What is Topography?• The physical feature of a place or a region.• Can be natural or man – made.
What causes Topography? • Volcanic eruption • Soil erosions – Water – Wind
What causes Topography?WATER – The sun heats water, and itevaporates into the atmosphere. This waterthen falls back to the ground in the form ofrain. When it rains at any elevation abovesea level, the water then flows from highelevation down to sea level. The water thengroups together and forms rivers (or anybody of water) which cut the ground andwash loose dirt down.
What causes Topography?WIND – In areas where there is no water (thedesert) the wind is the primary erosionfactor. The wind picks up small particles ofsand and hurls it through the air and smacksit into rock, which breaks off small particles.
Landforms• Natural shapes or features of the earth.• There are many different types of landforms found on the earth.
PLATEAU• High area of level land separated from the surrounding land.
Bodies of Water•Any a c c u m u la t io n o f w a te r tha t c o ve r the e a rth.
Bodies of Water1.Ocean 4. Lake2.Sea 5. Waterfalls3.River 6. Coast
OCEANS• Largest bodies of water on earth.• Made of salt water that surrounds a continent• Cover more than two-thirds of the Earths surface – Pacific Ocean – Atlantic Ocean – Indian Ocean – Southern Ocean – Arctic Ocean
• Pacific Ocean – separates Asia from the Americas.• Atlantic Ocean – separates the Americas from Europe and Africa.• Indian Ocean – washes upon southern Asia and separates Africa and Australia.• Southern Ocean – sometimes considered an extension of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans, which encircles Antarctica.• Arctic Ocean – sometimes considered a sea of the Atlantic, which covers much of the Arctic and washes upon northern North America and Eurasia.
Marianas Trench• Known as the deepest point on earth’s surface.• It is located in the western Pacific Ocean, to the east of the Mariana Islands.• 35,840 feet deep
Puerto Rico Trench• Located on the boundary between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.• The deepest point in the Atlantic Ocean.• 28,232 feet deep
Java Trench• Also called Sunda Trench.• Located in the northeastern Indian Ocean.• This trench is the deepest part of Indian Ocean.• 23,376 feet deep
Eurasian Basin• Deepest trench in the Arctic Ocean.• 20th deepest part of any ocean in the world.• 17,881 feet deep
SEA• Large body of salty water that is often connected to an ocean. South China Sea Caribbean Sea Mediterranean Sea
RIVER• Large, flowing body of water that usually empties into a sea or ocean.
In the history of humankind, thefirst civilizations emerges along river– valleys. These include: River – valleys of Tigris – Euphrates Indus River Yellow River (Huang Ho River) Nile River
River – valleys of Tigris – Euphrates• The longest and the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
Indus River• A major river which flows through Pakistan.• It has courses through western Tibet (in China) and Northern India.
Yellow River (Huang Ho River)• The second-longest river in China after the Yangtze and the sixth- longest in the world at the estimated length of 5,464 kilometers.• “The cradle of Chinese civilization"
Nile River• Generally regarded as the longest river in the world.• It is 6,650 km (4,130 miles) long.
LAKE• Large body of water surrounded by land on all sides.• Really huge lakes are often called seas.
WATERFALLS• A sudden drop in land where a river flows.
COAST• The area where the ocean touches the land.