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Behaviorism

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  • 1. Behaviorism Review of Behaviorism and its applications to student behavior
  • 2. A. Classical Behaviorism 1. Behaviorists believe that we should examine only what can be directly observed and measured (Santrock, 2004). 2. Traditional behaviorist view: child is passive being whom adults can model by carefully controlling stimulus-response associations: development is continuous process, consisting of gradual increase with age in number and strength of associations
  • 3. A. Classical Behaviorism 1. Watson: concluded that environment is supreme force in development 2. Skinner (1904-1990): rejected Hull‟s idea; child's desirable behavior can be increased by following it with a wide variety of reinforcers; can be decreased through punishment.
  • 4. A. Classical Behaviorism 3. Two versions of the behavioral approach that are prominent today re the view of B.F. Skinner and social learning theory. 4. Skinner (1904-1990): behaviorism emphasizes the scientific study of observable responses and their environmental determinants (Santrock, 2004).
  • 5. A. Classical Behaviorism As a result of Skinner‟s work, operant conditioning became a broadly applied learning principle in child psychology. * Brainstorm examples of classical behaviorism in your classroom and school today.
  • 6. Four Techniques in Behaviorism  Negative reinforcement  Positive reinforcement  Response cost (reinforcement removal)  Punishment
  • 7. Positive Reinforcement  Positive Reinforcement--the term reinforcement always indicates a process that strengthens a behavior; the word positive has two cues associated with it. First, a positive or pleasant stimulus is used in the process, and second, the reinforcer is added (i.e., "positive" as in + sign for addition).
  • 8. Positive Reinforcement  R + (+S) + h R  In positive reinforcement, a positive reinforcer is added after a response and increases the frequency of the response.
  • 9. Negative Reinforcement  Negative Reinforcement-- the term reinforcement always indicates a process that strengthens a behavior; the word negative has two cues associated with it. First, a negative or aversive stimulus is used in the process, and second, the reinforcer is subtracted (i.e., "negative" as in a "-" sign for subtraction).  R – (-S) + h R
  • 10. Negative Reinforcement  In negative reinforcement, after the response the negative reinforcer is removed which increases the frequency of the response. (Note: There are two types of negative reinforcement: escape and avoidance. In general, the learner must first learn to escape before he or she learns to avoid.)
  • 11. Response Cost  Response Cost--if positive reinforcement strengthens a response by adding a positive stimulus, then response cost has to weaken a behavior by subtracting a positive stimulus. After the response the positive reinforcer is removed which weakens the frequency of the response.  R – (+S) = i R
  • 12. Punishment  Punishment--if negative reinforcement strengthens a behavior by subtracting a negative stimulus, than punishment has to weaken a behavior by adding a negative stimulus. After a response a negative or aversive stimulus is added which weakens the frequency of the response  R + (- S) = i R
  • 13. B. Social Learning Theory  Built on the principles of conditioning and reinforcement offering expanded views of how children and adults acquire new responses.  1950‟s: social learning theory became a major force in child development research
  • 14. B. Social Learning Theory  Bandura demonstrated that modeling, otherwise known as imitation or observational learning is basis for wide variety of children‟s behaviors; children acquire many favorable and unfavorable responses by watching and listening to people around them.
  • 15. B. Social Learning Theory  Most recent revision of Bandura‟s theory places so much emphasis on how children think about themselves and other people that he calls it social- cognitive theory, rather than social learning theory.
  • 16. C. Contributions of behaviorism  “applied behavior analysis” refers to procedures that combine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors that increase socially acceptable responses.  (aggression, language difficulties and extreme fears)
  • 17. D. Criticisms of behaviorism  Behaviorism and social learning theory have been criticized for underestimating children‟s role in their own development.
  • 18. E. Applications of behaviorism 1. Language 2. Foundations of morality 3. Aggression 4. Role of punishment 5. Gender development
  • 19. E. Applications of Behaviorism  1. Language  Acquired through operant conditioning  Imitation explains how children rapidly acquire complex utterances
  • 20. E. Applications of Behaviorism 2. Foundations of Morality  Operant conditioning is regarded as important way in which children pick up new responses  OC is not enough  Social learning: children largely learn to act morally through modeling  Once moral response is acquired, reinforcement in form of praise increases its frequency
  • 21. E. Applications of Behaviorism 3. Aggression  Studies of aggression and its relationship to viewing violence
  • 22. E. Applications of Behaviorism 4. Role of punishment: promotes only momentary compliance, not lasting changed in child‟s behavior If used, can increase effectiveness by: 1. Consistency 2. Warm adult-child relationship 3. explanations
  • 23. E. Applications of Behaviorism 5. Gender development 1. Both social learning theory (modeling and reinforcement) and cognitive- development theory (children as active thinkers) offer approaches to explaining children‟ gender typing 2. Emergence of gender schema theory
  • 24. Behaviorism  Grading student work and behavior  What products do you grade?  What work habits do you look for?  What is problem solving behavior?
  • 25. Social learning theory  In 1997 work, Bandura outlines important aspects of developing self- efficacy in children & adolescents.  Self-efficacy: the expectation that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes
  • 26. Acquiring Self - Efficacy  Bandura (1982, 1997) suggested four principal sources by which people gain information to influence their self- efficacy beliefs.
  • 27. Enactive Mastery  “a learner‟s own previous success at a task.”  Driscoll, M. P. (2007) Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. p. 318
  • 28. Vicarious Experiences  “the learner‟s observation of a role model attaining success at a task.”  Driscoll, M. P. (2007) Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. p. 318
  • 29. Verbal persuasion  “others persuading a learner that he or she is capable of succeeding at a particular task.”  Driscoll, M. P. (2007) Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. p. 318
  • 30. Physiological States  “their „gut feeling‟ convinces them of probably success for failure”  Driscoll, M. P. (2007) Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. p. 318
  • 31. Infants  Infants need a stimulating environment that encourages them to sense that their actions produce outcomes.
  • 32. Self efficacy in young children  Young children are developing self- efficacy  Young children‟s requirements for extensive monitoring by competent adults
  • 33. Parental role in self-efficacy  Over-protective parents constrain children‟s master capabilities.  Secure parents are more likely to encourage children‟s exploratory efforts and give them an opportunity to experience a feeling of mastery.
  • 34. The school‟s role in developing self-efficacy  A basic goal of education is to equip children with the self-control that enables children to educate themselves;  as children master cognitive skills they develop a growing sense of intellectual self-efficacy
  • 35. Self-efficacy in adolescence  As children move into adolescence, they have to assume increasing responsibility for their behavior.  The way in which adolescents develop and exercise their self-efficacy can be critical in setting the courses that their life paths take.
  • 36. Self-efficacy, in summary  When children have high self- efficacy, they are more likely to do well in school and be more competent in a number of areas of life than when they have low self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997, 1998)
  • 37. References  Berk, L. (1999). Infants, and children: Infancy through middle childhood. Boston: Allyn & Bacon  Kail, R. (1998). Children and their development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.  Santrock, J. (2000). Children (6th ed.). McGraw Hill.

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