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Equality and access

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  • 1. Equality and access: balancing research perspectives JO MORIARTY ESRC SEMINAR SERIES: AGEING, RACE AND ETHNICITY
  • 2. 2 Outline 'Equality and access: developing research frameworks that balance the concerns of researchers, policymakers and practitioners'  Use personal experience on different research projects looking at ethnicity and ageing and other research  Discuss  Where we are  What progress can we make  Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013
  • 3. 3 Who wrote this?  ‗Our personal experience of conferences and seminars on the subject is that some misunderstandings are still quite common .... Despite such misconceptions it has often been argued at the same conferences and seminars that too much ink has been spilled on reports and surveys. Are older people [from black and minority ethnic groups] and their needs over researched? Has research taken the place of, or priority over, action?‘ Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013
  • 4. 4 The answer     Blakemore, K. & Boneham, M. (1994) Age, Race and Ethnicity: A Comparative Approach, Open University Press, Buckingham, p. 9 Changed ‗black‘ in original to black and minority ethnic groups Misconceptions still exist ‗Over researched‘ astonishing then but would still be surprising now! Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013
  • 5. 5 SOME GENERAL ISSUES: Starting with…. Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar Impact Policy pressures Practitioners‘ access to research 30 October 2013
  • 6. Achieving impact  6 Impact now a major criteria in judging success of research  Looks at whether research makes a difference outside academic context  Challenges in quantifying this  Short term or long term? Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar The Study in 10 Downing Street. Credit: Sergeant Tom Robinson RLC/Crown Copyright/PA Wire 30 October 2013
  • 7. Evidence based policy  Famous Tony Blair quotation ‗What matters is what works?‘  7 Read chapters such as ‗research sometimes matters‘ to see how we could influence policy Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013
  • 8. 8 Unfortunately.... ‗A simple prescription would be to review the scientific evidence of what would make a difference, formulate policies, and implement them—evidence based policy making. Unfortunately this simple prescription, applied to real life, is simplistic. The relation between science and policy is more complicated. Scientific findings do not fall on blank minds that get made up as a result. Science engages with busy minds that have strong views about how things are and ought to be‘ Marmot, 2004 Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013
  • 9. 9 Perhaps more realistically..  More often now see references to ‗policy based evidence‘  Pressures on government funded researchers to produce findings supporting policy  More accurately, it‘s an issue about what sort of research is funded  Greater acknowledgement that other factors as well as ‗evidence‘ have to influence political decisions  Apocryphal quotation: ―I have made up my mind, don‘t confuse me with the facts.‖ Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013
  • 10. 10 Equality impact assessments [The Equality Act was] not a bad piece of legislation [but] we don't need all this extra tick-box stuff. So I can tell you today, we are calling time on equality impact assessments.." Photograph: Leon Neal/AFP/Getty Images. November 2012 Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013
  • 11. Recognise differences Researchers    ‗Longer it takes to do a research study the better it is‘ (Choi et al, 2005) Might spend lifetime working on a particular issue 11 Policymakers  Answers usually needed instantly  Move between different subject areas  Looking for broad solutions May concentrate on a specific narrow issue Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013
  • 12. Accountabilities: two communities thesis 12 (Innvaer et al 2002) Research funders Political parties The taxpayer Journal editors Government Adapted from Choi et al, 2005 Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013
  • 13. 13 Practitioners  Rise in number of practitioner research studies (Shaw & Lunt, 2011)  But not clear how many enter public domain   Barriers to getting published Extent to which practitioners engage with research is variable  SCWRU research on social work education Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013
  • 14. Enrolments on social work post qualifying awards 2006-2011 14 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Combined pathway Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar Leadership and Mental health management Practice education Social work with Children, young adults people, their families and carers 30 October 2013
  • 15. 15 CPD and social workers  Amounts to just under 12k enrolments  Represents about 14 per cent of those working in statutory social work with children and adults (Moriarty, 2012)  Although need to take account of those holding predecessor awards and undertaking other types of CPD, most CPD is probably self directed Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013
  • 16. Engaging with rest of social care sector  16 Need to take account of diversity of sector  Only 12 per cent of people working in adult social care work for a local council  Overwhelming majority in private sector  Ranges from large private equity companies to small ‗mom and pop‘ care homes  40,626 establishments (Eborall et al, 2010)  About 25 per cent in voluntary sector (Eborall et al, 2010)  Policy of personalisation has led to increasing numbers of self employed people – no precise numbers on self funders Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013
  • 17. Older people themselves  What difference can research make to lives of older people from minority ethnic groups and their carers?  17 ‗Let‘s move on‘ (Butt and O‘Neil, 2004) Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013
  • 18. 18 Summary  Researchers, policymakers, older people, and practitioners have different reasons for using research and this influences what they are concerned about Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013
  • 19. 19 Moving onto research about ethnicity Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar SOME REASONS WHY IT‘S DIFFICULT 30 October 2013
  • 20. Equality Act 2010 (1)  Rationalised existing anti-discrimination legislation   20 For example, race & gender New provisions  For example, indirect discrimination against people with a disability  Most provisions came into force October 2010  Age discrimination October 2012 Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013
  • 21. 21 Equality Act 2010 (2)  Nine ‗protected characteristics‘  age  disability  gender reassignment  marriage and civil partnership*  pregnancy and maternity*  race  religion or belief  sex  sexual orientation Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar *Excluded from review as relate to paid employment 30 October 2013
  • 22. Impact of Equality Act 2010  Scoping review for Age UK  22 Focus on impact of Equality Act 2010 on five key services:  Falls prevention  Day services  Befriending  Home from hospital  Handyperson schemes Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013
  • 23. What we found  Very little research focuses specifically on issues of equality and diversity  23 Routine monitoring for different protected characteristics uneven    Religious belief Sexual orientation and sexual identity Differing reporting standards  ‗Strikingly short on detail‘ (Glasby et al, 2006) Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar William Harrigan and Claude Rains ‗The Invisible Man‘ 30 October 2013
  • 24. Produces very limited evidence base NB: Illustrative example – not precise search Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 24 30 October 2013
  • 25. 25 What intersectionality? Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013
  • 26. Why so difficult?  Very little research focuses specifically on issues of equality and diversity  26 Routine monitoring for different protected characteristics uneven    Religious belief Sexual orientation and sexual identity Differing reporting standards  ‗Strikingly short on detail‘ (Glasby et al, 2006) Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar William Harrigan and Claude Rains ‗The Invisible Man‘ 30 October 2013
  • 27. Relationship with medical research (1)  High proportion of research on ethnicity and ageing concentrates on people needing health and social care support  27 Implications of  Reporting standards on ethnicity  Exclusion of people from black and minority ethnic groups from clinical trials (Hussain Gambles et al, 2004, 2006) Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013
  • 28. Relationship with medical research (2)  Risk of following particular agendas  28 Implications of  Reporting standards on ethnicity  Exclusion of people from black and minority ethnic groups from clinical trials (Hussain Gambles et al, 2004, 2006)  Mainstreaming research agendas (see right) Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013
  • 29. 29 Making it better BETTER REPORTING CHOICE OF TOPIC WAY WE RESPOND TO LANGUAGE BARRIERS RECOGNISING EXPERTISE THAT IS OUT THERE Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013
  • 30. 30 Better reporting  It has been suggested (Sterling, 2011) that journal editors should only publish articles reporting on ethnicity (or giving a good reason why the information is absent)  Analogy here with ethics reporting Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013
  • 31. 31 Discussion on sampling  Practical issues of recruiting diverse samples have been debated   Multiple sampling strategies (Moriarty & butt, 2004) Issues for qualitative researchers  Cautious to question under representation Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013
  • 32. Choosing research topics  Deliberately focused on areas with comparatively few BAME people  32 Strong theme among practitioners was how unskilled they felt  Fear of ‗saying the wrong thing‘  Not ‗meeting needs‘ Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013
  • 33. 33 ‗Outreach‘ research  Small project for Age UK on diverse and accessible services  NIHR SSCR research on social care practice with carers  Role of specialist workers  Struck by informants‘ expertise  ‗Squaring the circle‘ between researchers, policymakers and practitioners Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013
  • 34. Translation/interpreting  Discussion about translation almost absent from textbooks on qualitative analysis  BIAS ALERT! Often couched only in terms of risks of using family members  34 What is impact on data quality Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013
  • 35. Summary: things I‘ve learned  Nobody else apart from researchers/funders are interested in methodology   Unless they want to criticise your findings BAME older people do want to engage and discuss research   35 Need to engage on their terms Practitioners are an under used resource Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013
  • 36. 36 Disclaimer  We acknowledge the contribution of the Policy Research Programme at the Department of Health for its support for the Unit  The views expressed in this presentation are those of the author and not necessarily those of the Department of Health Ageing, Race & Ethnicity Seminar 30 October 2013