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Critical approaches week7 - audience theory

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  • 1. Critical Approaches toCritical Approaches to Media ProductsMedia ProductsBTEC National Diploma in Media (Games)
  • 2. Develop our responses to media products/texts. (GENRE) How the industry defines an audiences for their products/texts (DEMO/PYSCHOGRAPHIC) How the industry create products for specific audiences/texts (ANCHORAGE) How different audiences respond to media products/texts (AUDIENCE THEORY)
  • 3. How different audiences respond to media products/texts.
  • 4. Effects DebateEffects Debate http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Q0FoBuOdR8&feature=relmfu Dr Michael Morgan University of Massachusetts Doctor of Communication Theory
  • 5. Audience TheoryAudience Theory Cultivation Theory: Study around the effect of mass media communication forms on a population. “those who spend more time watching television are more likely to perceive the real world in ways that reflect the most common and recurrent messages of the television world, compared with people who watch less television” Drama clip: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wn6phBkcyqk&feature=related Anim: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vw9DsOA1Y-w&feature=related
  • 6. Audience TheoryAudience Theory Is life better on screensIs life better on screens Who do we think we are?Who do we think we are?
  • 7. Audience TheoryAudience Theory What do we think is possible? What are we afraid of?
  • 8. Audience TheoryAudience Theory DO YOU THINK WE’RE EFFECTED BY THE MEDIA WE CONSUME? You are what you eat?
  • 9. Audience TheoryAudience Theory • Two opposing theories, • Hypodermic Needle is: “An intended message is directly received and wholly accepted by the receiver. Consumers have no say in how the media influences them.” • Uses and gratifications is: “People are not helpless victims of all powerful media, but use media to fulfil their various needs: Escape, Social Interaction, identity, educate and entertain.” How could these theories affect game development?
  • 10. Audience TheoryAudience Theory • Hypodermic Needle is: Kids: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pz_tjIULlYk Anim: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8w1t9U63ANs • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wf6omuz1MrM&feature=related Discuss
  • 11. Audience TheoryAudience Theory Dr Michael Morgan University of Massachusetts Doctor of Communication Theory Theory: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yd88H_5k-rY
  • 12. Historical Examples Translation “The real Jew” “Long Live Germany”
  • 13. “A wave of mass hysteria disrupted households, interrupted religious services, caused traffic jams and clogged communication systems. People fled their city homes to seek shelter in more rural areas, raided grocery stores and began to ration food. The nation was in a state of chaos” Media theorists have classified the "War of the Worlds" broadcast as the archetypal example of the Hypodermic Needle Model. This is exactly how the theory worked, by injecting the message directly into the "bloodstream" of the public, attempting to create a uniform thinking.
  • 14. Still applicable today…? Cultural influence Political influence
  • 15. Audience TheoryAudience Theory • Active Consumption is: “Critically assessing a media text before accepting it, or maintaining a critical distance from the text” (Sinistre) • Passive Consumption is: “accepting things without thinking” (Sinistre) • Which of the consumptions compliment each theory? • How would the models affect the way you created a Game with a message/meaning?
  • 16. Modern AdjustmentModern Adjustment
  • 17. Audience TheoryAudience Theory • Uses and gratifications is • Clip: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X-UesKAJvTQ&feature=results_video&playnext=1&list=PL52C3838371D14C6F What needs do we fulfil through media? Katz 1959 - “what people do with media” rather than “what media does to people” Katz 1959 - “what people do with media” rather than “what media does to people”
  • 18. Example gratifications could beExample gratifications could be for…for…  Education  Entertainment  Information  Speculation  Social interaction  Discussion • Speculation • Gaining information • Help gain identity • Finding distraction • Making us feel better about ourselves • Reinforcing our beliefs
  • 19. Audience TheoryAudience Theory
  • 20. For what purpose do people watch..?For what purpose do people watch..?
  • 21. For what purpose do people use..?For what purpose do people use..?
  • 22. Audience TheoryAudience Theory Dr Michael Morgan University of Massachusetts Doctor of Communication Theory Theory: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W9zBroomF0g&feature=related
  • 23. Case StudyCase Study What is the mediaWhat is the media effects debate, andeffects debate, and how has it beenhow has it been represented in thisrepresented in this video for audiencevideo for audience effect?effect?