April 4, 1949, twelve Atlantic nations formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The NATO flag NATO (1949)
  52. 52. signing of North Atlantic Treaty April 4, 1949
  53. 53. A meeting of the NATO representatives
  54. 54. 11stst October 1949October 1949 The People’sThe People’s Republic ofRepublic of China wasChina was establishedestablished under Maounder Mao Zedong!Zedong! 1949: The Birth of PRC
  55. 55. Growth of Communism in ChinaGrowth of Communism in China Sun Yat-sen appealed for Soviet aid following the Versailles Conference 1921-25 – China received advisors, arms, communist propaganda, and loans from USSR!
  56. 56. 2: COLD WAR HEATS UP in Asia! Since 1920s Chinese communists struggled against nationalist government of Chiang Kai-Shek U.S.A. supported Chiang by giving his Nationalist Party $3 billion aid during WWII ! But Mao Zedong’s Communist Party in China was stronger and more popular (especially among peasants)
  57. 57. Civil War in China 1927-1937Civil War in China 1927-1937 war between Communists and Nationalists Communist leader – Mao Zedong Nationalist leader – Chiang Kai-shek
  58. 58. War halted in 1939-45 (to fight against the Japanese) Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalist government wasted foreign economic aid on corruption and ineffective management… Communists were victorious in 1949 Nationalists retreated to Taiwan
  59. 59. CHINESE CIVIL WAR: 1945-1947 After Japan left China in 1945, Nationalists and Communists fought a bloody civil war Despite the U.S. sending $ billions to the Nationalists, the Communists under Mao won the war and ruled China MA O
  60. 60. Communist China gained control over: Turkestan (Xinjiang) Inner Mongolia Manchuria Tibet PRC = People’s Republic of China / ROC = Republic of China
  61. 61. Suddenly 20% of the world turned communist! The Americans were very nervous that communist would soon spread to the whole Asia. Why was the PRCWhy was the PRC significant?significant?
  62. 62. USA STUNNED USA was shocked that China had fallen to the Communists Many believed containment had failed and communism was expanding American fear of communist expansion increased – ‘domino theory’
  63. 63. MCCARTHY LAUNCHES “WITCH HUNT” The most famous anti- Communist activist was Senator Joseph McCarthy, a Republican from Wisconsin McCarthy took advantage of people’s concern about Communism by making unsupported claims that 205 state department members were Communists
  64. 64. Anti- Communist propaganda during McCarthy era
  65. 65. MCCARTHY’S DOWNFALL Finally, in 1954 McCarthy went too far He accused high ranking Army officers of being Communists In the televised proceedings McCarthy’s bullying of witnesses alienated the national audience Three years later he died of alcoholism at age 49 McCarthy’s attacking style and utter lack of evidence led to his downfall
  66. 66. SECTION 4: TWO NATIONS LIVE ON THE EDGE After World War II, the U.S. and U.S.S.R. competed in developing atomic and hydrogen bombs The Soviets tested their first atomic bomb in 1949 The U.S. began work on a bomb 67 times stronger than the atomic bomb dropped on An H-bomb test conducted by America near Bikini Island in Pacific Ocean, 1954
  67. 67. BRINKMANSHIP By the time both countries had the H-bomb (1953), Eisenhower and his Secretary of State Dulles made it clear they were willing to use all military force (including nuclear weapons) to stop aggression The Soviets followed suit This willingness to go to the edge of all-out war became known as brinkmanship Some Americans created shelters in their backyards in case of nuclear attack
  68. 68. THE COLD WAR SPREADS As the Cold War heated up, the U.S. depended more and more on information compiled by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) The CIA began attempts to weaken or overthrow governments unfriendly to the U.S.
  69. 69. THE WARSAW PACT To counter the U.S. defense alliance (NATO), in 1955 the Soviets formed their own mutual defense alliance known as the Warsaw Pact