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ICEM 2012 -The Application of Design Thinking Methodology on Research Practices
 

ICEM 2012 -The Application of Design Thinking Methodology on Research Practices

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The difficult task of innovation is a key facet of Research & Development (R&D) institutions. Innovation is also closely related with processes oriented to achieve solutions in design. By addressing ...

The difficult task of innovation is a key facet of Research & Development (R&D) institutions. Innovation is also closely related with processes oriented to achieve solutions in design. By addressing this topic, we propose to research new emerging design methods and provide an overview of design thinking tools that can be applied in an early stage of the R&D research process in order to produce meaningful results. This research presents a set of experimental guidelines and an analysis method for the application of these tools.

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    ICEM 2012 -The Application of Design Thinking Methodology on Research Practices ICEM 2012 -The Application of Design Thinking Methodology on Research Practices Presentation Transcript

    • authors Joana Cerejo and Prof. Álvaro Barbosa 28 September, 2012
    • Context & Goals Methodology Theoretical Framework Design Thinking agenda steps Proposed Method Case Studies & Conclusions Future Work
    • Context Design has changed its paradigm. Currently it is a tool for development, innovation and productivity. Now it goes much further than simply conception of an artifact.
    • The new design paradigms associated with the R&D management processes are an opportunity to maximize the transfer of knowledge and technology to various industries, in particular the creative industries.
    • Purposes of the study The tools and methods that R&D projects can use to innovate successfully existing research exercises or designing new ones is the main focus of this study.
    • Our goal is to create an analysis toolkit that enables both non-specialist and specialist users in order to perform high-quality design production. The challenge of this study is to develop a methodological tool that increases productivity within the R&D framework and innovation processes.
    • With this research, we aspected achieve new emerging design methods and provide an overview of design thinking tools that can be applied in an early stage of the R&D research process in order to produce meaningful results, that fosters economic growth as well as creative goals.
    • The design process is what puts design thinking into action. It is a structured approach to generating and evolving ideas. Methodology The design thinking process is a highly interactive and incremental process, driven by people with different backgrounds and experiences.
    • Case Studies The Case studies was applied in the framework of these two Portuguese R&D organizations: Because it is a small sample, the present results should not be considered as definitive, but as a reference for future research.
    • Fourth Design Orders; Wicked Problems from Richard Buchanan [1992, 1998, 2001] Theoretical Framework Abductive Reasoning from Exploration and Exploitation from Roger Martin [2009] Charles Pierce [1865] Flowchart
    • Design Thinking Design Thinking Fourth Order of Design Third Order of Design Second Order of Design First Order of Design
    • One of the main focuses of design thinking is the expression towards the user and end-user. Therefore, design thinking has a strong focus on human and user needs, in order to involve the user into the process as and placing them in the center of solving innovation problems. (Lockwood, 2009).
    • Holistic Design thinking has also a strong foundation in a holistic perspective since it advocates a comprehensive analysis and a general understanding of the phenomena. Anderson (2007). Co-creative It acts as a bridge between the project and all the stokeholds involved in a project, focusing in optimizing the processes. (Stickdorn & Schneider 2012; Ambrose & Harris 2010).
    • Multidisciplinary Design thinking has a strong element in multidisciplinary teams. It uses a vast range of methods and tools from various disciplines in order to explore and understand the behaviour and mindset of all people involved. (Stickdorn & Schneider 2012).
    • Problem Solving The challenges faced in R&D are mainly "wicked problems". The processes and tools used by design thinking are flexible and allow an efficient balance between this type of context. (Buchanan1992; Martin 2009; Kolko 2011). Abductive Thinking Through abductive reasoning, designer are able to take incomplete data, manipulate it in various ways and invent things that are relevant, innovative or appropriate; for this reason this becomes one of the focal aspects of design thinking. (Martin 2009; Kolko 2011; Golsby-Smith, 1996).
    • Proposed Method The design process is what puts design thinking into action. It is a structured approach to generating and evolving ideas. The design thinking process is a highly interactive and incremental process, driven by people with different backgrounds and experiences. Authors such as Stemple & badke_Schaub (2002) and Brown (2009) defend that the design process has 4 stages: Exploration Creation Reflection Implementation
    • Flowchart The presented methodology aims to identify the main criteria and tools that could be implemented into the actions of R&D organizations. To this end, we structured a flowchart that allows navigating through an itinerary that permits identifying the driving objectives and purpose of each project.
    • Design Thinking Diagnostic tool Yes Tasks Schedule! Product or Service are defined? No Shall we have a Brief ? Start by choosing the nature of your Project. No Tool Context Panorama Exploration Yes Or/And Or/And Tool Tool Or/And Or/And Tool Tool Brainstorming Moodboard Exploitation Group Sketching Yes Tool Affinity Diagram New Context? Tool Mind Map SDO No Or/And Tool Tool Motivation Matrix Yes Shall we have the enduser’s point of view? Yes Do you know the enduser’s profiles? Or/And Task Analysis Grid Tool Yes No Tool No Consider Case Studys? Case Studies Yes Shall we consider use Case Studies or Scenario Building? Tool Use Cases Stakeholder Maps No Stakeholder are already defined? Evidencing Scenario Building Or/And Or/And Blueprint Brand Matrix Tool Tool Personas Tool Tool System Map No Tool Cultural Probes Market Research! Tool Interaction Table Or/And Or/And Tool Tool Desktop Walktrough Tool Character Profiles Tool Tool Customer Journey Map Actores Map Role Play Tool Issue Cards Tool Mock Up No Are you satisfied with the progress? Yes Implementation Tool Poster Tool Experience Prototyping Tool Role Script Tool Templates Tool Storytelling Tool Scenario Building Tool Touchpoints Matrix Tool Storyboard
    • Design Thinking Diagnostic tool Yes Tasks Schedule! Product or Service are defined? No Shall we have a Brief ? Start by choosing the nature of your Project. No Tool Context Panorama Exploration Yes Or/And Or/And Tool Tool Or/And Or/And Tool Tool Brainstorming Moodboard Exploitation Group Sketching Yes Tool Affinity Diagram New Context? Tool Mind Map SDO No Or/And Tool Tool Motivation Matrix Yes Shall we have the enduser’s point of view? Yes Do you know the enduser’s profiles? Or/And Task Analysis Grid Tool Yes No Tool No Consider Case Studys? Case Studies Yes Shall we consider use Case Studies or Scenario Building? Tool Use Cases Stakeholder Maps No Stakeholder are already defined? Evidencing Scenario Building Or/And Or/And Blueprint Brand Matrix Tool Tool Personas Tool Tool System Map No Tool Cultural Probes Market Research! Tool Interaction Table Or/And Or/And Tool Tool Desktop Walktrough Tool Character Profiles Tool Tool Customer Journey Map Actores Map Role Play Tool Issue Cards Tool Mock Up No Are you satisfied with the progress? Yes Implementation Tool Poster Tool Experience Prototyping Tool Role Script Tool Templates Tool Storytelling Tool Scenario Building Tool Touchpoints Matrix Tool Storyboard
    • Design Thinking Diagnostic tool Yes Tasks Schedule! Product or Service are defined? No Shall we have a Brief ? Start by choosing the nature of your Project. No Tool Context Panorama Exploration Yes Or/And Or/And Tool Tool Or/And Or/And Tool Tool Brainstorming Moodboard Exploitation Group Sketching Yes Tool Affinity Diagram New Context? Tool Mind Map SDO No Or/And Tool Tool Motivation Matrix Yes Shall we have the enduser’s point of view? Yes Do you know the enduser’s profiles? Or/And Task Analysis Grid Tool Yes No Tool No Consider Case Studys? Case Studies Yes Shall we consider use Case Studies or Scenario Building? Tool Use Cases Stakeholder Maps No Stakeholder are already defined? Evidencing Scenario Building Or/And Or/And Blueprint Brand Matrix Tool Tool Personas Tool Tool System Map No Tool Cultural Probes Market Research! Tool Interaction Table Or/And Or/And Tool Tool Desktop Walktrough Tool Character Profiles Tool Tool Customer Journey Map Actores Map Role Play Tool Issue Cards Tool Mock Up No Are you satisfied with the progress? Yes Implementation Tool Poster Tool Experience Prototyping Tool Role Script Tool Templates Tool Storytelling Tool Scenario Building Tool Touchpoints Matrix Tool Storyboard
    • Case studies ARTTS Tool Brand Matrix Tool System Map Tool Tool Personas Character Profiles Streambolico Tool Brand Matrix Tool System Map Tool Personas Tool Actores Map Tool Experience Prototyping Tool Character Profiles Tool Storytelling This research work is based on tests performed in two different typologies of projects, in order to determine if design tools can influence innovation success in R&D.
    • Pre Field Work Field Work Post Field Work If an transversal approach of design thinking tools on R&D research processes were a successful approach. In the end, the relationship between these two realities can contribute to innovation success.
    • Stage 1.2 Define a list of participants 1.3 Define a meeting date Conduct meeting one – diagnostic of applicable tools for each project 2.2 Preparation of customized flowchart using the tools identified in 2.1 2.3 Conducting meeting two - application of the flowchart prepared in 2.2 at the Exploration and Creation stage 2.4 Conducting meeting three - application of the flowchart prepared in 2.2 at the Reflection and Implementation stages 3.1 Analysis of material produced by participants 3.2 Post Field Work Identifying two project to test the flowchart and serve as an example for the case studies 2.1 Field Work Objectives 1.1 Pre Field Work Phases Organization of the selection of ideas registered in material produced by participants the 3.3 Synthesis of a final composition 3.4 Deployment of surveys to the stakeholders 3.4 Evaluation the value of the proposed methodology
    • Results After the meetings, it was administered a questionnaire in order to evaluate a qualitative performance of the proposed model. Through this procedure, it was possible to observe that the groups shared the same points of view relative to the application of the proposed method.
    • The flowchart became a useful tool that is able to identify a set of design thinking tools in order to be applied in different situations. Hence, the evaluation of these two pilot case studies trough the use of a questionnaire also showed that these organizations are open to the use of design thinking as a methodology and considered that the results were meaningful. Would you be receptive to use the process of the proposed methodology again? IT CITAR Yes No
    • Future Work In summary, it will be necessary in the future, do more case studies and develop more advanced research in order to produce a more sustained conclusion. It seems clear, that the involvement of a designer in a team atmosphere is important when accomplishing design thinking processes — which is an important argument in favor of the role of the designer into R&D organizations in general, particularly for Portugal.
    • authors Joana Cerejo and Prof. Álvaro Barbosa www.jcerejo.com Questions