Explain/give reasons: You are now being asked to say why something you have already described is happening. Use ‘because’ to help you answer these questions. There are often two marks awarded for giving just one reason. Where this happens you will be expected to give a simple statement and its elaboration. Command words tell you exactly what type of information the examiner wants. Compare: Write what is similar and different between two pieces of information. Use the word ‘whereas’ to help you compare. Describe: Just write what you see. You may be asked to describe what you see on a photo, graph or map. Do not explain if you are only asked to describe. Justify: You could be asked to justify a decision you have made. Explain your choices in terms of why they are better than other options open to you. Suggest: This is similar to explain but tells you that you are expected to bring in ideas and understanding of our own and is not provided on the paper. What is meant by?: You are being asked to give a definition of a geographical term. You must know the main terms for each of the four Units. When asked for a definition, giving an example is not enough. Measure: You may be asked to measure on a map or graph. Don’t guess – measure accurately using the scale provided.
Papers One & Two Each paper is 90 minutes long and has 90 marks. Once you have chosen a question to answer out of each pair, you will have a little less than one minute per mark. Your examiners will not expect you to write more. Go straight to the point – don’t waffle. Be guided by the marks in brackets as to how many points you need to make. Papers Three & Four Each of these papers is also 90 minutes long but has only 60 marks, so there should be less pressure on time. You will be given advice at the start of each of the three parts it is divided into as to how long you should spend on it. Make sure that you keep to these times. The final ‘problem-solving’ task is in two parts, a table to help you organise your ideas and a final letter or report to write. When completing both, use elaborated statements. They will gain marks. The 2007 Geography exams tests the four units as follows: Papers One & Two Water, Landforms and People Climate, Environment and People People, Work and Development Papers Three & Four People and Place What is the difference between the two exams?
The idea of Papers Three and Four is to ask you to solve a problem. In the early parts of the paper you will be introduced to a place and a problem to be solved. You will then be given a number of possible solutions. Your final task on the paper will be to write what you would do and then justify the decisions you have made. The final task is in two parts:
a table to help you organise your ideas. When filling in the table, make sure you use elaborated, ‘so what’ statements. They will help you gain marks and will make it easier to build up your
letter or report to describe and explain the decisions you have made
Flashcards : On small cards, summarise a case study into one (or both) sides of the cards and refer to it regularly. Make sure that you include key facts and number as you condense the case study to fit the card.
Colour coding : colour code large pieces of text into sections. For example, it could be the social, economic and environmental impacts of the London Docklands Redevelopment
Memory tests : You could look at an important diagram (erg the cross section of a meander) for 20 seconds, then cover it over and draw what you remember. Then give yourself another 20 seconds to see what you missed and add it in. Eventually, you will be able to draw the sketch without looking at a copy.
Key words test : You could ask someone to read out 10 definitions and you have to say what the key word is. Then you could try it the other way around which is harder with someone giving you a key word to define.
Spider diagrams (mind maps): Write a key theme in the centre of an A3 piece of paper. Write the sub-themes around it with important ideas and case studies to back them up. Look at the example of migration on the next page to help you. Stick your finished spider diagram somewhere visible where you will be able to refer to it often (e.g. fridge door, bedroom wall). Take a look at the migration spiderdiagram on the next page!
Practice exam questions : Look at the examples of past case study questions. Practice writing responses to these questions using the flashcards or colour coded case studies you have created.
Summarising: Condense a section of text into a set number of bullet points.
Reading aloud: Read a case study summary aloud, then try to say aloud all the facts and figures you remember without the summary. You could also read your keyword lists aloud.
Repeated writing: Copy out pieces of information more than one time (five times would be appropriate). The repetition will help you to fix the facts in your memory.
But I don’t know how to revise! Here are some strategies you could use…
Push factors : things that encourage, and sometimes force, people to leave the countryside
not enough jobs
lack of investment
lack of food
modern machinery means fewer farmers needed – lose jobs
poor facilities e.g. schools, hospitals
crop failure due to natural disasters such as floods and droughts
Pull factors : things that attract people to the city
education and medical care
‘ bright lights’ – entertainment
better way of life
more chance of a good water supply and more reliable food supply
life expectancy is longer
The movement of people from the countryside to the city (usually LEDCs) Counterurbanisation
The process by which people move away from the major cities to smaller settlements, often villages (usually MEDCs).
Employment: industry declined in inner cities and move to edge-of-city and rural sites. People move for promotion or simply to find a job
Housing: people move away from the city for large, modern houses with garages and gardens
Environmental factors: move away from noise, air and visual pollution created by increased traffic in cities to quieter, less polluted places with open space
Social factors: move away because of increased crime rates and poorer educational facilities
Forced migration: when people have no choice and either have to, or are made, to move.
natural disasters e.g. earthquakes
man-made disasters e.g. war and ethnic cleansing
overpopulation or a lack of resources, causing famine
racial discrimination or religious and political persecution
government schemes e.g. building of a dam
Voluntary migration: when people choose to move
improve standard of living e.g. better jobs
improve quality of life e.g. retiring to live in warmer climate
good services and amenities e.g. schools, hospitals, entertainment
to be with friends or relatives
Emigrants: people who leave a country Immigrants: people who arrive in a country
Water, Landforms and People: Keywords Abrasion (or corrasion) : Erosion caused by the rubbing and scouring action of rock fragments carried by rivers. Alluvium : Fine soil left behind after a river floods; also called silt. Attrition: Erosion caused when rocks and boulders, transported by rivers and waves, bump into each other and break up into smaller pieces. Condensation: The cooling of a gas so that it changes into a liquid, for instance as water vapour cools, it condenses to become water droplets, which, when heavy enough, fall as rain. Confluence : The point where two rivers meet. Delta: A build up of sediment at the point where a river meets a sea or lake, due to the water velocity slowing and the river having less energy to carry the sediment. Deposition: The laying down of material carried by rivers or waves. Discharge : The amount of water in a river at a given time, usually measured in cumecs (cubic metres per second) Drainage Basin: The area of land drained by a major river and its tributaries. Also called a ‘river basin’. Drought : A prolonged period of weather that is drier than usual. Embankment: A raised riverbank built to prevent or reduce flooding Erosion: The wearing away of the land by material carried by rivers and waves. Estuary: The point at which a river begins to meet the sea. The river will be tidal, meaning that it will have both salt water and fresh water in it. Evaporation: The process by which liquid, such as water, changes to water vapour when it is warmed. Evapotranspiration: The loss of moisture from water surfaces and the soil (evaporation) and vegetation (transpiration). Flood : The flow of water over an area that is usually dry. Floodplain : The wide, flat area at the bottom of a valley which is often flooded. Groundwater: Water stored underground in permeable rocks. Hydrograph: A graph showing changes in the discharge of a river over a period of time. Hydrological (water) cycle: The continuous recycling of water between the sea, air and land.
Hydraulic action: Erosion caused by the sheer force of water breaking off small pieces of rock. Impermeable: A rock or soil that does not let water pass through it. Infiltration: The downward movement of water that seeps into the soil or a porous rock. Interlocking spur: Ridges of high ground that project into V-shaped valleys. They occur on alternate sides of a valley and interlink. Lag time : The period of time between peak rainfall ad peak river discharge. Levee: An artificial embankment built to prevent flooding by a river or the sea. Meander : The winding course of a river Mouth : The end of the river, where it meets the sea, or a lake. Overland flow: When water flows over the surface of the ground. This occurs for a number of reasons: the soil may be saturated and therefore be unable to absorb any more water; the underlying rock may be impermeable or the ground may be frozen. Oxbow lake: A crescent-shaped lake which has been cut off from the main river channel and abandoned. Percolation : The movement of water through the soil or underlying porous rock. This water collects as groundwater. Permeable : A rock or soil that allows water to pass through it. Precipitation: The deposition of moisture usually from clouds. It includes rain, hail, snow, sleet, dew, frost and fog. Runoff : Rainfall carried away from an area by streams and rivers. Saltation : A process of transportation by rivers in which small particles bounce along the bed. Solution: A type of chemical weathering in which water dissolves minerals in rocks. Suspension: A process of transportation by rives in which material is picked up and carried along within the water itself. Throughflow : The movement of water within the soil sideways, towards the river. Traction: A process of transportation by rivers in which material is rolled among the bed. Transpiration: The process by which water from plants changes into water vapour. Transportation: The movement of materials by rivers and waves. Tributary: A small river that flows into a larger river. Velocity: The speed of the flow of the river V shaped valley: A narrow, steep-sided valley formed as a result of rapid erosion by a stream or river. Waterfall: A sudden fall of water over a steep drop. Watershed: The boundary separating two river basins.
What are the main features of a river? The fastest section of the river, as the channel is widest, with very smooth sides, and the greatest volume of water. The water has increased in speed as the channel widens and becomes smoother. Some boulders cause friction to slow it down a little. Relatively slow moving. Despite areas of fast flowing water, the large amount of material on the river channel bed means that friction will slow the water down. Velocity Deltas; flood plains; levees; meanders; ox-bow lakes Meanders; slip-off slopes; ox-bow lakes Interlocking spurs; waterfalls; V-shaped valley; gorges Features Mainly suspension and solution. Saltation, suspension and solution Traction and saltation Transportation Primarily cuts laterally as it has almost reached base level. The erosive energy of the river is almost totally concentrated on cutting sideways. Much deposition occurs. Continues to cut vertically. But it also begins to cut laterally as it gets closer to base level. Deposition occurs in the slower moving insides of meanders. Primarily vertical erosion, through attrition, abrasion and hydraulic action. Large boulders deposited and eroded in situ. Erosion & Deposition Wide, shallow valley, with large flood plains and meanders. The river channel is wide, deep and smooth sided. v-shaped valley remains with a wider valley floor and the river begins to meander across it. The river channel begins to widen and become deeper. Steep sided v-shaped valley. Thin river channel, deep in places Cross Profile Almost at sea level, very gently sloping towards its mouth Shallow slopes towards the mouth of the river Steeply sloping towards the lower sections of the river Long Profile Lower Course Middle Course Upper Course
Water, Landforms and People Case Study Questions for the Higher Tier
A place that has been affected by flooding
Name the place that has been affected by flooding
Describe the effects of flooding on people and the environment
Explain what caused the place to flood
Case Study: Boscastle. Lynmouth or Bangladesh floods
A landform that brings advantages and disadvantages to an area
For a landform that you have studied:
Name and locate the landform
Describe how the landform was formed
Explain how it brings advantages and disadvantages to an area
Case Study: Niagara Falls or Ganges Delta
The effects of a flood and flood prevention
For an area where flooding had taken place:
Name the area
Describe how the flood affected people and the environment
Explain what is being done or could be done to prevent flooding in this area
Case Study: Bangladesh flood
A scheme to change the supply of water
Name a place where the supply of water had been, or is being, changed by people
Describe how the supply of water was, or is being changed
Explain how the changing water supply is affecting, or will affect, different groups of people or organisations
A landform formed by water that attracts people
A landform formed by water action that attracts people
Describe what attracts people to the landform
Explain how people’s use of the landform brings advantages and disadvantages
Case Study: Niagara Falls
A river landform
Name a place where you have studied a river landform. Name the landform and state whether it was created by erosion or deposition
Describe how the landform was created
Explain how the river landform has been or is being used by people and/or organisations
4 months worth of rain had fallen in the first 2 weeks of August.
The streams on Exmoor were already full to overflowing.
The streams dropped over 800m in just 10 miles.
A storm sat over Exmoor on the evening of the flood and dropped 11 inches of rain in 24 hours.
Streams flowed down narrow steep sided valleys, crossed by over 30 small stone bridges with limited span.
Bridges created 'debris dams' as they were blocked by trees and boulders. When they burst they released a shock wave of water which surged down into the village. Around 200,000 tonnes of rock were washed downstream.
What were the effects of the flood? 34 people were killed, 28 bridges and 93 houses were totally destroyed or damaged beyond repair. 420 people were also left homeless and 66 cars damaged or washed out to sea. The army helped to evacuate people who were stranded in their homes
Why was it such a disaster?
The normal population of only 450 people had been added to by around 700 holidaymakers.
Signs such as the discolouration of the water were ignored.
Houses had been built right up to the river.
There was no warning system in place.
A lot of people did not hear the flood warning because it was at night
The day had been very warm, drawing in sea breezes along the coast. When they joined forces with a wet southerly air flow they shot upwards with a dangerous mix of warm, moist, highly unstable air.
The thunderclouds grew so tall that they created intense rain leading to more than 5 inches falling around Boscastle in just a few hours.
With the ground already saturated from recent rains, the storm waters were funnelled down steep river valleys and burst
What were the effects?
90% of Boscastle’s economy is dependent on tourism.
After the flood, more than 20 accommodation providers were forced to shut
Seven helicopters from the Coastguard, the Royal Navy and the Royal Air Force hovered overhead, winching people to safety
Cars, boulders and uprooted trees were strewn through the streets.
Cars were swept out to sea, bridges were washed away and people clung to rooftops and trees
Work has started on new £4.5m flood defences to protect the Cornish village of Boscastle from flooding.
Boscastle is situated on the northwest coast of Cornwall, near Bude
It is situated at the confluence of the River Valency and its tributaries
It happened on Monday 16 th August 2004
CASE STUDY: River Nile and the Aswan Dam Background The Nile has been essential in providing water and nutrients for Egypt’s agricultural land. The annual floods led the Nile to deposit nutrients over the land it flooded assisting in the fertilising of crops and land. The irregularity of flooding and growing demands on the Nile for providing water led to the Egyptians wanting to control the Nile. A growing population led to an increase in demand for electricity and agricultural produce. The answer was to build the Aswan Dam. The Aswan Dam was built in 1971. It had a Hydroelectric Power Station and a large lake known as Lake Nasser behind it.
The benefits and problems of the Aswan Dam
Fewer nutrients reaching the sea
Fewer crops grown for local Egyptians
River navigable all year round
Hydro electric power doubles Egypt’s previous output
In time the lake will silt up
More income from cash crops of sugarcane, cotton and maize
Lack of nutrients reaching the sea has affected shrimp and sardine catches
High evaporation losses
The large lake can support a fishing industry
Silt not deposited on flood plains because of flood control meaning fertilisers had to be added
Increase in Bilharzia
The Aswan Dam – Facts
Total cost of building the dam was estimated at over $1 billion
One third of the cost was provided by Russia
400 Soviet technicians were employed in the Dams construction
The Dam was completed in 1968 (but not opened till 1971)
The dam covers an area of over 480km in length and 16 km wide
The Hydro Electric producing capacity is 2,100 megawatts
CASE STUDY: A landform formed by deposition – Ganges Delta
The Ganges and the Brahmaputra rivers slow down as they reach the mouth. They start to deposit the massive loads of sediment collected on their journeys.
Now they are one river, but sediment blocks the main path. The river is forced to split its way to the ocean. These channels are called distributaries.
The Ganges River has eight main distributaries, and there are hundreds of smaller ones.
The entire delta region covers an area of around 75,000 square kilometres, which makes it the biggest in the world.
Bangladesh’s delta is one of the most populated in the world. Many of the country’s 132 million people depend on the delta for their survival.
Two-thirds of Bangladeshis work in agriculture, and grow crops on the fertile delta floodplains. Jute fibre, used to make twine and sacking, is Bangladesh’s main export crop.
Farming depends on the annual flooding of the Ganges to bring fresh supplies of nutrient rich sediment to their fields. But living in the path of the Ganges is a dangerous. One way people have adapted to this risk is to build their homes on top of earthen platforms, or embankments.
Fishing has long played a part in the lives of the Bangladeshi people, and its fisheries are the biggest in the world after China and India.
Where the freshwater of the Ganges mixes with the saltwater of the Indian Ocean, the brackish (slightly salty) water is ideal for producing shrimp by a new and fast-growing type of fish farming called aquaculture.
Here, high-value fish like shrimp and salmon are farmed in containers or cages that are submerged in the open water. The fish are mainly sold for export.
One of the likely results of global warming is a gradual rise in sea levels. This could be 0.5 metres by 2100. It could mean that six million Bangladeshis loose their homes. It could permanently flood the low-lying delta region we have travelled through. It could also increase the frequency of cyclones, and after the timing and severity of monsoons.
Aid came from charities like Oxfam and Band Aid as well as from governments and other organisations. Sadly, civil war and poor transport left much of the donated foodstuffs rotting in ports
What were the short term effects?
serious shortage of food and water caused widespread starvation and illness
about 500 000 people died. The young and elderly were especially affected.
people migrated from areas that were too remote to receive food aid. Many ended up in refugee camps.
What were the long term effects?
up to a million people who were malnourished and poverty stricken continued to need aid
regular aid from developed countries has imporved agricultural output and provided people with security
People and Place: Keywords Accessibility: how easy a place is to get to Birth rate: the number of live births per 1000 people per year Brownfield site: An area of land that has been built on and is ready for redevelopment Bustee: an Indian term for a shanty town Central Business District (CBD): The commercial and business centre of a town or city where land values are at their highest Commuter: A person who lives some distance from their home to their place of work Counter urbanisation: the movement of people and employment away from large cities to smaller settlements within the countryside Death rate: the number of deaths per 1000 people per year Demographic transition model: a model that tries to show how changes in birth and death rates over a period of time may be related to different stages of development Densely populated: an area of land that is crowded with people Developed countries: Countries that are usually quite rich, have many services and a high standard of living. Also called ‘more economically developed countries’ (MEDCs) Developing countries: Countries that are often quite poor, have few services and a low standard of living. Also called ‘less economically developed countries’ (LEDCs) Function: the main purpose of a town or settlement. Functions include markets, industry, port and resort facilities. Green belt: an area of land around a city where the development of housing and industry is severely restricted and the countryside is protected for farming and recreation. Greenfield site: an area of land that has not previously been built on Gross national product (GNP) per capita: The total value of goods and services produced by a country in a year divided by its total population. Hierarchy: a ranking of settlements or shopping centres according to some measure of their importance e.g. number of services, size, population etc
High order goods: products that are usually expensive and only bought occasionally Immigrant: a person who arrives in a country with the intention of living there Infant mortality: the average number of deaths of children under one year of age per 1000 live births Inner city: the part of an urban area next to the city centre characterised by older housing and industry Life expectancy: The average number of years a person born in a particular country can be expected to live Literacy rate: the proportion of people who can read and write Location: the position of a place or feature Low order goods: products that are usually low cost and bought often Migration: the movement of people from one place to another to live or work Natural increase: the growth in population resulting from birth rates being greater than death rates Population density: the number of people living in a given area, usually one square kilometre (1 km ² ) Population distribution: how people are spread out over an area Population explosion: a sudden rapid rise in the number of people in an area Population growth: the increase in the number of people in an area Population pyramid: a type of horizontal bar graph used to show the population structure of an area Pull factors: things that attract people to live in an area Push factors: things that make people want to leave an area Quality of life: a measure of how happy and content people are with their lives Redevelopment: attempts to improve an area Refugees: people who have been forced to move away from their own country and are therefore homeless Regeneration: renewing or improving something that has been lost or destroyed Retailing: the sale of goods individually or in small quantities, usually to shoppers Rural-urban fringe: the area where the city and countryside meet. There is often competition for land use here.
Rural-urban migration: the movement of people from the countryside to towns and cities where they wish to live Self-help scheme: a method of improving shanty town areas by encouraging and helping people to improve their own housing Shanty town: a collection of shacks and poor quality housing which often lack electricity, a water supply or any means of sewage disposal. They are common in developing countries and may also be called ‘squatter’, ‘spontaneous’ or ‘informal’ settlements Site: the actual place where a settlement is located Situation: the location of a settlement in relation to the places surrounding it. Sparsely populated: an area that has few people living in it Suburbanised villages: small settlements which have grown in size and become urban areas in countryside surroundings. Also called ‘dormitory towns’ or ‘commuter settlements’, as many residents who live and sleep there travel to nearby towns for work Suburbs: a zone of housing around the edge of a city Urban growth: the increase in the size of towns and cities Urban land use model: a simple map to show how land is used in a city Urban sprawl: the unplanned, uncontrolled growth of urban areas into the surrounding countryside Urbanisation: the increase in the proportion of people living in towns and cities
People and Place Case Study Questions for the Higher Tier
Population change and how it affects a place
Name a place where the population is changing
Describe how the population is changing
Explain to what extent the changes have affected the place
Case Study: Woodbury or Mexico to USA
Different types of housing in a town or city
For a named town or city in an MEDC or an LEDC
Name the town or city
Describe the distribution of different types of housing
Explain why different groups of people live in these housing areas
Case Study: Rio de Janeiro
An area that had been improved in a town or city in an MEDC
For a named town or city in an MEDC
Name and locate an area that has been improved
Describe the problems that needed solving in the area
Explain how successful the improvements have been for different groups of people living in or close to this area
Case Study: London Docklands
Changes in land-use or a service
Name a place you have studied where a land-use or a service has changed
Describe how the land-use or service had changed
Explain how the change affected different groups of people and the environment
Case Study: Metrocentre Gateshead
A place from where people have migrated
Name a place from where people have migrated
Describe the place they migrated away from
Explain why the moved away. Refer to push and pull factors
Case Study: Mexico to USA, Zimbabwe to South Africa
A place that people have migrated away from
Name a place from where people have migrated
Was this place urban or rural?
Describe the factors that caused people to migrate. Refer to push and pull factors
Explain how the areas they migrated away from was affected
Case Study: Mexico to USA
Name a place where services have been improved
State whether this place is an urban or rural area
Describe how the services have been improved
Explain how these improvements affected different groups of people
Case Study: London Docklands or Metrocentre Gateshead
There is an estimated 400 homeless people in London every night. Men make up 90% of those sleeping on the streets.
London produces enough litter to fill an Olympic sized swimming pool every four hours!
Graffiti artists cost London £100 million a year. This includes removing their ‘art’ from the walls of schools, hospitals and businesses. It means that vital cash is not being used to improve public services.
High unemployment in inner city areas (where the old industries were once located) leads to social problems.
The government say a tax of 1p a packet is needed on chewing gum to help pay for the £150 million per year cost of cleaning it off the streets.
Each year, 2 700 tonnes of smoking-related litter is thrown on London’s streets.
Air pollution caused by nitrogen dioxide in parts of London is almost three times higher than it should be.
Rundown areas of London have been awarded a total of £2.5 million in grants to help pay for regeneration projects.
The most expensive land in the UK is in London and the South East. The price of a hectare of land is now nearly £5.5 million. In 1983, it was just £759 000.
Experts say that air pollution is quickening the death of 8 000 people per year who are already ill.
Building new, affordable homes in urban areas is difficult. Land values are very high and land is in short supply.
Racial tension was to blame for transforming Brixton in south London into a battlefield in 1981. Hundreds of black and white youths attacked the police, set cars alight and looted shops. Over 300 people were injured and an estimated £7.5 million damage was caused.
Inner city areas are the worst affected by violence, robbery and burglary.
Traffic is a problem. Car ownership and commuting means an increase in congestion and pollution.
Wasteland is an eyesore and affects local communities. This might include areas such as disused factories, rundown parks, neglected council estates or pot-holed car parks.
CASE STUDY: Migration from Mexico into USA Background In, 1998, there were 5 million migrants into the USA and only one million were legal. Over half, 2.7 million, were from Mexico. Last year there were 356 deaths along the border. The USA claims the main cause was exhaustion. Many try to cross the border in the hope of a better life. The border is 1, 950 miles long and patrolled by armed guards in jeeps, on horses and in helicopters with searchlights. Many become “Jonaleros”, Mexican migrants who wait on street corners in American cities to be collected for work such as painting, moving furniture, gardening and farming. Many try to cross the Rio Grande which forms half of the border to separate the two countries.
Why do Mexicans risk their lives to get into the USA?
Five percent of Mexico’s population are undernourished. This isn’t a problem in the USA.
88% of people in Mexico have access to safe drinking water. In the USA everybody has access to safe drinking water.
The average hourly wage in Mexico is $ 3.49 but it is $ 6.75 in California, USA.
Unemployment is rising in large parts of Mexico. Mining is no longer as profitable.
The USA government spends more money on education and healthcare than Mexico’s government.
18% of people in Mexico live on less than 60 pence per day, it is less than 1% in the USA.
In the USA, 8 out of 10 have a car. In Mexico, 2 out of 10 have a car.
Case Study: MetroCentre, Gateshead – an out of town shopping centre
Advantages of the site
an enterprise zone allowed a relaxation in planning controls and exemption from rates
the area was previously marshland and relatively cheap to buy, and the 47 hectare site had possibilities for future expansion
It is adjacent to the western by-pass which links with the North East’s modern road network
1.3 million people live within 30 minutes drive
It is next to a main railway line, with its own station
Free parking for 10 000 cars with special facilities for the disabled driver, and new bus and rail stations for non-motorists.
There are over 300 shops and 40 eating places
pleasant shopping environment – wide, tree-lined malls, air conditioning, one kilometre of glazed roof to let in natural light, numerous seats for relaxing, window boxes and escalators and lifts for the disabled
a market effect has been created by traders selling goods fro decorative streets barrows, and there is a wide variety of places to eat
leisure is a vital part – there is a ten-screen cinema, a crèche for children, a space city for computer and space enthusiasts, a covered fantasy land with attractions of the fair, a children's village with children's shops.
A 150 room luxury hotel has been built as part of the complex
CASE STUDY: Problems in an LEDC city – Rio de Janeiro
Location and growth
Situated around a huge harbour in south-east Brazil
In 2002, some 6 million people lived in the main urban area and 10 million in the metropolitan area
Problem 1: Housing
Half a million homeless street dwellers, over 1 million people live in favelas and another 1 million in poor quality local authority housing (periferia)
There are over 600 favelas, with the largest being Rocinha with a population of 100 000
The houses are made from any materials available – wood, corrugated iron, broken bricks
Most favelas are built on hillsides that are too steep for normal houses
When it rains, flash floods and mudslides carry away the weak houses – storms in 1988 killed over 200 people
There’s a strong community spirit, a rich street life and plenty of football and samba music
Problem 2: Crime
Favelas perceived as areas associated with organised crime, violence and drug trafficking
Well off Rio residents now moving out of the city to places such as Barra da Tijuca – think its cleaner and safer
Tourists are warned no to take valuables or wear jewellery or watches on the beach
Problem 3: Traffic Mountains contain the city and force traffic along a limited number of routes. There is severe congestion, pollution and 24 hour noise
Problem 4: Pollution
Industrial haze, made worse by traffic fumes, hangs over Guanabara Bay. The beaches and sea are also polluted.
Huge amount of waste produced. In the favelas waste is unlikely to be collected. Together with polluted water supplies and sewage in open drains causes health risks (outbreak of cholera in 1992)
CASE STUDY: Solutions to problems in LEDC cities – Rio de Janeiro
Self-help schemes – Rocinha
Slowly transformed their favela into a small city. Most of the original temporary wooden buildings have been upgraded to brick and tile.
Residents have set up their own shops and small industries (informal sector) and created places of entertainment.
Authorities work with local residents associations. They have added electricity (satellite TV!), paved and lit some of the steeper streets and added water pipes.
Improvements are restricted by the high density of housing.
The city authority’s Favela Bairro project
In the 1990s the city authorities set aside £200 million to improve living conditions in 60 of the 600 favelas.
Authorities claimed that they wanted to transform the favelas socially and culturally and to integrate them as part of the city
What did the project involve?
Replacing old buildings with brick-built housing – the new houses are much larger (5 x 4 metres) and have a yard of equal size
Widening selected streets so that emergency services and waste collection vehicles can get through
Laying pavements, concrete paths, water pipes and electricity cables
Improving sanitation, adding health facilities and providing sports areas
Using labour within each favela so that residents can develop and use new skills – in return residents have to pay taxes to the authorities.
Climate, Environment and People: Keywords Acid rain: Rainwater containing chemicals that result from burning fossil fuels Altitude: the height of a place above sea level Anticyclone: an area of high pressure usually associated with fine, settled weather Aspect: the direction towards which a slope or building faces Biome: a large ecosystem containing the same types of vegetation and animal life. Examples include the tropical rainforest and savanna grasslands Climate: the average weather conditions of a place over many years Condensation: the process by which water vapour changes to a liquid (rain) or a solid (snow) when cooled Conservation: the care and protection of resources and the environment Convectional rainfall: rain that is produced when the sun heats the ground causing warm air to rise Deforestation: the complete clearance of forested land. Depression: an area of low pressure usually associated with cloud, rain and strong winds Desertification: the gradual change of land into desert Ecosystem: a system where plants and animals interact with each other and their natural surroundings Environment: the surrounding in which people, plants and animals live Food chain or food web: the transfer of energy through and ecosystem from primary producers to consumers and decomposers Fossil fuels: energy resources such as coal, oil and natural gas which come from the fossilised remains of plants and animals Front: the boundary between two masses of air one of which is colder and drier than the other Frontal rainfall: rain that occurs where warm air rises over cold air in a depression Global Warming: the increase in the world’s average temperature, believed to result from the release of carbon dioxide and other gases into the atmosphere Greenhouse effect: the way that gases in the atmosphere trap heat from the sun
Hurricane: A severe tropical storm with low pressure, heavy rainfall, and winds of extreme strength which an cause widespread damage. Also called a tropical cyclone Isobar: a line joining points of equal pressure Latitude: the distance of a place north or south from the equator Nutrient recycling: the process by which minerals necessary for plant growth are constantly re-used. They are taken up from the soil by plants then returned when the plants shed their leaves or die. Ocean currents: the flow of water in certain directions within the sea Overcultivation: the exhaustion of the soil by growing crops – especially the same crop – on the same piece of land year after year Overgrazing: where there are too many animals form the amount of food available, which may lead to the destruction and loss of the protective vegetation cover Photosynthesis: the process by which green plants turn sunlight into plant growth Pollution: noise, dirt and other harmful substances produced by people and machines which spoil an area Precipitation: the deposition of moisture usually from clouds. It includes rain, hail, snow, sleet, dew, frost and fog Prevailing wind: the direction from which the wind usually comes Relief: the shape and height of the land Relief rainfall: rain caused by air being forced to rise over hills or mountains Resource: an material or product that people find useful Soil erosion: the wearing away and loss of topsoil, mainly by the action of wind, rain and running water. Storm surge: a rapid rise in sea level caused by storms – especially tropical cyclones – forcing water into a narrowing sea area Synoptic chart: a map showing the state of the weather at a given time Weather: the day to day conditions of the atmosphere, including temperature, sunshine, rainfall and wind
Climate, Environment and People Case Study Questions for the Higher Tier
A weather event
Name a weather event you have studied
Describe how the weather event affected different groups of people and the environment
Explain why the weather event took place
Case Study: 1987 Great Storm or Hurricane Katrina
Conserving an ecosystem that is being damaged
Name and locate an ecosystem that is being damaged
Describe how the ecosystem is being damaged
Explain how different groups of people or organisations are trying to conserve this ecosystem
Case Study: Amazon (tropical) rainforest
The effects of people on an ecosystem
Name and locate an ecosystem
Describe the structure of the ecosystem. Refer to plants and animals
Explain how and why people are changing (or have changed) the ecosystem
Case Study: Amazon (tropical) rainforest
An ecosystem that is being used in an unsustainable way
Name a place where you have studied an ecosystem that is being used in an unsustainable way by people or organisations
Name the type of ecosystem you have studied
Describe how people or organisations are using this ecosystem
Explain why this makes the ecosystem unsustainable
Case Study: Amazon (tropical) rainforest
A type of climate
Name a type of climate you have studied
Name a place where this type of climate can be found
Describe the main features of this type of climate. Refer to a whole year
Explain how plants and wildlife or different groups of people are affected by this type of climate
Narrow zone which extends roughly 5 ° north and south of the equator. The zone is not continuous it is broken by mountain ranges such as the Andes in South America.
The main areas are the Amazon, Congo and extreme south-east of Asia
Hot, wet and humid throughout the year
There are no seasons and the daily weather pattern is repeated every day of the year
High and constant throughout the year with a small annual range (2 °C )
Position of the sun influences temperatures – high angle in the sky
Evening temperatures rarely fall below 22 °C while daytime temperatures, due to afternoon cloud and rain, rarely rise above 32°C
Places on the equator receive 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness every day
Annual totals of places on the equator exceed 2000mm per year
The rain falls most afternoons in heavy convectional thunderstorms
Daily pattern of weather
Sun rises at 0600 hours and its heat soon evaporates the morning mist and heavy overnight dew
By 0800 hours the temperatures are as high as 25 °C and by noon, when the sun is vertical, they reach 33°C
High temperatures cause air to rise in powerful convection currents. The rising air, which is very moist due to rapid evapotranspiration from swamps, rivers and the rainforest vegetation, cools on reaching higher altitudes
When it cools and condenses large cumulonimbus clouds develop. By mid afternoon they produce torrential downpours, with thunder and lightning
By sunset at about 1800 hours, the clouds have begun to break up
Slash and Burn: traditional method of forest clearance
Subsistence farming: increase when the government gave land to 25 million landless people in Brazil. 10km strips of land cleared along highways and settlers from outside brought in
Commercial cattle ranching: large transnational companies sell beef mainly to fast food chains. They burn the forest, replacing trees with grass
Cause 2: Transport Over 12 000km of new roads have been built, the largest being the 5300km Trans-Amazonian highway. These roads were built to transport timber, minerals, farm produce and people. A 900km railway has been built from Carajas to the coast.
Cause 4: Resources
Timber , mainly hard woods is cut down by logging companies – little attempt made to replant
Minerals including iron ore, bauxite, manganese, diamonds, gold and silver
Hydro-electricity is an important renewable resource but the building of large dams and lakes has caused large areas of forest to flood
Cause 3: Settlement Increase in population from 2 million in 1960 to 30 million in 2000. large areas claimed for new settlements Rates of forest clearance Some environmental groups claim up to 40% of the Amazon rainforest has been destroyed since 1960. This would mean 15 hectares (about 15 football pitches) have been destroyed every minute!
What are the effects?
Of 30 million species on earth 28 million are found in the rainforest. Habitats of these species are being destroyed. We get half our medicines from rainforest
Reduction in the number of Amerindians (6 million in 1960 to 200 000 today) – traditional culture and way of life threatened
No canopy to protect soil from heavy afternoon rain or roots to hold it together – leads to soil erosion. Nutrients are washed (leached) out of the soil
Rivers have been polluted due to mining operations
Causing climate change – less evapotranspiration meaning there’s less moisture in the water cycle leading to droughts. Burning of forest releases carbon dioxide
change the composition of the atmosphere – over one-third of the world’s oxygen supply comes from the rainforest.
They grow in places with an equatorial climate. Luxuriant vegetation but its trees have to adapt to constant high temperatures, heavy rainfall and a continuous growing season. Over a third of the world’s trees are grown here.
The continuous growing season allows trees to shed their leaves at any time.
Vegetation grows in layers (see diagram). Trees have to grow rapidly to reach the sunlight
Trees trunks are straight and in their lower parts branchless to help them grow tall.
Large buttress roots stand above the ground to give support to the trees
Lianas, which are vine like plants, use the large trees as a support in their efforts to reach the canopy and sunlight
As only 1% of sunlight reaches the forest floor, there is little undergrowth. Shrubs and other plants here have had to adapt to the lack of light
During the wetter months, large areas of land near the rivers may flood
Leaves have drip tips to shed the heavy rainfall
Fallen leaves soon decay in the hot, wet climate
There are over 1000 different species of tree, including mahogany
The rainforest is a fragile environment that relies on the rapid and unbroken recycling of nutrients. Once the forest is cleared (deforestation), the cycle is broken. Humus is not replaced and the underlying soil soon becomes unfertile.
It formed over the Bahamas on August 23 2005 and crossed southern Florida as a moderate Category 1 hurricane before strengthening rapidly in the Gulf of Mexico.
Flooded roughly 80% of the city.
Katrina is estimated to be responsible for $75 billion in damages
The storm killed at least 1,836 people.
The storm rapidly got worse after entering the Gulf, due in part to the storm’s movement over the warm sea surface temperatures. It weakened to a Category 4 storm before hitting New Orleans.
By 28 August it reached its peak with maximum sustained winds of 280km/h and a minimum central pressure of 902 millibars
1.3 million acres of forest lands in Mississippi were destroyed
Hundreds of thousands of local residents were left unemployed
Katrina redistributed New Orleans’s population across the southern United States. Houston, Texas saw an increase of 35,000 people
The storm surge caused substantial beach erosion - Dauphin Island was pushed closer towards land. The lands that were lost were also breeding grounds for marine mammals, turtles and fish as well as migratory species.
There were early reports of fatalities amid mayhem at the Superdome, only six deaths were confirmed there, with four of these originating from natural causes, one from a drug overdose and one a suicide.
Almost 900,000 people in Louisiana lost power.
Some estimates claimed that 80% of the 1.3 million residents of the greater New Orleans metropolitan area were evacuated before the storm.
People who couldn’t leave went to the massive Louisiana Superdome, which sheltered approximately 26,000 people and provided them with food and water for several days.
In Mississippi, 90% of the structures within half a mile of the coastline were completely destroyed.
Approximately 58,000 National Guard personnel were activated to deal with the storm’s aftermath
People, Work and Development: Keywords Aid: help usually given by the richer countries of the world, or by international charities, to the poorer countries. It may be short term aid such as food given for an emergency, or long term aid such as training in health care Appropriate technology: development schemes that meet the needs of the local people and the environment in which they live Business park: a group of new offices or modern factories built in pleasant surroundings, usually on the edge of a city Development: the use of resources and technology to increase wealth and improve standards of living – a measure of how rich or how poor a country is Employment structure: the proportion of people working in primary, secondary and tertiary occupations Exports: goods and services produced by a country and sold to other countries Footloose industry: an industry that is not tied to raw materials and so has a wide choice of location Formal sector employment: work that provides a regular income. It may be an office, a shop or an organised factory Free trade: when governments neither restrict nor encourage the movement of goods between countries Heavy industry: the manufacture of goods that require large amounts of bulky or heavy raw materials High-tech industry: an industry using advanced techniques to make high value goods. Examples include computing, biotechnology and telecommunications. Human Development Index (HDI): a measure of development adopted by the United Nations to compare countries. It uses health, education and wealth to measure both social and economic progress Imports: goods and services bought by a country from other countries Industry: any type of economic activity, or employment, that produces goods or provides services
Informal sector employment: self-employed work that is irregular and has little or no security. Examples include street trading and shoe shining Interdependence: when countries work together and rely on each other for help Light industry: the production of high value goods such as car stereos and fashion clothing Market: a place where raw materials and goods are sold; or a group of people who by raw materials and goods Multinational company: a large company which, by having factories and offices in several countries, is global because it operates across national boundaries. Also called a ‘transnational corporation’. Newly industrialised countries (NICs): Countries, mainly Pacific Rim of Asia, that have undergone rapid and successful industrialisation since the early 1980s. Primary industries: industries that extract raw materials directly from the land or sea. Examples include farming, fishing, forestry and mining Quaternary industries: industries that provide information and advice or are involved in research. Example of quaternary occupations include financial advisers and research scientists Raw materials: natural resources that are used to make things Science park: an estate of modern offices and high tech industries having links which a university Secondary industries: industries that make, or manufacture, things. They process raw materials or assemble components to make a finished product. Examples include steel making and car assembly. Tertiary industries: occupations such as health, education, transport and retailing that provide a service for people. They may also be called service industries. Trade: the movement and sale of goods and services between one country and another
People, Work and Development Case Study Questions for the Higher Tier
A country that had received aid
Name a country that has received aid
Describe the type of aid received by this country
Explain the extent to which the country has benefited from this aid
Case Study: Tanzania
A location where a Multi-national company (MNC) has created employment opportunities
Name and locate where an MNC has created employment opportunities
Describe the direct and indirect employment opportunities created
Explain why the MNC located at this place
Case Study: Ford in USA, Panasonic in Japan, Pepsi in Sao Paulo
The location of new job opportunities
Name a place where new job opportunities have been created
Draw a labelled sketch map to show the location of this place
Explain why new job opportunities were located in this place. You may annotate your map to show this
Case Study: Cambridge Science Park
Overseas investment in a MEDC
Name a MEDC that you have studied
Describe the nature of overseas investment in the MEDC
Explain how the overseas investment had affected people and the environment in the MEDC
The location of a primary or tertiary economic activity
Name a place where you have studied primary or tertiary economic activity
Draw a labelled sketch map to show the location of the economic activity
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of this location now
Case Study: iron and steel in South Wales
The location of an economic activity
Name a primary or secondary or tertiary economic activity you have studied
Name the place where this economic activity can be found
Draw a labelled map to show the location of this economic activity
Explain how this economic activity affects different groups of people and the environment in the area around its location
Case Study: iron and steel in South Wales
A country that trades with other countries
Name a country that trades with other countries
Describe this country’s pattern of trade
Explain how this country is affected by this trade
Brazil is the most industrialised of the world’s developing countries – mainly concentrated in and around Sao Paulo
Sao Paulo’s rapid urbanisation and industrialisation took place during the 1960s and 1970s.
At this time, half a million people a year migrated to the city looking for work. Today the city has a population of 23 million.
The region around Sao Paulo had minerals including iron ore and had access to energy resources. This led to the development of iron and steel and engineering industries and the manufacture of machinery, aircraft and cars.
Brazil is the world’s 9th largest producer of cars. Four large transnational corporations – Ford, Volkswagen, General Motors and Mercedes – all have assembly plants in Sao Paulo.
Brazilian car workers may earn twice the average Brazilian wage, but to international manufacturers they are cheaper to employ than car workers in developed countries.
Problems: Heavy industry and traffic have caused air pollution; the great number of cars has led to gridlock; and the location of commercial buildings (e.g. banks) and offices has created a ‘sky scraper jungle’, high land prices and a lack of open space.
Some industry has moved to new towns. These have been made to attract industry, by building major roads and locating in a cleaner, less congested environment.
Jundaia is a new town 100km from Sao Paulo. Several transnational companies have already located there, including Pepsi. Despite using mostly machinery, it still employs 350 people.
Pepsi workers not only have a regular job with regular pay, they also get free lunches and free medical care. Many people living and working in Jundaia are experiencing a rising standard of living – although others still have to seek low paid jobs.
Nearer the CBD, some of the increasing wealth of the city is being used to turn run down areas into modern business, retail and leisure centres. However, this usually takes place by clearing existing favelas.
One third of Sao Paulo’s population are still employed in the informal sector – recycling materials, repairing goods, processing and/or selling food. They are not enjoying a rising standard of living.
Ford corporation originally located in Detroit in the 1980s. By the late 1990s, it was:
Manufacturing and/or assembling cars worldwide. Bulk parts were produced in MEDCs such as the USA and Japan
Increasingly locating it new factories in LEDCs such as Brazil
Increasingly making parts in several countries so that each particular model is no longer made in one country (reduces strikes)
Facing increased competition, especially from Japanese manufacturers.
Working in Detroit with its previous rivals, Chrysler and General Motors, to produce a car that will use less fuel, cause less pollution and challenge Japanese cars.
Detroit – motor city
Henry Ford saw Detroit as an ideal location for the world’s first mass production line.
He built his factory on flat land next to the Detroit River at the heart of the Great Lakes waterway system.
Steel was produced on an adjacent site using relatively local iron ore (brought by ship) and coal (brought by train).
Ford developed a large local market by paying his workers $5 a day, when the national average was $9 a week, enabling them to buy their own cars.
High wages attracted workers from all over the world. Later, Chrysler and General Motors located their main factories in Detroit.
CASE STUDY: Malaysia – a newly industrialised country
Since 1990, Malaysia’s annual economic growth was averaged 8%. This has been done without high inflation or unmanageable foreign aid. Much of this has been due to government policies.
‘ Malaysia Inc.’ is the governments aim of turning Malaysia into a fully industrialised country by 2020 (an MEDC)
In 1983, the decision was made to privatise many of the industries and economic sectors. Government policy changed to one based on rapid industrialisation to one that should be successful and sustainable.
The government is investing less money in industries that require large workforces and more in ones where the emphasis is on technology.
A government ‘Technology Action Plan’ covers automated manufacturing, micro electrics, biotechnology and information technology
In 1997, there was little unemployment – in fact the country has to rely on migrant workers from Indonesia and the Philippines.
It has attracted many foreign investors and high-tech firms, and is building a new international airport, a new town and several science parks.
In 1985, the government founded the Proton car company
By the mid-1990s, industry was confined to specifically designed areas such as the new town of Shah Alam. Firms locating here did not have to pay taxes for the first 10 years. This encouraged many of the world’s transnationals to locate there.
Malaysia has embarked on a series of expensive ‘prestige’ projects including the Petronas (the world’s tallest building in 1998)
CASE STUDY: Iron and steel industry in South Wales
1850 – mid-20 th century
The valleys of South Wales were ideal for iron making. Coal and iron ore were found together on valley sides
The valleys led to coastal ports where iron products and surplus coal were exported to many parts of the world.
The industry was centred on areas like Ebbw Vale and Merthyr Tydfil
By 1850 there were 35 ironworks in the area. Whole villages, built in a linear pattern, were totally dependent on the local ironworks.
After 1860, steelworks replaced iron foundries due to an improvement in iron smelting.
By the 1970s, there were only two steelworks left in South Wales. They were not in the valleys but on the coast at Port Talbot and Llanwern.
The initial advantages for steelmaking had gone. Only a few coal mines remained open and the iron ore had long since been exhausted.
Raw materials needed importing – better to locate new modern steelworks on the coast at break of bulk locations. This is when a product has to be transferred from one form of transport to another – a process that takes up time and money
It was easier and cheaper to have the new steelworks where imported raw materials were unloaded.
it was also a government decision as they were financially helping to locate new sites on the coast
Port Talbot is one of Britain’s three remaining integrated steelworks and uses the latest technology. Integrated means all the stages in the manufacture take place on the same site
the Llanwern works was closed in 2001 due to overseas competition, global overproduction and a fall in the price of steel.
Aim : to help young people develop skills for the future
Set up group called Youth Builders
Train 1 person building & carpentry skills, he then trains others, this is a Cascading system of training
At first they build cheap houses
Cost to Oxfam aid was: £6200 to buy the tools
As the team becomes more skilled they started to build more complex buildings (mill, clinic, school) – these help the local community
This scheme helps create local jobs & improves local community spirit and is based on cheap local raw materials
All profits reinvested/shared amongst group
Young people as a result stay in the local community & don’t migrate to the city
A good example of Self Reliance/Self Help Aid , based on local materials & teaching Permanent Skills
Large Scale Aid (Bi-lateral) – Tanzania – Canada Wheat Project
Hanang Plains. 17000ha, converted wheat production
African bush has been converted into “Prairies” type landscape
Canadians helped in finance, assistance, advice & equipment
This is a High-Tech, large scale & highly mechanised project
80% of all wheat grown in Tanzania
50% of all wheat used in Tanzania, the rest is exported
Highly mechanised – few local jobs
Machinery has to be imported from Canada, at the start it was free, but eventually Tanzania has to pay for it. Originally paid in Tanzanian Schillings, but eventually in Canadian Dollars. e.g. Tractor tyres $300 – 1000each.
Impact on the people of Tanzania
Nomads thrown off their land
Limited job opportunities for the Nomads –arable rather than pastoral
Bread goes to the urban rich not the rural poor
Wheat milled 2 days journey away
Loaf costs 63p. Wages £10/week – most can’t afford it
CASE STUDY: Aid in Tanzania, Africa Tanzanian economy based on subsistence agriculture, arable & pastoral nomads, based on traditional lifestyles