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NEURONS VS. OTHER CELLS IN THE BODY NEURONS ARE SIMILAR TO OTHER CELLS IN THE BODY BECAUSE: • Neurons are surrounded by a cell membrane. • Neurons have a nucleus that contains genes. • Neurons contain cytoplasm, mitochondria and other organelles. • Neurons carry out basic cellular processes such as protein synthesis and energy production. NEURONS DIFFER FROM OTHER CELLS IN THE BODY BECAUSE: • Neurons have specialized extensions called dendrites and axons. Dendrites bring information to the cell body and axons take information away from the cell body. • Neurons communicate with each other through an electrochemical process. • Neurons contain some specialized structures (for example, synapses) and chemicals (for example, neurotransmitters).
THREE GENERAL CATEGORIES OF NEURONS SENSORY NEURON INTERNEURON MOTOR NEURON Long dendrites and Short dendrites and Short dendrites andLENGTH OF FIBERS short axon short or long axon long axon Cell body and Dendrites and the dendrite are cell body are outside of the Entirely within the located in the LOCATION spinal cord; the cell spinal cord or CNS spinal cord; the body is located in axon is outside of a dorsal root the spinal cord ganglion Interconnect the Conduct impulse to Conduct impulse to sensory neuron with FUNCTION an effector (muscle the spinal cord appropriate motor or gland) neuron
DENDRITES VS. AXON Take information away Bring information to the from the cell body cell body Rough Surface (dendritic Smooth Surface spines)Generally only 1 axon per Usually many dendrites cell per cell No ribosomes Have ribosomes Can have myelin No myelin insulation Branch further from the Branch near the cell cell body body